Abstract in English:ABSTRACT: Narasin is an antibacterial agent that may change rumen fermentation. Two experiments were proposed to evaluate the efficiency of narasin inclusion for lambs fed a diet containing high amounts of ground flint corn. Thirty rumen-cannulated wethers were used to evaluate nutrient digestibility, nitrogen balance, and rumen metabolism (Exp. 1); and forty-five lambs were used to evaluate performance (Exp. 2) of animals fed with narasin for high flint corn diets. The experimental diets were: control or basal diet without additives (C); 25 mg of monensin kg−1 of dry matter (DM) (M); and inclusion of 5 (N5), 10 (N10), and 15 (N15) mg of narasin kg−1 of DM. The statistical analyses were performed using the MIXED procedure of SAS. Monensin increased DM digestibility compared to C ( p = 0.01) and increasing doses of narasin linearly increased DM digestibility ( p < 0.01). There was a quadratic effect ( p = 0.10) for molar proportion of acetate peaking at N15. Monensin inclusion increased ( p = 0.07) propionate compared to C; however, it did not differ from narasin. The increasing levels of narasin linearly decreased the total volatile fatty acids concentration in the rumen ( p = 0.02). Monensin and C showed a similar performance. The increasing levels of narasin linearly increased ( p ≤ 0.04) average daily gain and feed efficiency. Monensin and narasin changed rumen fermentation and improved overall nutrient digestibility. However, lambs that received narasin showed improved performance when compared with animals that received M.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT: Results of nutrient requirements as determined in dose-response trials are valid only for fish within the same size range of that of experimental model fish. This study used the factorial approach to estimate digestible energy (DE) and digestible protein (DP) requirements for maintenance and growth of pacu ( Piaractus mesopotamicus ). Juvenile pacu (63.5 ± 1.27 g) were stocked in a recirculation system (26.89 ± 0.36 °C) for 58 days, and fed two daily meals. One diet contained 6.96 % lipids (LF) and another 9.98 % lipids (HF), both diets formulated to contain 32 % crude protein, theoretical dietary energy level for maintenance (52.23 kJ DE kg−0.80 d−1), in a completely randomized, 2 × 5 factorial experimental design. The apparent digestibility coefficients of energy and protein were 84.66 ± 0.27 % and 89.20 ± 0.61 %, respectively, determined in specific assays for the HF diet, while for the LF diet, the values were 84.52 ± 0.37 % and 89.19 ± 0.16 %, respectively. The analysis of growth and carcass composition data revealed that dietary requirements of digestible energy and protein for maintenance were not influenced by dietary lipid levels; however, requirements of growth digestible energy were higher for fish fed the LF diet (1.39) than for fish fed the HF diet (1.29). The requirement of DP for growth, expressed as g of DP per g of deposited protein, were higher for fish fed the LF diet than for fish fed the HF diet (1.70 vs 1.58).
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT: Host genetics and diet can exert an influence on microbiota and, therefore, on feeding efficiency. This study evaluated the effect of genetic line (fast-growth and high-resistance) in Pacific white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei ) on the hepatopancreatic microbiota and its association with the feeding efficiency in shrimp fed with diets containing different protein sources. Shrimp (2.08 ± 0.06 g) from each genetic line were fed for 36 days with two dietary treatments (animal and vegetable protein). Each of the four groups was sampled, and the hepatopancreatic metagenome was amplified using specific primers for the variable V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene. The PCR product was sequenced on the MiSeq platform. Nineteen bacterial phyla were detected, of which Proteobacteria was the most abundant (51.0 – 72.5 %), Bacteroidetes (3.6 – 23.3 %), Firmicutes (4.2 – 13.7 %), Actinobacteria (1.9 – 12.1 %), and Planctomycetes (1.3 – 9.5 %). Diet was the most influential factor in the taxonomic composition of the microbiota, while genetic line was not a strong influential factor. The results suggest that the taxonomic profile of the bacteria colonizing shrimp hepatopancreas was determined by the diet consumed, similar to what occurs in the intestine. Shrimp in the fast-growth line had greater feeding efficiency regardless of the diet supplied. Finally, the results suggest that Proteobacteria influenced ( p < 0.05) the feeding efficiency of shrimp fed with a vegetable diet. Nevertheless, further studies are required to explore how shrimp genetic line–diet interaction influences microbiota for probiotic development and functional food formulation for farmed shrimp according to the genetic line.