Abstract in English:ABSTRACT: The knowledge on spatial and temporal variations of soil water storage in the root zone of crops is essential to guide the studies to determine soil water balance, verify the effective zone of water extraction in the soil and indicate the correct region for the management of water, fertilizers and pesticides. The objectives of this study were: (i) to indicate the zones of highest root activity for banana in different development stages; (ii) to determine, inside the zone of highest root activity, the adequate position for the installation of soil moisture sensors. A 5.0 m3 drainage lysimeter was installed in the center of an experimental area of 320 m2. Water extraction was quantified inside the lysimeter using a 72 TDR probe. The concept of time stability was applied to indicate the position for sensor installation within the limits of effective water extraction. There are two patterns of water extraction distribution during the development of banana and the point of installation of sensors for irrigation management inside the zone of highest root activity is not constant along the crop development.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT: Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are very important to plant nutrition, mostly in terms of acquisition of P and micronutrients. While Acacia mangium is closely associated with AMF throughout the whole cycle, Eucalyptus grandis presents this symbiosis primarily at the seedling stage. The aim of this study was to evaluate the dynamics of AMF in these two tree species in both pure and mixed plantations during the first 20 months after planting. We evaluated the abundance, richness and diversity of AMF spores, the rate of AMF mycorrhizal root colonization, enzymatic activity and soil and litter C, N and P. There was an increase in AMF root colonization of E. grandis when intercropped with A. mangium as well as an increase in the activity of acid and alkaline phosphatase in the presence of leguminous trees. AMF colonization and phosphatase activities were both involved in improvements in P cycling and P nutrition in soil. In addition, P cycling was favored in the intercropped plantation, which showed negative correlation with litter C/N and C/P ratios and positive correlation with soil acid phosphatase activity and soil N and P concentrations. Intercropping A. mangium and E. grandis maximized AMF root colonization of E. grandis and phosphatase activity in the soil, both of which accelerate P cycling and forest performance.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT: Soybean crops occupy most areas in Rio Grande do Sul State and are highly dependent on rainfall since most of them are non-irrigated. Rainfall during the harvest period is often insufficient to meet the water demand, making water indicators an important tool for the crops. This study compared two approaches in the parameterization process of TVDI (Temperature-Vegetation Dryness Index) in a subtropical climate region of Brazil. The process used Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) images of the surface temperature (TS) and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), with spatial resolutions of 1,000 m and periods of 8-16 d, respectively. The evaporative triangles for the TS/NDVI scatter plots were built either for each image (scene-specific parameterization) or for all images at once (crop-type parameterization). The rainfall data were obtained from meteorological stations located in the study site and the analysis period comprised two contrasting harvests regarding soybean yield (most important crop in the region). The scene-specific parameterization allowed to analyze water status in the study site by inspecting the wet and dry edge of each image and identifying the areas of stress in each one. TVDI crop parameterization showed that the model was able to determine the time and frequency of water stress events during the crop-seasons. TVDI crop-parameterization, therefore, is more consistent for crop monitoring and forecasting purposes.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT: Owing to the lack of information in the literature about the ideal feeding frequency adopted by feedlot systems, this study was designed to evaluate the effect of different feeding frequencies on performance, carcass traits, feeding behavior and rumen morphometrics of Nellore cattle. Forty-eight yearling bulls were housed in individual pens with an average initial body weight of 358.2 kg. The experiment was designed as a completely randomized block and the treatments were the feeding of cattle one, two, three, or four times daily (n = 12 per treatment). Orthogonal contrasts were used to assess linear, quadratic and cubic relationship between feeding frequency and the dependent variable. As feeding frequency increased, final body weight (p = 0.03) and average daily gain (p = 0.01; one: 0.98 kg d–1; two: 0.96 kg d–1; three: 1.18 kg d–1; four: 1.14 kg d–1) increased linearly and the feed:gain ratio decreased (p = 0.02). Also, as feeding frequency increased, hot carcass weight was affected cubically (p = 0.01; one: 246.9 kg; two: 243.0 kg; three: 263.1 kg; four: 258.1 kg). During the adaptation period dry matter intake variation was affected cubically (p ≤ 0.05; one: 16 %; two: 23 %; three: 14 %; four: 16 %). Increases in feeding frequency affected papillae height (p < 0.01) and papillae surface area (p < 0.01) cubically, as well as producing increases in the mitotic index (p = 0.05; one: 9 %; two: 11 %; three: 13 %; four: 13 %) and cells in proliferation (p = 0.05) linearly. Thus, Nellore yearling bulls should be fed three times daily in feedlot operations.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT: The intense selection process for economic traits conducted by the poultry breeding programs has been caused several changes in broiler meat quality. A database belonging to a selection program of a broiler male line was used to estimate heritability and genetic correlations for feed conversion ratio and meat quality traits, which were: initial and final pH, lightness, drip loss, thawing loss and shear force. Two-trait analyses were performed and the components of co(variance) and genetic parameters were determined using the Bayesian approach and the GIBBS3F90 software. The heritability estimate found for feed conversion ratio (0.52) showed high influence of direct additive genetic effects on the expression of this trait; therefore, this trait is able to respond to selection. The genetic correlation estimates obtained (-0.50 to 0.33) were indicative of important associations between feed conversion ratio and meat quality traits. The selection to improve feed conversion ratio may cause injury in greater or lesser degree for L*, drip loss (DL), thawing loss (TL) and shear force (SF) in broilers. It is recommended the monitoring of consequences of feed conversion ratio used as selection criteria or meat quality traits in broilers, due to its unfavorable indirect selection for these variables in this population. Breeding methods for efficiency improvements in broilers feed are suggested, which also benefit sensorial and functional properties of the meat.