Abstract in English:ABSTRACT: Straw returning is an effective way to improve soil quality. Whether the bacterial community development has been changed by long-term straw returning in non-calcareous soil is not clear. In this study, the following five treatments were administered: soil without fertilizer (CK); wheat and corn straw returning (WC); wheat straw returning with 276 kg N ha−1 yr−1 (WN); manure, 60,000 kg ha−1 pig manure compost (M) and wheat and corn straw returning with 276 kg N ha−1 yr−1 (WCN). The high-throughput 16S rRNA sequencing technology was used to evaluate the bacterial communities. The results showed that the community was composed mostly of two dominant groups (Proteobacteria and Acidobacteria). Bacterial diversity increased after the application of straw and manure. Principal component analyses revealed that the soil bacterial community differed significantly between treatments. The WCN treatment showed relatively higher total soil N, available P, available K, and organic carbon and invertase, urease, cellulase activities and yield than the WC treatment. Our results suggested that application of N fertilizer to straw returning soil had significantly higher soil fertility and enzyme activity than straw returning alone, which resulted in a different bacterial community composition, Stenotrophomonas, Pseudoxanthomonas, and Acinetobacter which were the dominant genera in the WC treatment while Candidatus, Koribacter and Granulicella were the dominant genera in the WCN treatment. To summarize, wheat and maize straw returning with N fertilizer would be the optimum proposal for improving soil quality and yield in the future in non-calcareous fluro-acquic-wheat and maize cultivated soils in the North China Plain in China.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT: Citrus seeds normally have low storability. Identifying an optimal fruit harvest time for production of high vigor seeds is important for nurseries; however, identifying this stage for Swingle citrumelo fruits has been based only on visual color examination, and research related to this parameter has been inconsistent. The main objective of this study was to evaluate a red-green-blue (RGB) color measurement system for successful identification of Swingle citrumelo fruits possessing seeds with maximum physiological potential and storability. Fruits were harvested at three ripening stages identified as green (G), greenish-yellow (GY), and yellow (Y) pericarp, photographed, and the images processed using ImageJ software. Data were expressed as the average pixel value of R, G and B color components and a mean RGB pixel value (R+G+B/3). After harvest, seeds were evaluated for water content, germination, seedling emergence, length, dry mass and vigor as measured by the Seed Vigor Imaging System - SVIS (uniformity and vigor indexes) after 0 and 5 months storage (5 °C and 65 % relative humidity). Percentage of ruptured coat seeds was also evaluated after extraction. The R color component provided the best identification of each G, GY and Y fruits. Seeds extracted from GY fruits had higher storage potential compared with seeds from G and Y fruits. Thus, precise fruit ripening classification can be generated using the RGB color system to identify the best time for harvest to obtain seeds with greater physiological and storage potential.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT: The main purpose of this study was to assess nonlinear models generated by integrating the basal area growth rate to estimate the growth and yield of forest stands. The database was collected from permanent sample units, in Paraopeba county, in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The stands were represented by Eucalyptus camaldulensis × Eucalyptus urophylla hybrid trees, with 3 × 3 meters of spacing. The data were divided into two groups: fitting and validating databases. Two nonlinear models (Strategy A and Strategy B) were developed using differential equations to estimate the basal area growth and yield of the sample units. The logistic model was fitted to estimate the volumetric yield as a function of age, site index and basal area. The efficiency of the systems generated by logistic model and models obtained by differential equations (Strategy A and Strategy B) was also compared to the efficiency of the system estimated by the Clutter model (Strategy C). The projection models used to estimate basal area obtained by differential equations were compatible with forest growth and yield, and the logistic model with covariates was compatible with volumetric growth and yield. Strategy A and Strategy B generated different thinning and harvesting options for different site indices, which is biologically consistent.