Abstract in English:ABSTRACT: Agricultural areas in the region of Turuçu, on the Southeast Hillside in the state of Rio Grande do Sul (RS), Brazil present many examples of soil physical degradation. Accordingly, strategies aimed at evaluating and ameliorating the structural quality of soils should be developed to ensure the sustainable use of these areas. This study aimed to evaluate the least limiting water range (LLWR), S-index, compressibility parameters, organic carbon and the organic matter granulometric fractions of a Udalf under different agricultural uses. Soil samples with disturbed and non-disturbed structure from the 0.00 to 0.10 m layer were collected on farms in the Southeast Hillside, Turuçu region, RS, for analyzing soil under: i) conventional system of corn after tobacco crop, (CT); ii) conventional system of corn after native field (CNF), iii) native field (NF) and iv) native area (NA). Both the CT and the CNF systems had a negative influence on the values of bulk density, soil porosity, least limiting water range, compressibility parameters and total organic carbon, coarse fraction carbon and carbon associated with minerals.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT: The utilization of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data obtained through satellite images can technically improve the process of delimiting management zones (MZ) for annual crops, resulting in socio-economic and environmental benefits. The aim of this study was to compare delimited MZ, using crop productivity data, with delimited MZ using the NDVI obtained from satellite images in areas under a no-tillage system. The study was carried out in three areas located in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Three crop productivity maps, from 2009 to 2015, were used for each area, whereby the NDVI was calculated for each crop productivity map using images from the Landsat series of satellites. Descriptive and geostatistical analysis were conducted to determine the productivity and NDVI data. The MZ were then delimited using the fuzzy c-means algorithm. Spearman's correlation matrix was used to compare the methodologies used for delimiting the MZ. The MZ based on NDVI calculated from the satellite images correlated with the MZ based on crop productivity data (0.48 < r < 0.61), suggesting that the NDVI can replace or be complementary to productivity data in delimiting MZ for annual cropping systems.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT: The use of new feed resources, particularly local agroindustrial byproducts, such as banana, may be an option for replacing those traditionally used for sheep feed to reduce production costs. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the dietary effects of replacing corn bran with banana leftovers on performance, carcass, non-carcass components, meat traits, and fatty acid profile of Santa Inês lambs. Twenty-four Santa Inês female lambs with an average weight of 23.73 kg were fed diets containing 60 % coast cross hay and 40 % concentrate (30 % corn bran and 10 % soybean meal). Treatments consisted of corn bran replaced by banana leftovers at rates of 0, 25, 50, and 75 % on a dry matter basis. The experiment lasted 120 days. Animals were slaughtered and carcasses and non-carcass components were evaluated. The half-carcasses were weighed and sectioned into commercial cuts. The 12th and 13th ribs were dissected to collect bones, muscle and fat proportions. Cooking loss, color, shear force and sarcomere length were measured. Fatty acid profiles were obtained by gas chromatography. Hot and cold carcass weight, leg, neck, lung, loin eye area, fat thickness, initial sample weight of the 12th and 13th ribs, fat and bone, presented a negative linear effect of banana leftovers replacing corn in the diet. Loin, fat thickness, cooking loss and carcass redness showed a negative quadratic effect, while full and empty abomasum, full omasum, sarcomere length and yellowness presented a positive quadratic effect. Replacement of up to 75 % of corn bran by banana leftovers did not interfere in the intake, performance, meat traits and the fatty acid profile of lambs. The use of banana leftovers may be an alternative for reducing animal production costs.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT: This study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of dietary calcium levels and supplementation with organic trace minerals selenium, copper, iron, zinc and manganese on performance, tissue deposition and litter mineral concentration. A total of 2,496 one-day-old male Cobb 500 broilers were randomly assigned to a 3 × 4 factorial experimental design with three levels of dietary Ca [8, 10 and 12 g kg–1, while maintaining the same Ca:nPP (non-phytate phosphorus) ratio (2:1)] and four levels of micromineral supplementation (0.62, 0.72, 0.82 and 0.92 g kg–1). There was a total of 12 treatments, with eight replicates of 26 birds per pen. Micromineral supplementation (MS) was achieved by adding different levels of the product Bioplex TR Se® and Ca supplementation was achieved by adding increasing levels of limestone and dicalcium phosphate. An interaction between Ca and MS levels was observed (p < 0.05) for the parameters of performance, liver Cu concentration, breast Se and Cu concentrations and litter Se, Mn and Zn concentrations. No interactions were observed (p > 0.05) for Ca, P or ash concentrations in the tibia, which were influenced only by dietary Ca levels (p < 0.05). The Ca level of 10 g kg–1 promoted higher Ca and P concentration in the tibia and lower micromineral excretion in the litter. The combination of MS level of 0.82 g kg–1 with Ca level of 10 g kg–1 led to the best BWG response. The supplementation conditions that led to higher micromineral levels in the liver and breast varied for each mineral.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT: With the aim of making the application of the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) feasible in the management of the West Indian fruit fly in Brazil, Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae), a number of quality parameters required by the SIT were investigated in this study. The aim was to verify the influence of a range of doses of gamma radiation (40, 50, 60, 70 and 80 Gy) on the fertility of females and to evaluate several quality control parameters, such as fly emergence, sex ratio, flight ability and survival under stress, as well as the characterization of the morphology (measurement of length and width) of the ovaries and testicles of A. obliqua. Pupae with 24 h before adult emergence were irradiated at CENA/Universidade de São Paulo. The radiosterilization test showed no difference between treatments for the parameters of fly emergence, sex ratio and survival under stress. The radiation at doses above 40 Gy resulted in ovarian atrophy in females and the absence of egg production. In males, the radiation also affected testicular development. Considering the quality parameters assessed, the sterilization results obtained agreed with previous data in the literature for other A. obliqua strains, and the dose of 60 Gy could be considered as the best compromise between insect quality and full sterility for the Brazilian strain of A. obliqua evaluated.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT: A key issue in large-area inventories is defining a suitable sampling design and the effort required to obtain reliable estimates of species richness and forest attributes, especially in species-diverse forests. To address this issue, data from 418 systematically distributed 0.4 ha plots were collected. Estimators of nonparametric species richness were employed to assess the floristic representativeness of data collected in three forest types in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. The sampling sufficiency of forest attributes was evaluated as a function of sample size. Altogether, 831 tree/shrub species were recorded. The data acquired through the systematic sampling design were representative of both species richness and basal area. The confidence intervals’ length would not substantially decrease by using more than 70 % of the reference sample (n = 364), thereby reaching a length of ∼5 % of the sample mean. Nevertheless, reliable estimates of species richness for diverse forests demand a thorough sampling approach far more exacting so as to achieve acceptable population estimates of forest attributes. Though the study area is regarded as a biodiversity hotspot, the forest stands showed diminished species richness, basal area, stem volume and biomass when compared to old-growth stands. As regards species richness, the data provided evidence of contrasting great γ-diversity (at the forest type level) and small α-diversity (at the forest stand level). Amongst anthropic impacts, illegal logging and extensive cattle grazing within stands are undoubtedly key factors that threaten forest conservation in the study area.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT: A germplasm collection should represent the diversity of the target species and the gene pools associated with it. However, it is critical to establish collection plans which ensure such representativeness. At times it is difficult to identify the best strategy for collecting domesticated species that are conserved in situ/on farm, since, in general, the magnitude of the diversity existing in a geographical area was hitherto unknown. The Diversity Census methodology was developed for previous diagnosis of the diversity of Zea mays subsp. mays L., conserved by farmers in two municipalities in the far western region of the state of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. The Diversity Census database allowed for the identification of the best strategy to collect different types of maize landraces. Thus, tests were carried out using two methods described for Core Collections (Modified Random Sampling and Maximization) and a third statistical method for random sampling, stratified by farm area. The Maximization method enabled the capture of all the morphological variation of the traits evaluated in the Diversity Census from the smallest sample size. The relevance of this result is the feasibility of adapting the Core Collection strategy in order to plan more efficient expeditions to collect maize landraces conserved in microregions. Such planning allows for organizing the collection work efficiently, reducing costs, simplifying the work of characterization and helping to plan integrated strategies of in situ/on fam conservation.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT: When breeding the common bean in Brazil, the best progenies are chosen, normally, from solely the generation under analysis at the conclusion of the evaluation, without considering what occurred in the past. However, a number of recently published studies show that if an evaluation were to consider all relevant generations, the gain from selection could be higher, especially when an index that involves information from the population that gave rise to the progenies is used. Thus, the aim of this study was to compare three selection procedures in the evaluation of successive generations and to discuss the implications of the progeny × environment interaction in terms of success of selection. Cycle XV progenies from a bean recurrent selection program were used. The traits evaluated were grain yield, plant architecture and grain type. Analysis of variance was carried out and the variance components and heritabilities were estimated. The same analyses were made using mixed models. A selection index weighted by the effect of populations and progenies within populations (WSI) was also obtained. We estimated the correlations between the classification of the progenies using the three procedures and the coincidence of the best progenies evaluated in S0:4 with the progenies in the previous generations. We found that the classification of the progenies by the BLUP's and WSI did not expressively differ from that obtained when using only the mean, even when a number of generations were considered in the selection. None of the procedures used effectively mitigated the effect of the progeny × environment interaction.