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT: In Southeast Brazil, the change of grape harvest from wet summer to dry winter through double-pruning management has improved the quality of wines, currently denominated winter wines. In order to better understand the influences of soil, macroclimate, and vineyard management in winter wines, we investigated seven vineyards in the states of Minas Gerais (Três Corações – TC, Três Pontas – TP, Cordislândia – COR, São Sebastião do Paraíso – SSP and Andradas – AND) and São Paulo (Itobi – ITO and Espirito Santo do Pinhal – PIN) during three consecutive growing seasons. The vineyards are located in warm temperate zones and grouped in four soil types: Acrudox in TC, AND and SSP, Hapludox in TP; Hapludult in AND and PIN; Eutrudept in ITO. The high clay content (> 35 %) observed in all soil types, associated to low evapotranspiration demand, avoided the occurrence of severe water stress, as observed by the high values of leaf and stem water potential, stomatal conductance, photosynthesis, and transpiration. Differences in vigor were more related to vineyard management and did not affect grape composition. Among vineyards, parameters for berry quality from ITO, such as sugar and acidity, were more associated to high soil sand content and winter temperature. No significant differences were found in anthocyanins and total phenols of berries among vineyards, suggesting that the high thermal range and low precipitation during autumn-winter, historically observed in all municipalities, seemed to be the main factor for improvement of phenolic compounds.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT: We evaluated the effect of frozen storage temperature and thawing methods on acceptance and sensory profile of steaks of Nellore beef strip loin under 30 days of frozen storage. Fresh strip loin (n = 13), collected two days after slaughter, were aged (2 °C) for 14 days and cut into seven steaks subjected to one of the treatments: control (unfrozen), combination of two freezing temperatures (−10 and −20 °C), and three thawing methods (microwave, ambient temperature, and refrigeration thawing). Steaks in the frozen/thawing treatment were frozen using an ultra-fast freezer until the desirable temperature was reached and were stored for 30 days. After cooking, steaks were analyzed by 11 panelists for the Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA®) and by 120 beef consumers for acceptance. Storage temperature and thawing methods showed little or no changes in the sensory quality of strip loin steaks, detected by either panelists or consumers. In the QDA®, apparent juiciness was lower in samples thawed in microwave, while the rancid flavor was lower for samples frozen at −20 °C and thawed in refrigeration ( p < 0.05). The consumer test showed that samples stored at −10 °C and microwave thawing was most accepted in terms of tenderness, juiciness, and overall impression. Fresh steaks (unfrozen) had low acceptance for overall impression in relation to frozen meat. This indicates that consumers could use a household freezer (−10 °C) and quicker thawing methods (microwave or room temperature) without compromising the sensory perception of steaks frozen up to one month.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT: Sodium reduction and the substitution of sodium chloride by other salts have been extensively studied in order to produce healthier foods. Coppa is a pork cured product that receives high levels of sodium through the salting process. The objective of this work was to evaluate the impact of reductions in Sodium Chloride (NaCl), substitution by Potassium Chloride (KCl) and reductions in the re-salting time on the physicochemical, microbiological and sensorial characteristics in pork coppa. Four treatments were applied: T1 with 2 days of salting, 2 days of re-salting and 35 % reduction of NaCl; T2 with 2 days of salting and 3 days of re-salting and 35 % reduction of NaCl; T3 with 2 days of salting and 2 days of re-salting and replacing 35 % of NaCl by KCl; T4 with 2 days of salting and 3 days of re-salting and 35 % replacing NaCl by KCl. Control: standard treatment was applied with 100 % of NaCL and salting time was 2 days and then 5 days to re-salting. The reduction in sodium content in processed pork Coppa produced no microbiological nor physicochemical changes. The reduction in salting together with salting and re-salting time and the partial replacement of NaCl by KCl resulted in reductions from 2,000 mg to 1,600 mg of sodium. Sensory evaluation demonstrated that the reduction in re-salting time was efficient using the ideal profile method which showed that treatments T1 and T2 were efficient in creating a product that meets consumer expectations.