Abstract in English:ABSTRACT: The dourado, Salminus brasiliensis, a large, carnivorous, Neotropical, Characin, is highly regarded for fish farming and sport fishing alike. However, studies on the farming and husbandry of dourado are still scarce. This study evaluated the performance of dourado fed diets formulated so as to contain increasing levels of poultry by-product meal as a replacement for fish meal and aimed to identify the maximum level of replacement to maximize profit. The trial was set up in a closed recirculation system with controlled water quality (temperature 27 °C, dissolved oxygen 6.5 mg L−1, pH 7.4, and ammonia 0.25 mg L−1). Juvenile fish were stocked in tanks in a completely randomized design, acclimatized to system conditions and experimental diets, and then fed twice a day for 66 days with extruded, nutritionally complete diets (40 % digestible protein and 4020 kcal kg−1 digestible energy), formulated to contain 0, 20, 40, 60, 80 or 100 % poultry meal as a surrogate protein source for fish meal. Performance parameters – average weight gain, specific growth rate, feed consumption, feed conversion rate, protein efficiency rate, productive value of protein, energy retention rate, survival rate – did not differ (p > 0.05). To minimize the effects of influential data, the robust regression method was used and profit maximization analysis revealed that replacing 33.3 % of dietary fishmeal by poultry by-product meal maximizes profit in the farming of dourado.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT: Tetrazolium tests use conventional sampling techniques in which a sample has a fixed size. These tests may be improved by sequential sampling, which does not work with fixed-size samples. When data obtained from an experiment are analyzed sequentially the analysis can be terminated when a particular decision has been made, and thus, there is no need to pre-establish the number of seeds to assess. Bayesian statistics can also help, if we have sufficient knowledge about coffee production in the area to construct a prior distribution. Therefore, we used the Bayesian sequential approach to estimate the percentage of viable coffee seeds submitted to tetrazolium testing, and we incorporated priors with information from other analyses of crops from previous years. We used the Beta prior distribution and, using data obtained from sample lots of Coffea arabica, determined its hyperparameters with a histogram and O’Hagan's methods. To estimate the lowest risk, we computed the Bayes risks, which provided us with a basis for deciding whether or not we should continue the sampling process. The results confirm that the Bayesian sequential estimation can indeed be used for the tetrazolium test: the average percentage of viability obtained with the conventional frequentist method was 88 %, whereas that obtained with the Bayesian method with both priors was 89 %. However, the Bayesian method required, on average, only 89 samples to reach this value while the traditional estimation method needed as many as 200 samples.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT: We evaluated the inclusion of information on genetic relationship into the analysis of crude protein requirement in diets for pigs of Brazilian Piau breed, using Bayesian inference. The animals were assigned to treatments in a completely randomized design in factorial scheme 4 × 2 (crude protein levels × sex) with 12 repetitions per treatment. The evaluations were carried out in the initial, growing and finishing phases, and after slaughter. The traits evaluated were feed conversion (FC), backfat thickness (BF), daily weight gain (DWG), daily feed intake (DFI) and some carcass cuts. Three models were considered to evaluate the inclusion of information on genetic relationship into the analysis: Model I, a simple linear model; Model II, the same effects of Model I with addition of the independent random effect of animal; and Model III, the same effects of Model II, but including the genetic relationship between the animals. Model III presented the best fit and was considered for later inferences. Crude protein (CP) levels did not significantly influence any of the evaluated traits. The effect of sex was significant only for the growing phase, while its interaction with protein levels presented an opposite result for all evaluated traits. Additionally, CP levels of 10.2 %, 9.6 % and 9.0 % can be used in diets for pigs of Brazilian Piau breed in the initial, growing and finishing phases, respectively.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT: While the cultivation of conventional Bt corn has been widely adopted in Brazil, the production of Bt sweet corn is still incipient. The main lepidopteran pests found attacking conventional and sweet corn in Brazil are Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) and Helicoverpa zea (Boddie). Additionally, a new harmful Lepidoptera species has recently appeared in Brazil, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner). Since Bt sweet corn in Brazil is as yet cultivated on a limited scale there is no scientific information available about the performance of Bt sweet corn against lepidopterans out in the field. Thus, we conducted two field experiments to evaluate the efficacy of Bt sweet corn (event MON89034), alone and in conjunction with insecticides, against major lepidopteran pests found in midwestern Brazil (in the state of Goias). Both experiments followed a completely randomized block design (2 × 2 factorial) with two levels of sweet corn (Bt or conventional) crossed with two levels of insecticide (insecticide or no insecticide). The experimental treatments were replicated six times in each experiment. The results showed a slower advancing of defoliation caused by S. frugiperda in treatments with Bt corn. Likewise, less severe injury was observed on the corn ears (especially on the kernels) of Bt plants. The number of larvae (S. frugiperda and Helicoverpa spp.) sampled was also lower in the treatments with Bt corn. Overall, the application of insecticide did not increase the protection of Bt sweet corn and there was no significant difference in corn ear size and weight, nor in kernel yield, when comparing Bt and insecticide-sprayed plants.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT: Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol.) Kuntze is a native tree species of major importance in southern Brazil. It is a regional symbol due to its iconic shape and stature in the landscape; its wood was once economically important and its seeds are an important source of food for the fauna and are presently used in regional cuisine. Despite its importance and apparent abundance, the species is facing extinction mainly as a result of unregulated exploitation and deforestation. This study catalogued the remaining individuals in order to add to the body of knowledge available on A. angustifolia, a species that has become rare across its historic range. The circumference at breast height (1.30 m), the total height, and the tree volume were measured (3,529 araucarias). We catalogued trees with a large diameter measuring them in loco over three years involving a journey of more than 6,800 km. The volumes of these old trees are very large, ranging from 38.2 m3 to 106.6 m3. The largest A. angustifolia individual is located in the state of Santa Catarina and measures 3.25 m in diameter. The giant araucarias with > 2.00 m in diameter are rare and only 13 individuals could be found in southern Brazil; a priority action at the governmental level is to recognize and preserve these monumental trees and together with a need for a public policy of drawing up specific inventories of large trees.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT: Plants of Coffea arabica Icatu IAC 925 germplasm show resistance to Meloidogyne paranaensis under field conditions, but with variable rates of segregation. One mother plant, IAC 3, of Icatu IAC 925 was evaluated under controlled conditions through the reaction of its clones, obtained by somatic embryogenesis. Reproduction of nematodes in clones were compared with an open-pollinated progeny from the same mother plant, C. arabica cultivar Mundo Novo IAC 515-20, susceptible to nematodes, and Clone IAC 1, also susceptible and obtained by somatic embryogenesis. Open-pollinated progeny showed segregation to resistance and was classified as susceptible according to the reproduction factor. The average number of nematodes (eggs and J2) per gram of roots in clones was eight fold lower than that of open-pollinated progeny, and 51 fold lower than Mundo Novo IAC 515-20. Based on Seinhorst model, IAC 3 clone showed a tolerance limit of 7.7 nematodes per cm3 of soil, while in Mundo Novo the tolerance limit was 3.9 nematodes per cm3 of soil. These results revealed that clonal Arabica coffee nematode-resistant trees represent an alternative to the time consuming and expensive process inherent to conventional breeding strategies.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT: Momordica charantia (bitter melon) presents two distinct types or varieties, known as wild type and commercial type. Plants of the wild type are hosts of a phytoplasma of the group 16SrIII-J, which is associated with a disease known as witches’ broom. However, this disease has not yet been reported in commercial bitter melon. Thus, symptomatic plants of the commercial type were analyzed in order to demonstrate the association between phytoplasmas and disease. In further assays, strains found in symptomatic plants of the commercial type were subjected to analysis of sequences of the secY gene to determine the extent of genetic diversity. Amplification of DNA fragments from genes 16Sr rRNA (1.2Kb) and secY (1.6Kb) revealed association of phytoplasma with symptomatic plants of the commercial type. Virtual Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) analysis identified this phytoplasma as a member of the subgroup 16SrIII-J. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the phytoplasma was closely related to the representative of the 16SrIII-J subgroup. Molecular analysis indicated that the secY gene, in spite of the greater genetic variation compared with 16S rRNA gene, did not separate strains of the phytoplasma of the subgroup 16SrIII-J among those strains present in M. charantia.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT: Low efficiency of nitrogen from fertilizers is a major concern worldwide, threatening the sustainability of sugarcane production. The N use efficiency (NUE) by sugarcane can be improved by adopting better fertilizing management practices, reducing environmental impacts. This work evaluated the effects of varying N rates and time of application on stalks and sugar yield in ratoon harvested early in the crop season. The experimental design was a randomized block in a 2 × 4 factorial design and a control (no N) with five replications, including two application times (45 or 90 DAH – days after harvest) and four N rates (50, 100, 150, or 200 kg N ha−1). The time of N fertilizer application promoted differences in stalk yield, as the cumulative yield of two harvests was increased by 8 % (15 Mg ha−1) at 45 DAH when compared to the application at 90 DAH. The application performed at 45 DAH augmented sugar yield by 10 % (2.8 Mg ha−1 of sugar) in relation to 90 DAH. The N rates that promoted the highest sugarcane yield were, respectively, 122 and 144 kg N ha−1 in the first and second crop cycles. The average economical rates obtained for the first and second agricultural cycles were, respectively, 104 and 127 kg N ha−1, demonstrating that the gains by applying high amounts of fertilizers (rates above 150 kg N ha−1) may not cover the investment.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT: Different uses of soil legacy data such as training dataset as well as the selection of soil environmental covariables could drive the accuracy of machine learning techniques. Thus, this study evaluated the ability of the Random Forest algorithm to predict soil classes from different training datasets and extrapolate such information to a similar area. The following training datasets were extracted from legacy data: a) point data composed of 53 soil samples; b) 30 m buffer around the soil samples, and soil map polygons excluding: c) 20 m; and d) 30 m from the boundaries of polygons. These four datasets were submitted to principal component analysis (PCA) to reduce multidimensionality. Each dataset derived a new one. Different combinations of predictor variables were tested. A total of 52 models were evaluated by means of error of models, prediction uncertainty and external validation for overall accuracy and Kappa index. The best result was obtained by reducing the number of predictors with the PCA along with information from the buffer around the points. Although Random Forest has been considered a robust spatial predictor model, it was clear it is sensitive to different strategies of selecting training dataset. Effort was necessary to find the best training dataset for achieving a suitable level of accuracy of spatial prediction. To identify a specific dataset seems to be better than using a great number of variables or a large volume of training data. The efforts made allowed for the accurate acquisition of a mapped area 15.5 times larger than the reference area.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT: Thaumastocoris peregrinus Carpintero and Dellape (Hemiptera: Thaumastocoridae) is a sap-sucking insect that has become a major pest of eucalypts. The entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana (Bals.-Criv.) Vuill. and Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch.) Sorokin have the potential to control insect pests. This study evaluated the susceptibility of T. peregrinus to two commercial products based on conidia of B. bassiana and M. anisopliae. The fungi were sprayed onto adults of T. peregrinus at a concentration of 1 × 108 conidia mL−1 to evaluate their pathogenicity and conidial production on the insect cadavers. Beauveria bassiana caused 100 % mortality, while M. anisopliae caused more than 80 % mortality of T. peregrinus adults 11 days after fungi application. The fungi colonized the head and thorax regions and caused high mortality rates through conidial production. Pathogenicity of entomopathogenic fungi B. bassiana and M. anisopliae to T. peregrinus show potential to use these fungi in integrated pest management.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT: Industrialized coconut water may have been adulterated by adding sugar above the limit permitted by law. According to Brazilian law, industrialized coconut water can receive the maximum addition of 1 g of sugar per 100 mL of the drink. This work aimed to detect adulteration in industrialized coconut water produced in Brazil and measure the relative isotopic enrichment in fresh coconut water, using the techniques of stable isotopes of carbon. Fresh coconut water samples from 13 locations, industrialized coconut water samples of 17 different brands and cane sugar were analyzed by Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometer coupled to an elemental analyzer. The relative isotopic enrichment found for fresh coconut water samples ranged from −26.40 to −23.76. From 17 brands of coconut water analyzed, 11 were adulterated by excess sugar and two were already adulterated by presenting soluble solids content higher above the threshold permitted by law. In 65 % of Brazilian industrialized coconut water, the amount of exogenous sugar is higher than the limit permitted by law. Most Brazilian companies do not respect the legal limit of adding cane sugar established by law.