Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Gladiola ( Gladiolus × grandiflorus Hort.) is an important cut flower for small farmers in Brazil. While the El Niño Southern Oscillation, which causes interannual variability to air temperature in Southern Brazil, can shift the optimum planting window of gladiola, an increase in temperature due to climate change can accelerate gladiola flowering and cause injuries by heat. The objective of this study was to assess the potential climate change effects on gladiola optimum planting date for specific market dates and investigate injuries occurrence on spikes in the Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Field experiments were conducted from 2016 to 2018 at four different locations across the Rio Grande do Sul State to evaluate the performance of the PhenoGlad model in simulating the developmental stages of gladiola. The PhenoGlad model was run on climate scenarios of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) named RCP2.6, RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios. The climate change scenarios caused a delay in the optimum planting date to harvest gladiola for All Souls’ Day across the Rio Grande do Sul State. For harvesting spikes for Mother’s Day, negative anomalies (earliest planting date) occurred in the warmest regions, because the very high temperature extended the crop development. Injuries by heat on spikes reached positive anomalies in 70 % of the years in the warmest regions for scenario RCP8.5. To harvest spikes for Mother’s Day, heat injury did not exceed 20 % of the years. Mitigation strategies for farmers to deal with climate change and keep their gladiola production include adjusting the optimum planting date.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Forest soils are N2O sources and commonly act as CH4 sinks. This study evaluated the dynamics of the CH4 and N2O fluxes of soils under Eucalyptus plantations and native Cerrado vegetation, as well as possible interactions between environmental factors and fluxes. The study was carried out in the Distrito Federal, Brazil, during 26 months, in three areas: in two stands of the hybrid Eucalyptus urophylla × Eucalyptus grandis, planted in 2011 (E1), and in 2009 (E2) and native Cerrado vegetation (CE). Measurements to determine the fluxes in a closed static chamber were carried out from Oct 2013 to Nov 2015. Soil and climate factors were monitored. During the study period, the mean CH4 fluxes were –22.48, –8.38 and –1.31 μg CH4 m–2 h–1 and the mean N2O fluxes 5.45, 4.85 and 3.85 μg N2O m–2 h–1 from E1, E2 and CE, respectively. Seasonality affected plantations in the studied sites. Cumulative CH4 influxes were calculated (year-1: –1.86 to -0.63 kg ha–1 yr–1; year-2: –1.85 to –1.34 kg ha–1 yr–1). Cumulative N2O fluxes in the three sites were ≤ 0.85 kg ha–1 yr–1. The change in land use from Cerrado to Eucalyptus plantations did not significantly changed regarding greenhouse gases (GHG), compared to the native vegetation. Flux rates of both gases (N2O and CH4) were low. Temporal variations in GHG fluxes and different ages of the stands did not cause significant differences in cumulative annual fluxes.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The aim of this research was to study the influence of training system and rootstock on the yield, vigor and physiology of the ‘Chenin Blanc’ grapevine at São Francisco Valley, northeastern Brazil. An experiment was carried out on eight harvests, from 2013 to 2017, in Petrolina, in the state of Pernambuco. Grapevines were grown under two training systems, lyre and espalier, and five rootstocks: ‘IAC 572’, ‘IAC 313’, ‘IAC 766’, ‘Paulsen 1103’ and ‘SO4’, using a split-plot randomized block design, with training systems assigned to the main plot and the rootstock assigned to the subplot. Lyre favored an increase in the number of bunches, branches and leaf mass in the harvest of the first semester of the year, while in the second semester there were increases of 40 % in the number of bunches and 10 % in leaf mass. Lyre promoted more balanced vines, showing a better ratio between production and pruning weight (Ravaz index). The rootstocks ‘IAC 766’, ‘IAC 313’ and ‘IAC 572’ increased yield and bunch mass under both training systems, while ‘SO4’ reduced yield and vigor. The stomatal conductance and instantaneous efficiency of water use were not influenced by either the training system or the rootstock. Under tropical conditions in the São Francisco Valley, ‘Chenin Blanc’ grapevine may be grown under the lyre training system, preferably on the ‘IAC 766’ rootstock, to obtain high yields and balanced grapevines.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Increased planting density, different types of thinning management, and the use of beneficial microorganisms have been adopted as strategic tools in the effort to increase crop yields in a sustainable manner. This investigation evaluated the growth and production of ‘Prata Anã Gorutuba’ banana ( Musa spp., AAB) under different plant densities during two production cycles in the semiarid region of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Micropropagated plantlets were also inoculated with endophytic bacteria and cultivated as part of two mat management strategies. Planting density varied between 1,680 and 3,920 plant ha–1. During the experiment, water was less than optimal because of rationing due to drought in the region. Under field conditions, there was no difference between bacterially inoculated and non-inoculated plants. The dense planting system increased the crop cycle. The highest-density planting treatment (3,920 plant ha–1) resulted in the highest yield in the first cycle, but no net income was observed. However, the high-density planting treatments resulted in the highest yields and gross incomes in the second production cycle. Management with thinning of plants up to 10-months-old and thinning up to harvest associated with high planting density increased the length of the production cycles. Although the water restriction experienced in the first and second crop cycles, the vegetative and productive traits of ‘Prata Anã Gorutuba’ banana did not compromise the objectives of this study.