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT: The biotrophic fungus Hemileia vastatrix causes coffee leaf rust (CLR), one of the most devastating diseases in Coffea arabica . Coffee, like other plants, has developed effective mechanisms to recognize and respond to infections caused by pathogens. Plant resistance gene analogs (RGAs) have been identified in certain plants as candidates for resistance ( R ) genes or membrane receptors that activate the R genes. The RGAs identified in different plants possess conserved domains that play specific roles in the fight against pathogens. Despite the importance of RGAs, in coffee plants these genes and other molecular mechanisms of disease resistance are still unknown. This study aimed to sequence and characterize candidate genes from coffee plants with the potential for involvement in resistance to H. vastatrix . Sequencing was performed based on a library of bacterial artificial chromosomes (BAC) of the coffee clone ‘Híbrido de Timor’ (HdT) CIFC 832/2 and screened using a functional marker. Two RGAs, HdT_LRR_RLK1 and HdT_LRR_RLK2, containing the motif of leucine-rich repeat-like kinase (LRR-RLK) were identified. Based on the presence or absence of the HdT_LRR_RLK2 RGA in a number of differential coffee clones containing different combinations of the rust resistance gene, these RGAs did not correspond to any resistance gene already characterized (SH1-9). These genes were also analyzed using qPCR and demonstrated a major expression peak at 24 h after inoculation in both the compatible and incompatible interactions between coffee and H. vastatrix . These results are valuable information for breeding programs aimed at developing CLR-resistant cultivars, in addition to enabling a better understanding of the interactions between coffee and H. vastatrix .
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT: Sorghum breeding programs are based predominantly on developing homozygous lines to produce single cross hybrids, frequently with relatively narrow genetic bases. The adoption of complementary strategies, such as genetic diversity study, enables a broader vision of the genetic structure of the breeding germplasm. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the genetic diversity of sorghum breeding lines using structure analysis, principal components (PC) and clustering analyses. A total of 160 sorghum lines were genotyped with 29,649 SNP markers generated by genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS). The PC and clustering analyses consistently divided the R (restorer) and B (maintainer) lines based on their pedigree, generating four groups. Thirty-two B and 21 R lines were used to generate 121 single-cross hybrids, whose performances were compared based on the diversity clustering of each parental line. The genetic divergence of B and R lines indicated a potential for increasing heterotic response in the development of hybrids. The genetic distance was correlated to heterosis, allowing for the use of markers to create heterotic groups in sorghum.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT: Land use and tillage practices may change soil structure and undermine sustainable agriculture; however, such changes are hardly identified in the short term. In this sense, agroforestry systems have been used to reduce soil degradation and promote sustainable production in coffee plantations. These areas are expected to have well-structured soils and hence improved root distribution. This study aimed to evaluate soil quality by the morphostructural and root distribution analyses comparing open-grown coffee and coffee in agroforestry systems with rubber trees for 19 years, in an Oxisol in northern Paraná State (Brazil). Treatments consisted of open-grown coffee (OG), coffee partially shaded by rubber trees (PSH), and coffee fully shaded by rubber trees (FSH). The mapping of morphostructural features and soil resistance to penetration in “cultural profile” walls identified changes in soil structure resulting from different tillage systems. Root distribution was better in coffee plants grown in PSH and FSH systems. At greater depths, cultural profiles of FSH and PSH showed a larger numbers of roots compared to OG. Among the three systems, PSH provided a better environment for root growth and distribution. This result could be attributed to the high biological activity and interaction between roots and aggregates in that profile. The FSH agroforestry system provided less compact morphological structures and more roots throughout the soil profile. The agroforestry systems presented fewer soil structural changes by tillage operations and lower values of soil penetration resistance. Coffee root distribution was an effective indicator of soil quality and consistent with the morphostructural characterization of cultural profile.