Abstract in English:ABSTRACT: Awareness of evapotranspiration (ET) and crop coefficient (Kc) is necessary for irrigation management in coffee crops. ET and Kc spatial variabilities are disregarded in traditional methods. Methods based on radiometric measurements have potential to obtain these spatialized variables. The Kc curve and spatial variability of actual evapotranspiration (ETa) were determined using images from Landsat 8 satellite. We used images of young and adult coffee plantations from OLI (Operational Land Imager) and TIRS (Thermal Infrared Sensor) sensors over a two-year period. Evapotranspiration was estimated using the Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land (SEBAL). Moreover, the reference evapotranspiration (ETo) was estimated through the Penman-Monteith method. We obtained the values for the evapotranspiration fraction (ETf), analogous to Kc, according to ET and ETo values. The study was conducted in Buritis, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, in areas cropped with Coffea arabica irrigated by central pivots. A comparative analysis was made using different statistical indices. Average ETa was 2.17 mm d−1 for young coffee plantations, , and the Kc mean value was 0.6. For adult coffee plantations, average ETa was 3.95 mm d−1, , and the K mean value was 0.85. The ET and K data obtained based on the SEBAL algorithm displayed similar values to studies that used traditional methods. This model has huge potential to estimate ET of different stages of coffee plantation for the region studied.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT: The objective was to evaluate the impact of producing piglets fed diets with different crude protein (CP) levels through life cycle assessment and experimental data. In Trial I (performance), 28 crossbred barrow piglets, with an initial average weight of 15.3 ± 1.15 kg were divided into a randomized block design with four treatments, seven replications and one animal per experimental unit. In Trial II (nitrogen and phosphorus balance), 20 crossbred barrow piglets with an average weight of 21.4 ± 1.62 kg were divided in a randomized block design with four treatments, five replications and one animal per experimental unit. Four experimental feeds were evaluated: HighCP, CP18, CP17 and LowCP, with 19, 18, 17 and 16 % of CP, meeting the requirements of digestible amino acids through industrial amino acid (IAA) addition. From Trial I and II data, the environmental impact was calculated for global warming potential, acidification potential, eutrophication potential, cumulative energy demand, terrestrial ecotoxicity and land occupation (LO). Total nitrogen excretion decreased by 0.226 g d−1 for each 1 g of reduction on daily nitrogen intake. However, there was no statistical difference (p > 0.05) among experimental treatments for all impact categories. For LO, there was a reduction (p = 0.078) of impact with CP reduction, which was 8 % lower with the LowCP diet, in comparison with HighCP. Dietary CP reduction for piglets from 15 to 30 kg, through IAA supplementation, reduced the environmental impact under LO, considering soybean meal from southern Brazil and observed individual data of performance and excretion.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT: High lipid concentration in ruminant diets often harms nutrient digestibility and feed intake; thus, a protected lipid and antioxidant source can be considered as an alternative for improving diet energy without putting animal production at a disadvantage. The aim of this study was to evaluate the dry matter intake (DMI), nutrient digestibility and feeding behavior of cattle fed cottonseed and vitamin E. Six cannulated cows, non-pregnant, non-lactating were distributed in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin Square design. Feed was offered ad libitum twice daily. Treatments were: 1) Control, 2) CS: 30 % cottonseed included; and 3) CSVitE: 30 % cottonseed plus 500 IU VitE included. Data were analyzed by SAS (Statistical Analysis System, v.9.3) and the significance was declared at p < 0.05. Diets with cottonseed had 22 % greater digestibility of ether extract and 9 % lower digestibility of non-fiber-carbohydrates compared to the control. Treatments with cottonseed had 13 % higher time eating, 48 % more ruminating, 34 % more chewing and 17 % lower time idling compared to the control. Molar proportion of propionate was 36 % higher and the butyrate and acetate:propionate ratio were 27 % and 30 % lower, respectively, for the cottonseed treatments compared to the control. Including cottonseed up to 30 % can be used to increase diet energy density leading to improvements in feeding behavior and ruminal parameters. The inclusion of Vitamin E did not result in benefits to cattle when it was combined with cottonseed. Further studies should be undertaken to evaluate vitamin E levels in association with different amounts and lipid sources.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT: The methods of Annicchiarico (1992) and Cruz et al. (1989) are widely used in phenotypic adaptability and stability analyses in plant breeding. In spite of the importance of these methodologies, their parameters are difficult to interpret. The aim of this research was to develop fuzzy controllers to automate the decision-making process employed by adaptability and stability studies following the methods adopted by Annicchiarico (1992) and Cruz et al. (1989) and check their efficiency using experimental data from common bean cultivars. Fuzzy controllers have been developed based on the Mamdani inference system proposed by these two methods of adaptability and stability studies. For the first fuzzy controller parameters were considered favorable environments and the recommendation index for unfavorable environments obtained by Annicchiarico's method (1992). For the second controller the parameters considered were the general mean (β0), coefficient of regression of unfavorable environments (β1) and coefficient of favorable environments (β1i + β2i) and the coefficient of determination of the method of Cruz et al. (1989). To check the performance of these drivers yield data from field trials on 18 common bean cultivars grown in 11 environments were used. The controllers were developed from established routines in the R software and, using the inference system based on the methods proposed by Annicchiarico (1992) and Cruz et al. (1989), classified the 18 genotypes appropriately in accordance with the criteria for each method. Thus, the methods used are effective, and are prescribed for decision-making automation in yield adaptability and stability studies pertaining to recommendation of cultivars.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT: This study assessed the risk exposure of the production system of a typical farm in southern Brazil. Five possible production systems were analyzed, combining three crops (soybeans, corn seasons and wheat) in different crop-year combinations, for example: “Summer soybeans followed by corn” and “Autumn corn followed by winter wheat”. Five different production systems were created based on the intensity of land use for each of the crops. Primary data were collected from a typical farm in the producing region over eight seasons (2006/07 to 2013/14). The Monte Carlo simulation technique was used to evaluate negative Net Operating Revenue (NOR) risk. The results showed that the production system with soybean and first season corn had a higher NOR and lower risk when compared with the other four production systems, which intensified the land use in the second season. When the production system had a higher rate of corn and/or wheat, the NOR and the risk to the production system increased for the first or second crop. Both corn and wheat in the second crop increased the risk to the production system on the typical farm in Cascavel, in the state of Parana (PR).
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT: Cobia is one of the most promising warm water aquaculture species. In Brazil, cobia farming began in 2008 in the state of Rio de Janeiro from experimental scale facilities to regular near-shore farms based on fresh/frozen fish diets composed mostly of Sardinella sp. Despite the encouraging results achieved in the promotion of sustainable cobia farming, we advocate the replacement of fresh/frozen fish by a practical formulated feed. This experiment evaluated the zootechnical performance and environmental efficiency of moist and practical formulated feeds in early grow-out phases in the cycle of cobia nearshore cage culture. Four hundred and twenty juvenile cobia (151 ± 7 g) were fed with moist feed and practical formulated feed for 56 days. Biometrics were taken every two weeks and diets were analyzed for proximate composition, fatty acid composition and pellet quality. Although growth performance was equivalent between treatments, feed consumption and feed conversion ratios (FCR) were different (p < 0.05) and varied according to water temperature. Cobia fed moist feed exhibited an FCR two times higher than those fed formulated feed. Elevated settling speed and low floatability contributed to higher heterogeneity and lower efficiency of fish fed moist diet. Nitrogen excretion rate was reduced (64 %) and protein efficiency ratio elevated (27 %) within formulated diet groups in comparison to those fed moist diet (79 % and 15 %, respectively). The fatty acid profile of cobia muscle was similar across the groups. With no negative effects of diet substitution on production performance and improvement of environmental efficiency, this approach can be applied and advocated globally and contribute to the responsible intensification of sustainable marine fish culture.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT: Multi-environment trials are commonly used to assess cultivar adaptation patterns under different environmental conditions and to help make effective cultivar recommendations for growers. An example of a multi-environment trial system used for cultivar recommendations is the Polish Post-registration Variety Testing System. A common approach in cultivar recommendations is to evaluate the adaptability of cultivars across, or for, specific trial locations. However, the locations of the trials and the fields where a farmer will grow a crop are hardly ever in the same place. Therefore, it would be better to group the trial locations into regions and give recommendations for the whole region. The aim of this study is to evaluate the grain yield adaptation patterns of 62 modern winter wheat cultivars in six agro-ecological regions of Poland for two crop management intensities over five growing seasons. The analysis of the grain yield data was performed separately for each intensity using single-stage approaches in linear mixed models. We ascertained that winter wheat yield variability was in the main determined by agro-ecological region and their interactions, and to a small extent by the cultivar effect. Cultivars Sailor and Linus were widely adapted to all agro-ecological regions studied for both crop management intensities. It is highly probable that these two cultivars will obtain high yield in all agro-ecological regions as well as with both crop management intensities studied. We observed high compatibility rankings between locations for both crop management intensities. High compatibility of the cultivar rankings in the trial locations also provides high precision when determining regions.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT: Soil physical quality in lowlands from the Pampa biome under no-tillage (NT) plays an important role; therefore, this study aimed to establish a soil physical quality index (SPQi) from a minimum data set to detect the effects of different deployment times of NT in an Albaqualf. The comparison of areas with one (NT1), three (NT3), five (NT5) and seven (NT7) years of notillage was established using as reference a non-cultivated field plot (NC) for at least thirty years, nearby the sites under NT. Soil samples with undisturbed and disturbed structure were collected to determine the physical quality indicators and soil organic matter (SOM) fractions. The factor analysis (FA) was used to identify and select a minimum data set. The SPQi was elaborated by using the deviations of the measured indicators at different deployment times of NT in relation to NC. The SPQi showed sensibility to identify and explain soil physical quality changes with different deployment times of NT. In well-drained lands, higher deployment times of no-tillage promote the physical quality of lowlands.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT: Soil mesofauna consists of small invertebrates that live in the soil or litter and are sensitive to climatic conditions, management systems, plant cover and physical or chemical soil attributes. These organisms are active in the cycling of nutrients, since they fragment the organic matter hereby accelerating microbial decomposition. The aim of this study was to evaluate the invertebrate community in no-tillage, conventional tillage, minimum tillage and secondary forest in regeneration to determine the relationship of mesofauna to litter, soil attributes, management and seasonality. Therefore, ten soil samples in each system and eight litter samples in no-tillage and the forest were taken over four seasons. These samples remained in Berlese extractors for seven days for quantification and identification of mesofauna. For each fauna sample, soil samples were collected for chemical analysis. Next, diversity indices and richness were calculated and multivariate analyses were used to establish relationships between the mesofauna, soil attributes and management. In the soil, mites were more abundant in the agricultural systems than in the forest, but the springtails, sensitive to low moisture and high temperature, were more abundant in the forest. Diversity and richness were higher in soil from the forest than under other systems. In no-tillage, there was a lower density of soil mesofauna, however, under this system, many invertebrates live in litter, since litter is the main food resource for them. In forest litter, we found lower invertebrate density and higher diversity than in no-tillage. Carbon, basic cations, pH, Al and V% were the attributes that best explained fauna variability in the systems.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT: The least limiting water range is a soil physical quality indicator, which is useful to predict the optimum water range for plant growth in a given soil and to study the effects of soil use and management over this optimum water range by integrating the effects of available water, penetration resistance and air filled porosity. This study tested six equations to fit water retention and penetration resistance surface responses used to determine the least limiting water range and present a simple algorithm written in the open source software R for fitting, calculation and visualization of the least limiting water range. Five soils from Brazil and Canada, under different use and management conditions were used to test the functions. The results show that the three water retention surface responses had good statistical properties for fitting water retention and that two of the penetration resistance surface responses were adequate to fit the data, while one failed to achieve convergence in two instances. The open source code performed as well as the commercial statistical package SAS for fitting the penetration resistance and water retention equations.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT: Seedling production is an important step in the lettuce production system. However, there is a tendency to apply excessive irrigation at this stage. The aim of this study was to test the use of the Simplified Irrigation Controller (SIC) under two conditions: first, with the sensor installed in the substrate (measuring the soil water tension) and second, in the atmosphere (“atmospheric” - responding to vapor demand in the atmosphere) to control the irrigation of lettuce seedlings. The performance of the SIC was evaluated by monitoring plant traits. The lettuce seeds of the Regina cultivar were sown in styrofoam trays with commercial organic substrate. Both experiments were conducted under greenhouse conditions and evaluated under different SIC activation tensions. Shoot fresh weight and dry weight, height, number of leaves, leaf length, leaf area, water use efficiency (WUE) (ratio between the dry mass of plant produced by the volume of water applied), chlorophyll content, stomatal conductance and chlorophyll a fluorescence were assessed. In the experiment with the substrate sensor, the tension of 11.5 kPa caused death in 94 % of the seedlings and was disregarded in the statistical analysis. All biometric and physiological traits evaluated decreased as the SIC tensions increased. Thus, tensions of 4.0 (substrate sensor) and 3.5 kPa (atmospheric sensor) showed greater potential for producing vigorous seedlings, with WUE average values of 1.86 and 1.37 g L−1, respectively. Cultivation of lettuce seedlings proved viable under both conditions when the SIC was used, with the emergence of a number of practical advantages of the atmospheric sensor over the substrate one.