Scientia Agricola, Volume: 79, Número: 5, Publicado: 2022
  • Mechanical properties of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) for horticultural machinery design Agricultural Engineering

    Xavier, Reuel Scherrer; Galvão, Cezário Benedito; Rodrigues, Ruan Lessa; Garcia, Angel Pontin; Albiero, Daniel

    Resumo em Inglês:

    ABSTRACT: Currently, there is a growing need to develop machines that replace human work efficiently and effectively in horticulture with the same sensibility of the human hand, since horticultural foods are notably very fragile to handle and process, especially considering machinery and systems. This work aimed to determine the mechanical properties of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) variety Crispa. For that, two methodologies were used in the field of material engineering: one specific for polymers and composites – the standard ASTM D3039 – Standard test method for tensile properties of polymer matrix composite materials (ASTM, 2002a) and the other specific for plastic films – the ASTM 882 – Standard test method for tensile properties of thin plastic sheeting (ASTM, 2002b). The tests were adapted for lettuce samples. The mechanical properties for the leaf and stem of head lettuce (var. Crispa) were obtained with appropriate statistical rigor, which can be considered valid initial estimates for dimensioning mechanisms and systems of machines for horticultural works specialized in lettuce. These properties provide fundamental engineering parameters to design machine elements that interact with biological materials, allowing to develop devices that generate minor damage to biological structures in lettuce.
  • Citrus orchards under formation evaluated by UAV-Based RGB Imagery Agricultural Engineering

    Oliveira, Willer Fagundes de; Santos, Silvânio Rodrigues dos; Struiving, Tiago Barbosa; Silva, Lucas Alves da

    Resumo em Inglês:

    ABSTRACT: Few studies have investigated the biometric attributes of citrus orchards under formation that use RGB sensors on board unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) and the challenges are great. This study aimed to develop and validate a method of using aerial UAV images by automated routines to evaluate the biometric attributes of a crop of ‘Tahiti’ acid lime under formation. We used a multirotor UAV, programmed to capture images at three different map scales, with a frontal and side overlap of 80 %. Geoprocessing was carried out both with and without ground control points on each scale. An automated routine was developed in an open-source environment, consisting of three processing phases: i) Estimation of the plant biometric attributes, ii) Statistical analysis, and iii) Statistical Report Map (SRM). The use of the developed routine allowed to delimit and estimate the crown projection area with an accuracy of more than 95 % as well as identify and quantify the plants with an accuracy of over 97 %. The use of ground control points during the processing stage does not increase accuracy in estimating the biometric attributes under evaluation. On the other hand, map scale is strongly correlated with the quality of the estimates, especially plant height. The results allowed to define a method for the acquisition and analysis of aerophotogrammetric data using a UAV, which can be used to measure the plant biometric attributes under analysis and the method can be easily adapted to perennial crops.
  • Method for the physical characterization of substrates using centrifugation Agricultural Engineering

    Avrella, Eduarda Demari; Paim, Luciana Pinto; Emer, Aquélis Armiliato; Vence, Lilia Beatriz; Fior, Claudimar Sidnei

    Resumo em Inglês:

    ABSTRACT: The characterization of substrate properties supports the correct choice of components and directs management decisions in container cultivation. There are several systems of analysis, however, the routine procedures to determine the water retention curve (WRC) are time consuming and inaccurate. This study proposed a reproducible, less time-consuming, and easy to perform method for physical characterization of substrates. We used Sphagnum peat, coconut powder, carbonized rice husk, expanded vermiculite, and expanded clay in isolation. The WRC was obtained at tensions 0, 10, 50, and 100 hPa using the method of Büchner funnel, the European standard (CEN-EN13041), and by the centrifugation method of samples. In centrifugation, tensions were simulated by combining the angular velocity, sample height, and radius measured from the sample outermost point to the central point of the centrifuge. Three rotations were applied (230; 520 and 730 rpm), testing the centrifugation time for each tension and then the volumetric water content was compared between the methods. The results showed a positive correlation (p < 0.001) between the centrifugation and standard methods, considering that the centrifugation time required for moisture stabilization varied according to the material analyzed and the tension applied. However, the time required to obtain a report was reduced by half. Sample centrifugation is a promising method, ensuring that the tensile force actually acts on the entire sample to determine the water retention curve of the substrate also reducing the duration of the analyses.
  • Vegetative and productive responses of tabasco pepper to fertigation and plastic mulching Agricultural Engineering

    Chaves, Sérgio Weine Paulino; Coelho, Rubens Duarte; Costa, Jéfferson de Oliveira; Tapparo, Sergio André

    Resumo em Inglês:

    ABSTRACT: The use of plastic mulching and high frequency hydroponic drip irrigation (intensive production methods) watering cycle may increase tabasco pepper crop production per unit area. To test this hypothesis, two randomized block experiments were conducted in a greenhouse, using a 2 × 4 factorial scheme with two contrasting soil types (sandy loam and loamy soil), two mulching conditions of soil cover (SC), and no soil cover (NC) at four frequencies: 1, 3, 12, and 24 irrigations every three days. The growth and yield pepper components were evaluated and the water use efficiency (WUE) was calculated. Mulching did increase fruit dry mass percentage (FDMP), WUE, and potassium use efficiency (KUE) in sandy loam soil. The greater frequency fertigation did not increase fruit fresh mass (FFM), number of fruits (NF), fruit average mass (FAM), fruit dry mass (FDM), FDMP, or WUE in sandy loam and loamy soils. Tabasco pepper has a permanent shrub growth habit that is somewhat different from horticultural crops, besides it is usually responsive to high frequency irrigation under vegetative intensive growth.
  • Phosphate–solubilizing fungi co–inoculated with Bradyrhizobium promote cowpea growth under varying N and P fertilization conditions Agricultural Microbiology

    Gudiño–Gomezjurado, Marco Esteban; Leite, Rafael de Almeida; Carvalho, Teotonio Soares de; Pfenning, Ludwig Heinrich; Moreira, Fatima Maria de Souza

    Resumo em Inglês:

    ABSTRACT: We evaluated the compatibility between two nitrogen–fixing Bradyrhizobium inoculant strains and phosphate–solubilizing fungal strains and the effect of co–inoculation of these bacterial and fungal strains on cowpea growth under different N and P conditions. First, the compatibility between Bradyrhizobium strains UFLA03–84 and INPA03–11B and fungi Haematonectria ipomoeae FSA381, Eleutherascus lectardii FSA257a, Pochonia chlamydosporia var. catenulata FSA109, and Acremonium polychromum FSA115 was tested in both solid and liquid media. Cowpea growth and nodulation promotion under two mineral N doses and two P conditions (a low dose of soluble P plus a high dose of Ca3(PO4)2 and another condition with a high dose of soluble P) were tested with two N2 fixing Bradyrhizobium strains co–inoculated with each of the P–solubilizing fungal strains FSA109, FSA115, and FSA381. There was compatibility between each fungal strain and the two Bradyrhizobium strains, except for FSA257a with either of the bacterial strains in liquid medium. When both mineral N and P were limiting, plants were able to grow and accumulate N and P based on biological N2 fixation and solubilization of calcium phosphate in the same amount as the mineral N and soluble phosphate. Even when both nutrients were fully available, the type of co–inoculation promoted plant growth and nutrient accumulation. The responses varied in accordance with the co–inoculated strains, the N source, and the P source, reflecting the enormous complexity of the biological interactions between plants and microorganisms, and the nutrient conditions provided by the environment.
  • Grape pomace silage on growth performance, carcass, and meat quality attributes of lambs Animal Science And Pastures

    Massaro Junior, Fernando Luiz; Bumbieris Junior, Valter Harry; Pereira, Elzânia Sales; Zanin, Ediane; Horst, Egon Henrique; Calixto, Odimari Pricila Prado; Peixoto, Eduardo Lucas Terra; Galbeiro, Sandra; Mizubuti, Ivone Yurika

    Resumo em Inglês:

    ABSTRACT: Grape pomace is a by-product that can be ensiled and added to animal feed for a sustainable animal production. This study evaluated the effects of grape pomace silage (GPS) on the intake, performance, and carcass and meat quality of feedlot lambs. Twenty-four male lambs (21.5 ± 3.0 kg initial body weight) were distributed into pairs to four diets levels 0, 10, 20, and 30 % of GPS. The addition of grape pomace silage influenced only ether extract (EE) intake linearly without hindering consumption. The diet did not affect performance and meat quality attributes and carcass parameters, with average daily gain (ADG) of 0.235 kg d−1, feed conversion 4.299, carcass conformation 2.7, compactness index 0.25 kg cm−1, fat thickness 1.51 mm, loin eye area 13.9 cm2, pH 5.79, natural matter moisture 74.05 g 100 g−1, and crude protein (CP) 19.94 g per 100 g−1 of dry matter (DM). Grape pomace as could be used as silage in lamb diets with up to 30 % GPS, as the chemical composition of this by-product and the results indicate that GPS did not compromise performance, carcass traits, and meat quality.
  • Morphometric measurements of calves of beef cattle from different genetic groups up to one year of age Animal Science And Pastures

    Fernandes, Tiago Albandes; Vaz, Ricardo Zambarda; Restle, João; Cerdótes, Liliane; Nuñez, Amoracyr José Costa; Costa, Pablo Tavares; Ferreira, Otoniel Geter Lauz

    Resumo em Inglês:

    ABSTRACT: Heterosis plays an important role on yield and profitability of beef production systems. This study evaluates the morphometrics of purebred Nellore (N) and Charolais (C) animals and of the second (G2) and third (G3) generations of their alternating crosses, regarding the effects of genetic group and heterosis from birth to 365 days of age. The experiment comprised 159 calves (C = 29, N = 22, G2 - 3/4C 1/4N = 21, 3/4N 1/4C = 9, G3-5/8C 3/8N = 44 and 5/8N 3/8C = 34). The foreshank girth (FG), thoracic girth (TG), body length (BL), and hip height (HH) were measured after birth, and at 63, 210, and 365 days of age, and the total increases were calculated. The Charolais animals had greater FG, TG, and BL values than Nellore, while the latter had greater HH. For the offspring generations, the predominance of Charolais genes in the genotypes resulted in greater measurements for FG and TG in G2, whereas the predominance of Nellore genes resulted in higher HH values in both generations. The crossbred animals had greater values for all measurements than the purebreds, with more significant differences in FG, TG, and BL compared to Nellore purebreds and in HH compared to Charolais. Charolais animals show higher values for muscularity; while, Nellore animals are taller. Crossbred animals show greater development compared to purebreds, indicating a significant effect of heterosis.
  • Intercropping sorghum and grasses during off-season in Brazilian Cerrado Crop Science

    Sodré Filho, Joilson; Marchão, Robélio Leandro; Carmona, Ricardo; Carvalho, Arminda Moreira de

    Resumo em Inglês:

    ABSTRACT: Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) may be harmlessly intercropped with Urochloa species during the off-season in the Brazilian Cerrado. At the end of the sorghum cycle, forages can be used for straw production for soybean (Glycine max L.) as the summer crop. This study aimed to evaluate sorghum cultivated during the off-season, intercropped with palisade grass (Urochloa brizantha cv. ‘Marandu’ (Hochst. ex A. Rich). R. D. Webster) and Congo grass (Urochloa ruziziensis (R. Germ. and Evrard) Crins) in two row spacings (0.5 and 0.7 m) for their effect on plant growth, dry mass production, sorghum yield and soybean grain yield. The experiment was a randomized block design: a 3 × 2 factorial scheme, with three levels of intercropping (palisade grass, Congo grass or sole cropping) and two levels of row spacing (0.5 or 0.7 m) with four replicates. Several physiological growth indexes were estimated from 10 to 60 days after emergence (DAE), including dry matter production and sorghum agronomic performance. Sorghum accumulated 0.22 g of dry matter d−1 at 10 to 60 DAE, and was not affected by intercropping. The dry mass gain of forages (0.04 g d−1 on average) was not affected by sorghum either. Higher sorghum grain yield (2,922 kg ha−1) was observed under the 0.5-m row spacing when compared to the 0.7-m spacing. The results indicate that palisade or Congo grass may be used as companion crops for sorghum with no grain yield loss, be it to improve soybean grain yield, soil cover or integrated crop systems, aiming at sustainable intensification.
  • Soybean genotypes selection with resistance to White Mold and agronomic performance from moderately resistant parents Genetics And Plant Breeding

    Polloni-Barros, Lorraine Cristina; Hamawaki, Osvaldo Toshiyuki; Polloni, Lorena; Barros, Heber Leão Silva; Morais, Tâmara Prado de; Hamawaki, Raphael Lemes; Hamawaki, Cristiane Divina Lemes; Juliatti, Fernando Cezar; Nogueira, Ana Paula Oliveira

    Resumo em Inglês:

    ABSTRACT: White Mold (WM) is a yield–limiting disease found in soybean. However, up to now no cultivars have been genetically resistant to this disease. Given this context, the present study aimed to develop superior soybean lines with resistance to WM, while maintaining other desirable agronomic traits. Two early maturing soybean cultivars (i.e., EMGOPA 316 and MG/BR 46–Conquista), moderately resistant to WM were used for biparental crosses from which the analyzed population was derived. Therefore, we assessed the resistance to WM in early generation testing of this population. Additionally, we determined the agronomic traits, genetic parameters and selection gains. From 348 F2 genotypes, 35 transgressive genotypes moderately resistant to WM were identified, amongst which 22 genotypes showed desirable agronomic traits for early cycle and grain yield. Moreover, 69 lines were selected as the most promising genotypes for each agronomic trait (i.e. based on the number of days to flowering and maturity, plant height at flowering and maturity, number of nodes on main stem at flowering and maturity, number of pods, grain yield, etc.). Among these selected lines, ten progenies emerged as the superior genotypes for grain yield and early cycle. All together, these results demonstrated that the cross between EMGOPA 316 × MG/BR 46 (Conquista) revealed promising progenies with moderate resistance to WM and/or desirable agronomic traits. Thus, these lines could be used as future resources for breeding efforts aimed at improving resistance to WM.
  • Phytoplasma of 16SrVII-B subgroup associated to shoot proliferation in Physalis peruviana plants Plant Pathology

    Ferreira, Jacson; Almeida, