Abstract in English:ABSTRACT: Apple yield estimation using a smartphone with image processing technology offers advantages such as low cost, quick access and simple operation. This article proposes distribution framework consisting of the acquisition of fruit tree images, yield prediction in smarphone client, data processing and model calculation in server client for estimating the potential fruit yield. An image processing method was designed including the core steps of image segmentation with R/B value combined with V value and circle-fitting using curvature analysis. This method enabled four parameters to be obtained, namely, total identified pixel area (TP), fitting circle amount (FC), average radius of the fitting circle (RC) and small polygon pixel area (SP). A individual tree yield estimation model on an ANN (Artificial Neural Network) was developed with three layers, four input parameters, 14 hidden neurons, and one output parameter. The system was used on an experimental Fuji apple (Malus domestica Borkh. cv. Red Fuji) orchard. Twenty-six tree samples were selected from a total of 80 trees according to the multiples of the number three for the establishment model, whereby 21 groups of data were trained and 5 groups o data were validated. The R2 value for the training datasets was 0.996 and the relative root mean squared error (RRMSE) value 0.063. The RRMSE value for the validation dataset was 0.284 Furthermore, a yield map with 80 apple trees was generated, and the space distribution o the yield was identified. It provided appreciable decision support for site-specific management.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT: The Random Forest algorithm is a data mining technique used for classifying attributes in order of importance to explain the variation in an attribute-target, as soil CO2 flux. This study aimed to identify prediction of soil CO2 flux variables in management systems of sugarcane through the machine-learning algorithm called Random Forest. Two different management areas of sugarcane in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, were selected: burned and green. In each area, we assembled a sampling grid with 81 georeferenced points to assess soil CO2 flux through automated portable soil gas chamber with measuring spectroscopy in the infrared during the dry season of 2011 and the rainy season of 2012. In addition, we sampled the soil to evaluate physical, chemical, and microbiological attributes. For data interpretation, we used the Random Forest algorithm, based on the combination of predicted decision trees (machine learning algorithms) in which every tree depends on the values of a random vector sampled independently with the same distribution to all the trees of the forest. The results indicated that clay content in the soil was the most important attribute to explain the CO2 flux in the areas studied during the evaluated period. The use of the Random Forest algorithm originated a model with a good fit (R2 = 0.80) for predicted and observed values.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT: The use of lambs from crossing of local with specialized sheep breeds for meat production may lead to higher meat deposition and a smaller fat amount in the carcass, with a more adequate nutritional profile for human consumption. This study investigated the performance, carcass and meat characteristics of lambs from the Morada Nova and Santa Inês locally adapted hair breeds and crosses between Dorper × Morada Nova and Dorper × Santa Inês slaughtered at approximately 35 kg. Morada Nova lambs showed lower (p < 0.05) performance compared to the other genetic groups resulting in a higher age at slaughter (p < 0.05). Crossbred Dorper × Santa Inês and Dorper × Morada Nova lambs showed better characteristics for meat production with better (p < 0.05) conformation as well as leg and carcass compacteness index. Dorper × Santa Inês have a fatty acid profile that is more suitable for human consumption than Dorper × Morada Nova lambs do (p < 0.05); however, both had lower (p < 0.05) intramuscular lipid content (as measured by ether extract levels from Longíssimus lumborum) compared with purebred lambs. Therefore, when the objective is to obtain lean meat, with improved nutritional profile to reduce risks of cardiovascular disease, the use of breeds and crosses that reduce animal slaughter age, such as the ½ Dorper × ½ Santa Inês crossbred, is an interesting alternative.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Several empirical models were proposed to predict feed intake (FI) of growingfinishing pigs reared under high environmental temperatures. However, these models have not been evaluated under conditions different from those in which they were developed. Twelve empirical models were evaluated using a database built after systematic literature review (observed data: 28 studies in which the FI was evaluated in pigs under high environmental temperatures). Model accuracy was assessed using the mean squared of prediction error (MSPE). Analyses were performed considering two scenarios: (1) general population, where all observed data were used in the simulation; (2) reference population, where data were filtered in order to simulate only scenarios with environment (temperature range) and animals (body weight and sex) similar to that used in the model development. Six models estimated FI values similar (p > 0.05) to those observed in the general population, while four models produced estimates similar to the observed values in the reference populations. Most models were more accurate when they were simulated using the reference population than when the simulation considered the general database. Moving the simulation from the general database to the reference population reduced up to 98 % of the MSPE, depending on the equation. Empirical models allow to accurately predict FI of growing-finishing pigs exposed to high environmental temperatures, especially in scenarios similar to the ones used for model development. Thus, population characteristics (body weight and sex) and environment (temperature range) must be considered in the model assessment.