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT: Enhancing industrial sustainability by converting whey into alternative high value-added products is a scientific trend in food science and technology. However, without other ingredients, rennet, or sour, whey has an unappetizing flavor. This sensory challenge can be overcome by blending it with citrus flavor from orange juice. This study assessed a micro-filtered beverage from whey and orange juice without enzymatic treatment. Four formulations (27:10, 8.6:10, 2.4:10 and 1:10 v/v whey:juice ratio) were processed through a 1.4 μm microfiltration system with four different transmembrane pressures (1, 2, 3, and 4.15 bar) and then stored at 5 °C for 28 days. The micro-filtered beverage was analyzed for physicochemical, sensorial and microbial changes. It was possible overcome the technological challenges of orange juice microfiltration without enzymatic treatment with high transmembrane pressures. The whey:orange juice ratio was also decisive for permeation. A clear beverage with lower viscosity, turbidity, and protein levels was obtained, without altering mineral concentrations thus showing that the product has good capacity for hydration. The beverage presented good microbiological quality and remained stable for 28 days at 5 °C. Sensory evaluation data indicate that the beverage can be directed to young people and women, regardless of their physical activity. The combination of whey and orange juice can be explored industrially as a micro-filtered beverage, with satisfactory results of physicochemical, microbiological and sensory acceptance.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT: The estimation of soil physical and chemical properties at non-sampled areas is valuable information for land management, sustainability and water yield. This work aimed to model and map soil physical-chemical properties by means of knowledge-based digital soil mapping approach as a study case in two watersheds representative of different physiographical regions in Brazil. Two watersheds with contrasting soil-landscape features were studied regarding the spatial modeling and prediction of physical and chemical properties. Since the method uses only one value of soil property for each soil type, the way of choosing typical values as well the role of land use as a covariate in the prediction were tested. Mean prediction error (MPE) and root mean square prediction error (RMSPE) were used to assess the accuracy of the prediction methods. The knowledge-based digital soil mapping by means of fuzzy logics is an accurate option for spatial prediction of soil properties considering: 1) lesser intense sampling scheme; 2) scarce financial resources for intensive sampling in Brazil; 3) adequacy to properties with non-linearity distribution, such as saturated hydraulic conductivity. Land use seems to influence spatial distribution of soil properties thus, it was applied in the soil modeling and prediction. The way of choosing typical values for each condition varied not only according to the prediction method, but also with the nature of spatial distribution of each soil property.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT: The structural strength of soils has been extensively described by physical and mechanical properties evaluated on the mesoscale for different soils and management conditions. However, changes in the organization of the soil matrix at the microstructural level, which can be obtained by rheometry, are still seldom used in soil mechanics. Our aim was to use the amplitude sweep test, a rheometry technique, to investigate the microstructural strength of four subtropical soils (two Oxisols, an Ultisol and a Vertisol) and to discuss difficulties with respect to the samples, water content, soil density and vertical force. The various rheological properties which reveal the soil microstructural strength were determined: deformation at the end of the linear viscoelastic range, LVE range (γLVE), shear stress at the end of the LVE range (τLVE), deformation at yield point, YP (γYP), storage and loss moduli at YP (G′G″YP), maximum shear stress (τmax), and integral z. In general, soil elasticity (γLVE and γYP) and microstructural strength (τLVE and τmax) were greater in the Oxisols and the Vertisol, which both possess high clay content, while the latter also contains expansive clay minerals. The lowest structural strength was observed in the Ultisol which had a high sand content. As rheological properties are related to soil properties such as particle size distribution and carbon content, they can be applied in the evaluation of the microstructural strength of clayey and sandy soils and allows for inferences regarding inter-particle shear strength. However, the test is not applicable to very dry soil samples and sample preparations can affect the results. We suggest a number of approaches to find solutions for these difficulties/problems.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT: In vitro techniques, with the purpose of conserving the genetic resources of plants, are fundamental to the feasibility of establishing germplasm banks and enabling the commercial production of micropropagated plants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of different spectra of light in in vitro germplasm conservation by slow grown storage of Heliconia Champneiana cv. Splash. Explants of heliconia in vitro were submitted to the following light treatments: CW (control white), B100 (100 % blue), R100 (100 % red) and R70B30 (70 % red/30 % blue), all with PFD = 25 μmol m2 s–1, maintained in vitro for two time periods, namely P1, 6 weeks and P2, twelve weeks, and were statistically evaluated after each interval with respect to: height, fresh weight, number and length of roots, number of leaves, and pseudostem diameter, in addition to the rate of acclimatization in percentage terms. Treatment B100 presented the lowest level of development in the two periods, and 100 % survival in acclimatization.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT: The refinement of vigor tests and the possibility of utilizing computer resources for the effective evaluation of the seed physiological potential have attracted considerable interest from research and seed technologists. The aim of this study was to evaluate the physiological potential of maize seeds using the newly-created Automated Analysis of Seed Vigor System (Vigor-S) compared with other recommended seed vigor tests; two maize hybrids were used, each represented by seven seed lots. Germination and vigor (cold test, saturated salt accelerated aging, and field seedling emergence) evaluations were conducted. For the evaluation of seed vigor with the use of seedling image analysis resources, two systems were compared: the Seed Vigor Imaging System (SVIS®), developed by Ohio State University, USA and the Vigor-S, resulting from collaboration between USP/ESALQ and EMBRAPA (Embrapa Instrumentation). Using these two systems, three day old seedlings were scanned and the images were analyzed. Similar results for the vigor index, uniformity of development, and seedling length were obtained. The computerized image analysis of seedlings using Vigor-S has advantages with respect to accuracy, speed, and the possibility of automatic application to a worksheet. It is a consistent alternative for the evaluation of maize seed vigor, and produces information compatible with that obtained by the accelerated aging test and SVIS®.