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Dried stigma of saffron is the most expensive spice in the world. In Iran, the majority of saffron farms use the traditional basin method for irrigation, which, together with other irrigation methods may soon face serious problems because of droughts in the future. Making an evaluation of the regional crop response to the irrigation method is important to the adoption of a proper irrigation management strategy. In this study, the effect of employing different irrigation methods, including the sprinkler, drip, furrow, and basin, on the following factors was evaluated: the saffron stigma dry weight, quality, water use efficiency (WUE), and Irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE) in the arid climate of Qaen, South Khorasan, Iran, over three consecutive crop years. The experiment was undertaken using a randomized complete block design with three replications. The results showed that seasonal saffron Evapotranspiration (ETC) was recorded as 356.5, 339.1, and 330.7 mm, in 2003, 2004 and 2005 respectively, as a result of administering the treatments. Saffron yield as well as WUE and IWUE were found to respond to the various irrigation methods except in the first year. In total, maximum stigma dry weight and water use efficiencies were reached in the third growing season using the drip irrigation method. Judging by the results, the drip irrigation method for saffron production is to be preferred. Additionally, the quality level of saffron was found to be acceptable. However, due to higher crocin content, the quality of saffron irrigated by the sprinkler method was somewhat higher.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT In eucalyptus plantations, the presence of understory increases the risk of fires, acts as an obstacle to forest operations, and leads to yield losses due to competition. The objective of this study was to develop an approach to discriminate the presence or absence of understory in eucalyptus plantations based on airborne laser scanning surveys. The bimodal canopy height profile was modeled by two Weibull density functions: one to model the canopy, and other to model the understory. The parameters used as predictor in the logistic model successfully discriminated the presence or absence of understory. The logistic model composed by ℽ canopy, ℽ understory, and ℽ understory showed higher values of accuracy (0.96) and kappa (0.92), which means an adequate classification of presence of understory and absence of understory. Weibull parameters could be used as input in the logistic regression to effectively identify the presence and absence of understory in eucalyptus plantation.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Herbicides play an important role in preventing crop yield losses due to both their weed interference ability and their capacity for increasing soil conservation in no-till systems. Group A herbicides or acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase) are essential tools the selective management of glyphosate resistance in grass weed species. In this review, we describe important aspects of ACCase biology and herbicides targeting this enzyme, along with a discussion on stewardship programs to delay the evolution of herbicide resistance which can evolve either through target site and/or non-target site mechanisms. Sixteen-point mutations have been reported to confer resistance to ACCase inhibitors. Each mutation confers cross resistance to a different group of herbicides. Metabolic resistance can result in resistance to multiple herbicides with different mechanisms of action (MoA), and herbicide detoxification is often conferred by cytochrome P450 monooxigenases and glutathione- S -transferases. Regardless of whether resistance mechanisms are target or non-target site, using herbicides with the same MoA will result in resistance evolution. Therefore, while field surveys and resistance mechanism studies are crucial for designing reactive management strategies, integrated weed management plays a central role in both reactive and proactive mitigation of herbicide resistance evolution.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT This study evaluated leaf supply of zinc (Zn) and boron (B) using either soluble or sparingly soluble fertilizers in young sweet orange trees. Three experiments were set up in a greenhouse to compare two sources and four doses (control, low, adequate and high) of fertilizers as follows: (i) Experiment I (B): boric acid and calcium borate; (ii) Experiment II (Zn): Zn sulfate and Zn oxide; and (iii) Experiment III (B + Zn): boric acid + Zn Sulfate and Zn Borate. The sparingly soluble sources were effective in increasing the Zn and B leaf concentration. Dry matter of the aerial part increased 18 % with B applications in adequate concentration independent of the B fertilizer sources. In contrast, trees did not grow well with applications of adequate concentration of Zn as Zn Sulfate or high Zn concentration as Zn borate. Superoxide dismutase activity in leaves increased with applications of low concentration of Zn as Zn oxide and decreased with high concentration of Zn from either source. Polyphenol oxidase activity increased with application of adequate concentration of B as boric acid and high concentration of B as calcium borate. Furthermore, the upper concentrations of Zn were toxic in orange trees when the source was Zn sulfate. Increases in plant growth without damage to leaf tissue and positive responses of key enzymes of orange trees in a range of nutrient concentration applications demonstrated the practical use of sparingly soluble fertilizers to supplying B and Zn foliarily to plants.