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Biochar and hydrochar have been proposed as novel materials for providing soilless growth media. However, much more knowledge is required before reliable advice can be given on the use of these materials for this purpose. Depending on the material and the technology applied (pyrolysis or hydrothermal carbonization), phytotoxicity and greenhouse gas emissions have been found for certain chars. In this study, our aim was to assess the feasibility of three chars as substrate constituents. We compared two biochars, one from forest waste and the other from olive mill waste, and a hydrochar from forest waste. We studied how chars affected substrate characteristics, plant performance, water economy and respiratory CO2 emission. Substrates containing biochar from forest waste showed the best characteristics, with good air/water relationships and adequate electrical conductivity. Those with biochar from olive mill waste were highly saline and, consequently, low quality. The substrates with hydrochar retained too much water and were poorly aerated, presenting high CO2 concentrations due to high respiratory activity. Plants performed well only when grown in substrates containing a maximum of 25 % biochar from forest waste or hydrochar. After analyzing the char characteristics, we concluded that biochar from forest waste could be safely used as a substrate constituent and is environmentally friendly when applied due to its low salinity and low CO2 emission. However, biochar from olive mill waste and hydrochar need to be improved before they can be used as substrate constituents.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT: The boll weevil colonizes cotton fields as early as cotton squaring, causing significant losses due to feeding and protected development inside fruiting structures throughout crop phenology. Successful control depends on control of adults and their accurate detection when they colonize the crops. The commercial trap and boll weevil attract-and-control tubes (BWACT) are the only available tools to monitor and attract-and-kill boll weevil, despite limitation in efficacy, and insecticide in BWACT is not allowed in organic production. A grandlure-and-glue reusable and insecticide-free tube (GGT) made with polyvinyl chloride tube, smeared with entomological glue, and lured with pheromone was tested to detect boll weevil activity across various seasons. Boll weevil showed activity during growing season and off-season from 2009 to 2012 in the Semiarid and with higher numbers captured in GGT in comparisons to commercial traps. GGT was able to detect early weevils in the field right after planting. Further, the overall averages resulted in 34-, 16.8-, and 7.5-times more weevils captured in GGTs compared to the traps during stalk destruction in the Semiarid 2011 and Cerrado season 2012/13 and during the harvesting period in the Cerrado season 2011/12, respectively. Therefore, boll weevils were captured actively during season and off-season and early captures obtained in GGT compared to traps showed a better correlation between captures and square damage.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT: This study evaluated pre-slaughter stress and its influence on the stress indicators, quality characteristics and sensory characteristics of Nile tilapia fillets. To this end, two experiments were conducted: (1) two transportation times (60 and 240 min), with a density of 200 kg m−3, were compared to control treatment fish (in which the fish were removed from the net cage and immediately euthanized); and (2) two transportation densities (100 and 400 kg m−3), transported for 180 min, compared with control treatment fish. In experiment 1, the transportation time of 60 min resulted in higher levels of serum cortisol and plasma glucose compared to the transportation time of 240 min and the control. Fish fillets transported for 240 min had higher water-holding capacity, less water loss by pressure and higher levels of juiciness compared to fish transported for 60 min. Color, pH and water loss during cooking were not affected by transportation time. In experiment 2, transportation densities of 100 and 400 kg m−3 did not significantly affect the stress indicators nor the instrumental quality parameters of the fillets, but fish transported at 400 kg m−3 showed better visual acceptance by panellists.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT: Among the species related to sugarcane, Saccharum spontaneum (L.) is a wild species with the greatest potential as a source of genetic variation to cope with biomass production in harsh environments. Due to its high yield, early vigor, ratooning ability, low input requirements and tolerance to various biotic and abiotic stresses, sugarcane breeders have shown interest in its contribution, as a donor of genes, to the development of high biomass energy canes. The conservation, evaluation and utilization of the genetic variability of S. spontaneum available in germplasm collections are critical for breeding, but, given the aggressive rhizomatous growth habit and the ability to propagate via seed dispersal, S. spontaneum is classified as a noxious weed in several nations, including the U.S.A. As a result, field trials are restrictive and few phenotypic analyses have been carried out on these collections. In the present study, a subset of 130 S. spontaneum accessions obtained from the World Collection of Sugarcane and Related Grasses in Miami, FL has been characterized phenotypically - with either morphological and agronomic traits (including composition analysis) or reaction to abiotic stress and genotypically - molecular markers (Simple Sequence Repeats - SSR). Using these data, a core collection has been established, genotypes with positive agronomic traits have been identified and are being used as parents for hybridization crosses, aimed at genetic improvement of sugarcane and energycane.