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT: Seedlessness in fruit is a trait that is much sought after by juice making industries. Close to the city of São Sebastião do Caí, in the state of Rio Grande do Sul (RS), Brazil, a new mutant orange originating from natural mutation was identified and selected as a seedless material. To determine the mechanisms involved in the absence of seeds, the reproductive structures of this new mutant by comparison with a Valencia sweet orange as control, a cultivar with a profusion of seeds, was analyzed in terms of meiotic behavior, meiotic index, pollen viability, in vitro germination, and ovule features to determine the grounds for seed absence. Other morphological analyzes allowed for visualizing the structures of normal appearance and size in both cultivars. Meiotic analysis identified chromosome normal pairing with a predominance of bivalents at diakinesis and metaphase 1. URS Campestre flowers at different developmental stages had anthers and ovaries whose dimensions are typical while pollen grain analysis pointed to a standard developmental pattern, normal meiosis, high viability (84 %) and elevated in vitro pollen tube germination rates (63 %). The cv. Valencia and URS Campestre ovules had a similar shape and morphology, sharing an anatropous orientation, and two integuments. In the internal ovule analyses of Valencia sweet oranges, normal embryo sac cells were identified: presence of one egg cell and two synergids, three antipodes and a bigger and central cell containing two polar nuclei. However, the analysis of ovules from URS Campestre reveals an apparent senescence or non-formation of an embryo sac, where only a few highly stained and collapsed cells could be identified. These results led to the conclusion that female sterility in URS Campestre, with a total absence of a female gametophyte, is the limiting factor for fertilization and seed production.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT: The production of biochar from organic residues promises to be an interesting strategy for the management of organic waste. To assess the effect of biochar on soil properties and the production and nutrition of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), three simultaneous experiments were conducted in a greenhouse with different biochar from organic residues (rice husk, sawdust, and sorghum silage) used as filtration material for swine biofertilizer. In each experiment the treatments consisted of five different biochar concentrations (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 L m−3), arranged in a completely randomized design, with four repetitions. In the experiments, the use of biochar increased soil pH, cation exchange capacity, nutrient availability in the soil, and nutrient accumulation in grains. The biochar concentrations corresponding to the maximum production of grain dry matter of bean plants were 100, 68, and 71 L m−3 for biochar from rice husk filter (BRHF), biochar from sawdust filter (BSF), and biochar from sorghum silage filter (BSSF), respectively.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT: Spatial and temporal patterns of soil water content (SWC) can not only improve the understanding of soil water processes but also the water management in the field. The spatial distribution of SWC depends on the spatial variability of soil attributes, vegetation and landscape features. The aim of this study was to evaluate: i) the spatial and temporal variability pattern in an agroecological system; ii) understand the factors affecting the spatial variations of SWC; iii) determine if wet and dry zones conserve their spatial position; iv) evaluate the possibility of using this information to reduce the number of SWC measurements. The experiment was carried out in an area of 2,502 m2, where a regular grid with spacing of 10 m was laid out. At each point, time domain reflectometer sensors were installed at depths of 0.05, 0.15, 0.30 m to monitor the SWC for 18 days in 2014 (Jan, Feb and Mar) and 9 days in 2014/2015 (Dec and Jan). The SWC, at the three soil depths, followed a similar and systematic pattern, being highest in the deepest layers, and exhibited temporal stability. The correlation between SWC and clay content varied both with the depth and the magnitude of SWC. During the wet season it is necessary to intensify the sampling density to estimate the SWC, while during the dry season the Spearman rank correlation remained high indicating the need for a small sampling effort only. The driest zones tend to conserve their spatial position more for a longer period than compared to wettest zones.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT: Knowledge of the hydraulic properties of the soil is of crucial importance to an understanding of the interactions between vegetation, soil and water. There is little information available about the hydraulic properties of Podzol soils found in tropical regions. The aim of this study was to present the soil morphology and hydraulic properties of a toposequence situated in a permanent plot at the Ilha do Cardoso State Park (Cananéia, SP, Brazil). Ultradetailed soil maps were used to define a toposequence inside the permanent plot. Five profiles, representing the main types of soil, were opened along the toposequence, in which Podzols are dominant. The levels of bulk density, sand content, porosity and permeability in these soils were all high. Consequently, these soils have a high level of hydraulic conductivity with low water retention. This behavior undergoes an alteration in the Bh and Bs horizons due to the accumulation of organic and metallic compounds and a changing structure that modifies the pore distribution. Furthermore, the characterization of the hydro-physical functioning of soils in natural environments is an important source of encouragement to further investigative study of soil water dynamics and its relationship to the native vegetation.