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT: In general, the effects of Cadmium (Cd) on crop quality are evaluated solely by Cd accumulation in the edible plant parts; thus, the potential effects on several nutritional features are not often taken into account. This study evaluated Cd effects on the enzymatic activities of lysine (Lys) metabolism, storage protein and amino acid profile in maize. Stress parameters were also assessed. In vegetative organs, Cd was accumulated in the following decreasing order: roots > stems > leaves. Cadmium accumulation in grains decreased at grain maturity (from 0.25 to 0.07 µg g−1 DW). In leaves, neither hydrogen peroxide content nor superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxide and guaiacol peroxidase activities did not change in Cd-treated plants compared to control plants. Lipid peroxidation was not detected in immature grains and leaves of plants under Cd exposure, indicating that Cd accumulation mainly in the roots is a mechanism to avoid oxidative stress in aboveground parts of the plant. However, Lys metabolism in immature grains was modified, showing increases in the specific activities of aspartate kinase (AK) and dihydrodipicolinate synthase (DHDPS) after Cd exposure. AK sensitivity to Lys feedback inhibition increased, but decreased in DHDPS in Cd-treated plants, suggesting differential regulation for these enzymes. In mature grains, the Lys content did not change, while the proline content increased by 54 % in Cd-treated plants. This is the first report on Cd effects on amino acid profile, storage protein contents and enzymes from Lys metabolism in grains of a cereal plant species.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT: Few approaches have been developed to measure the isolated effect of exchangeable cations on clay dispersion in soils. In this study, the charge sparsity (CS) index was proposed using the ratio between the cations hydrated ionic radius and valence. The index capacity to measure cation effects on clay dispersion in soils was also evaluated. Three Ferralsols, sampled at different sites in Paraná State, Brazil, were homoionized with Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, or Na+ prior to evaluation of the clay dispersion degree. Published independent data for two soils and clays were also used. We tested the capacity of CS and II, the latter proposed by Marchuck and Rengasamy (2011), to predict clay dispersion in soils. The CS predicted the dispersion degree more accuratelly than the ionicity index did, in soils where Ca2+ and Mg2+ behaved similarly. The response of Paraná soils to CS varied with soil characteristics. Soils with a lower pH at the isoelectric point were more dispersible by cations with high CS (K+ and Na+). The CS was efficient to quantify the isolated effect of cations on the clay dispersion process in soils. Therefore, qualitative and quantitative studies can benefit from the CS as an index to understand the effect of cations on clay dispersion in soils.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT: Spatial soil data applications require sound geospatial data including coordinates and a coordinate reference system. However, when it comes to legacy soil data we frequently find them to be missing or incorrect. This paper assesses the quality of the geospatial data of legacy soil observations in Brazil, and evaluates geospatial data sources (survey reports, maps, spatial data infrastructures, web mapping services) and expert knowledge as a means to fix inconsistencies. The analyses included several consistency checks performed on 6,195 observations from the Brazilian Soil Information System. The positional accuracy of geospatial data sources was estimated so as to obtain an indication of the quality for fixing inconsistencies. The coordinates of 20 soil observations, estimated using the web mapping service, were validated with the true coordinates measured in the field. Overall, inconsistencies of different types and magnitudes were found in half of the observations, causing mild to severe misplacements. The involuntary substitution of symbols and numeric characters with similar appearance when recording geospatial data was the most common typing mistake. Among the geospatial data sources, the web mapping service was the most useful, due to operational advantages and lower positional error (~6 m). However, the quality of the description of the observation location controls the accuracy of estimated coordinates. Thus, the error of coordinates estimated using the web mapping service ranged between 30 and 1000 m. This is equivalent to coordinates measured from arc-seconds to arc-minutes, respectively. Under this scenario, the feedback from soil survey experts is crucial to improving the quality of geospatial data.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT: Polymer coatings are used to control the rate of release of plant available nutrients from fertilizers as well as to reduce nutrient losses such as ammonia (NH3) volatilization. Although the literature presents several examples of materials used to coat urea, little is known about nitrogen (N) release properties such as the mechanism involved and phenomena (e.g., pore opening) in the polymer coating. Thus, this study investigated urea release from polyurethane (PU) derived from two renewable raw materials (castor oil and soybean oil), to explain how the oil structure and coating microstructure influence release and urea-N dynamics in soil. The results demonstrated that the profile of urea release and the urea-N mineralization in the soil could be controlled by altering the thickness of the coating on the urea granules. Coating by eco-friendly polymer was efficient in controlling urea release in soil to reduce volatilization of ammonia and increase the availability of N in the soil.