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT: A set of attributes endows the soils with distinctive characteristics and astute understanding is required in order to formulate suitable strategies for soil management. The aim of this study was to physically, chemically and mineralogically characterize samples of the main soil classes in Minas Gerais, Brazil, determine the point of zero salt effect (PZSE) and the point of zero charge (PZC), and ascertain the correlation between these factors and soil attributes. The soils evaluated presented different textural classes ranging from loamy sand (Entisol) to very clayey (some Oxisols and Ultisols). The soils differed substantially in terms of fertility, presenting a range from dystrophic (low fertility, base saturation < 50 %) to eutrophic character (fertility, base saturation ≥ 50 %), even within the same soil class, such as the Oxisols, which suggests the concurrence of the parent material. Highly weathered soils are predominant in Minas Gerais and these soils are composed predominantly of kaolinite, gibbsite, goethite and hematite. Traces of hydroxy-Al interlayered vermiculite and illite were also found in the Oxisols, Ultisols and Inceptisols. A correlation between the PZSE and the PZC in the A horizon was observed. A high degree of correlation was observed between the PZC and the exchangeable aluminum and the ratio of iron obtained by ammonium oxalate and dithionite-citrate (Feo/Fed) in both the A and B horizons of soil classes. The results obtained reinforce the importance of knowledge of soil attributes to the adoption of practices such as the management of phosphate fertilization in clayey soils and liming in soils rich in aluminum.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT: Calcium (Ca) is often supplied to crop species to prevent the occurrence of Ca–related disorders. Mechanisms of Ca absorption and transport are not fully understood and the effectiveness of root and/or foliar Ca fertilization may be variable. To characterize the rate of Ca absorption and transport, trials were developed with chili pepper and sweet cherry plants, using 45CaCl2 as a tracer. The Ca treatments supplied were: (1) No 45Ca (control); (2) 45Ca soil application; (3) 45Ca supply to basal leaves, and (4) 45Ca application to apical leaves. After two months, plants were harvested for biomass and Ca content determination. The recovery of 45Ca in different plant parts was measured with a liquid scintillation counter and leaf traits were observed by scanning electronic microscopy. In general, the highest 45Ca concentrations were recovered in treated organs, while root applications led to highest 45Ca translocation rates, which varied between chili pepper and cherry plants. For chili pepper, 45Ca applied to the soil was detected mainly in roots (44 %) followed by leaves (36.6 %) stems (17.4 %) and fruits (2 %). In sweet cherry trees, soil–applied 45Ca was principally recovered in roots (45.3 %), shoots (28.5 %), leaves (14.3 %) and trunks (11.9 %). The results provide evidence of increased absorption of root–applied Ca, as well as different degrees of Ca mobility between species. Foliar application led to major Ca increases in treated leaves, with Ca transported to other plant organs after apical leaf Ca supply chiefly in cherry trees.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT: Knowledge of the distribution of total phosphorus (P) content in native soils provides information on the management of ecosystem, land capability for agriculture, environmental quality, and biodiversity conservation. We mapped the spatial distribution of total P concentrations in topsoils (0-30 cm) of uncultivated (native) areas in Brazil. We obtained data on native total P of the southern, south-eastern, and north-eastern regions from reports of exploratory projects developed between 1960s and 1970s by EMBRAPA and by the RADAM Brazil Project. We estimated data from the central-western and northern regions from the relationship between total P and soil properties (Fe, Al, C and clay content), based on the RADAM Brazil Project. Soil total P varied widely (< 25 to > 500 mg kg–1) in all regions in Brazil. Higher concentrations (> 500 mg kg–1) were observed in southern region compared to most of the rest of the country (< 200 mg kg–1), while the Cerrado (Central), Amazon (North) and Caatinga (Northeast) biomes are very poor in total P. This first national native soil total P map provides a valuable baseline for understanding the historical patterns of agriculture expansion in Brazil. It allows quantifying the effect of agriculture expansion and future cropping systems on soil available P content and legacy P, targeting regional soil-crop specific strategies for optimization of ecosystem services, and mitigating potential environmental risk due to P transference to water bodies.