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT: Rootstocks influence certain characteristics of the scion, such as vigor, fruit yield and quality, and tolerance to biotic and abiotic factors. In conventional citrus breeding programs, hybridization is the main method used for obtaining rootstock varieties. Between Sept and Oct 2006, controlled pollinations were carried out resulting in nine progenies, totaling 461 hybrid seedlings. The female parents were the ‘Santa Cruz Rangpur’ lime (SCRL) and the ‘Sunki of Florida’ mandarin (SFM), while the male parents, in addition to this mandarin, were the ‘Indio’ and ‘Riverside’ citrandarins, the ‘Thomasville’ citrangequat (THOM), the ‘Swingle’ citrumelo, the ‘Argentina’ citrange (AGC) and the ‘Benecke’ trifoliate orange (BKTO). Fruit setting rates of these crosses were measured and the hybrids generated were planted in the field in 2008 and evaluated from 2010 to 2014, for the variables of plant mortality, visual vigor, plant height and trunk diameter. The descriptive statistics mean, variation range, coefficient of variation and Pearson skewness coefficient were calculated. Data were submitted to analysis of variance and the means of the treatments were grouped by the Scott-Knott test, both at 5 % significance. The progenies, having the ‘Sunki’ mandarin as the female parent, presented higher fruit setting rates and lower plant mortality rates than those obtained from the female parent ‘Rangpur’ lime, while zero plant mortality was observed in the SFM × BKTO cross. The crosses SCRL × SFM, SFM × BKTO, SFM × AGC and SFM × THOM have the potential to generate vigorous hybrids, resulting in rootstock varieties adapted to the landscape unit of Coastal Tableland.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT: Nitrogen fertilization and an appropriate cutting thickness can result in firmer sod that can be handled in less time with greater turfgrass regrowth during the subsequent cycle. This experiment was conducted on a sod production farm located in Capela do Alto, in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The soil was a dystrophic Rhodic Hapludox (Oxisol) with a medium texture. The experiment had two statistical designs; the initial design was randomized blocks with seven treatments and four replicates. Treatments were five doses of liquid organo-mineral fertilizer (OMF) corresponding to 0, 100, 200, 300 and 400 kg ha−1 of nitrogen (N) with supplementation of phosphorous (P) and potassium (K) as well as two control treatments - one with 300 kg ha–1 of N as OMF and the other with 300 kg ha−1 of N-urea + P and K. At harvest, the adopted design was a split-plot type with four replicates in a 7 × 3 factorial arrangement with seven treatments as the main plot and three sod cutting heights (9, 16 and 22 mm) as subplots. Nitrogen doses in the form of OMF influenced the percentage of ground cover (PGC) by turfgrass in both cycles. The N dose of 300 kg ha−1 formed the sod more quickly and provided the largest mass of roots and stolons and the highest sod tensile strength. The thinnest sod samples had faster regrowth and provided higher PGCs.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Studies of the successive application of manure as fertilizer and its combined effect with long-term soil management systems are important to the identification of the interdependence of physical attributes. The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in the physical properties of a Rhodic Kandiudox under management systems employing successive applications of pig slurry and poultry litter, and select physical indicators that distinguish these systems using canonical discriminant analysis (CDA). The systems consisting of treatments including land use, management and the application time of organic fertilizers are described as follows: silage maize under no-tillage (NT-M7 years); silage maize under conventional tillage (CT-M20 years); annual pasture with chisel plowing (CP-P3 years); annual pasture with chisel plowing (CP-P15 years); perennial pasture without tillage (NT-PP20 years); and no-tillage yerba mate (NT-YM20 years) and were compared with native forest (NF) and native pasture (NP). Soil samples were collected from the layers at the following depths: 0.0-0.05, 0.05-0.10, and 0.10-0.20 m, and were analyzed for bulk density, porosity, aggregation, flocculation, penetration resistance, water availability and total clay content. Canonical discriminant analysis was an important tool in the study of physical indicators of soil quality. Organic fertilization, along with soil management, influences soil structure and its porosity. Total porosity was the most important physical property in the distinction of areas with management systems and application times of manure for the 0.0-0.05 and 0.10-0.20 m layers. Soil aeration and micropores differentiated areas in the 0.05-0.10 m layer. Animal trampling and machinery traffic were the main factors inducing compaction of this clayey soil.