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT: The banana moth Opogona sacchari (Bojer) (Lepidoptera: Tineidae) is a polyphagous pest that can cause serious damage, especially to banana crops in southern Brazil. It attacks the fruit, lowering its quality and making bananas unsuitable for export. Current control measures are limited and the use of Trichogramma (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) for Applied Biological Control may be an alternative for the management of this pest. In this study, we investigated the potential parasitism effectiveness of eggs of O. sacchari by T. pretiosum, T. atopovirilia and T. galloi, three species of parasitoids commonly used in Applied Biological Control programs in Brazil. Eggs of O. sacchari were parasitized by all three Trichogramma species, and T. atopovirilia and T. galloi were the most aggressive, showing greater potential for control of this pest in the banana culture.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT: Although the medicinal properties of berry fruit are well known, there is relatively little information available concerning the applications of other parts of berry plants. Thus, in this study we determined the nutritional value of the leaves of selected berry species and their possible application in health promoting diets. The levels of nutrients, and macro- and microelements in the leaves of four species collected from allotment gardens in the city of Szczecin, Poland (53°26′17″ N, 14°32′32″ E; altitude 7 m a.s.l.) were identified: raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.), blackberry (Rubus fruticosus L.), chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa L.), and sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.). Sea buckthorn leaves were the richest source of protein, raspberry leaves had the highest levels of lipids, and the leaves of all four species studied were a rich source of crude fibre and dietary fibre fractions. Desirable Ca:P and Na:K ratios indicated their potential as a good source of minerals essential to bone formation and the treatment of hypertension. Sea buckthorn leaves contained high but also safe Fe levels (within recommended WHO limits) and, therefore, may become an alternative rich source of this element.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT: Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), which live in symbiosis with 80 % of plants, are not able to grow when separated from their hosts. Spore germination is not host-regulated and germling growth is shortly arrested in the absence of host roots. Germling survival chances may be increased by hyphal fusions (anastomoses), which allow access to nutrients flowing in the extraradical mycelium (ERM). Perfect anastomoses, occurring with high frequency among germlings and the ERM of the same isolate, show protoplasm continuity and disappearance of hyphal walls. A low frequency of perfect fusions has been detected among co-specific genetically different isolates, although fungal nuclei have been consistently detected in all perfect fusions, suggesting active nuclear migration. When plants of different taxa establish symbioses with the same AMF species, anastomoses between ERM spreading from single root systems establish a common mycelium, which is an essential element to plant nutrition and communication. The interaction among mycelia produced by different isolates may also lead to pre-fusion incompatibility which hinders anastomosis formation, or to incompatibility after fusion, which separates the hyphal compartments. Results reported here, obtained by analyses of hyphal compatibility/incompatibility in AMF, suggest that anastomosis formation and establishment of protoplasm flow, fundamental to the maintenance of mycelial physiological and genetic continuity, may affect the fitness of these ecologically important biotrophic fungi.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT: Along the last ten years fish and fishery product trade in Brazil has been on a downward trajectory turning a profit of US$ 98.6 million in 2005 into a loss of US$ 1.25 billion by 2014. On the other hand, the country is a leading producer of grains and has the third largest animal feed industry in the world, which has added 5.5 million hectares of freshwater reservoirs and 3.5 million km2 of an exclusive marine economic zone in the same period, a sizable potential for development of the aquaculture industry. This study aims at unveiling strategies for the reduction of the deficit in the Brazilian seafood trade balance, based on critical analysis of the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of imported fishery products. The fish and fishery product trade in Brazil, from 2005 to 2015, was studied considering import and export data mined from the Brazilian Ministry of Development, Industry and Commerce databases through the Aliceweb system, and clustered as follows: processing; product species; origin; conservation; and group. The main imported products were gutted fresh fish, highest price (salmon); salted dried fish, higher price (cod); frozen fish fillets, lowest price (fish and hake). The replacement of fish imports by domestic production is not enough to enable consumers to identify the equivalence between products (technical, qualitative or organoleptic). Developing strategies for the production of fish and fishery products at competitive prices and quantities that meet consumer demand is an immediate need, and the development of the aquaculture industry a rational strategy.