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT This study evaluated the nutritional quality, yield, and storage protein modulation in soybean grains in response to levels and sources of sulfur (S) in a dystrophic Ultisol. We used five levels of S (0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 mg kg –1 ) and four sources of S (elemental S pastille - ESPA, gypsum - GY, gypsite - GI and elemental S powder - ESPO). Plants treated with 50 mg kg –1 of GY, GI, and ESPO and 200 mg kg –1 of ESPA had the largest grain yield values. Low S supply resulted in lower yields for all S sources tested. Sulfur deficiencies were observed at all levels for ESPA, resulting in lower concentrations of globulin and higher concentration of glutelin and albumin in the grains, possibly because the S content in the leaf was below the range adequate for soybean, leading to in lower yield values. In general, the application of S sources (GY, GI, and ESPO) increased all protein fractions. The results show that proper application of S is essential to optimize soybean yield and increase storage proteins in the grains. The granulometry of ESPA and ESPO fertilizers was a key factor for the availability of S to soybean plants. This study presents relevant information on S fertilization of soybeans, which could provide better grain nutritional quality and increased storage proteins with benefits to animal health.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Little is known about the interaction between the inoculation of diazotrophic bacteria, the variety, and the substrate used in inoculated sugarcane seedling production. Bearing this in mind, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of diazotrophic bacteria inoculation, four sugarcane varieties and four different substrates on the growth and nitrogen accumulation of sugarcane seedlings. Parameters related to sprouting, height, and root growth, as well as nitrogen accumulation, were evaluated. The results indicate that inoculating sugarcane seedlings belonging to the following varieties: RB867515, RB92579, RB966928 and RB975932 with bacteria may increase sprouting speed index, height, root length, fresh and dry matter weight, as well as nitrogen accumulation, which has resulted in a more uniform stem diameter. However, the responses to inoculation differ from variety to variety and are also dependent on the substrate used with better results observed in the commercial substrate and the substrate mixtures containing a higher proportion of organic compost. Understanding the interaction between the variety and the substrate with the bacterial inoculation is essential to the success of the production of inoculated sugarcane seedlings.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT New apps have changed the traditional way of learning and teaching; they are also applied as a quickly executed and effective method in agriculture. Soil-app is a web application with a friendly click-point interface built through packages lodged in R software. The app is an advanced model of an open-source platform to support teaching and learning activities in soil analyses and fertilizer recommendations. Soil-app includes soil test interpretation, soil amendment calculations (lime and gypsum), the fertilizer rate for the most important crops in Brazil, an NPK blend calculator, and NPK blend evaluation. It also includes experimental statistical analysis as applied to soil science. Soil-app is a user-friendly and high-performance tool, garnering fast adoption by both students and professionals. It is available for network use through the following link: http://www.genetica.esalq.usp.br/alogamas/R.html
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Greenhouses and nurseries provide ideal environments for facilitating the formation of nuisance algal mats. Algal growth poses safety concerns to horticulturists and stimulates the propagation of unwanted plant pests and pathogens. To date, few strategies and data are available to effectively manage algal problems. The effectiveness of five algaecides was tested on two varying surfaces of greenhouses in situ to elucidate the efficacy of chemical methods of removing algae. Moreover, Nostoc commune (Vaucher ex Bornet & Flahault) was treated on ceramic tiles in vitro , as it is a common alga in greenhouses and nurseries. We found that each algaecide had different effects, depending on the chemical applied, the surface to which the chemical was applied, and finally the types of algae that were targeted. Algaecides across the surfaces tested demonstrated that algal cell characteristics and communal makeup played an important role in algaecide efficacy, where mucilaginous algae were replaced by sheath-forming filamentous cyanobacteria. We found sodium carbonate peroxyhydrate to be the most effective chemical in terms of controlling Nostoc on tarp, gravel, and ceramic surfaces.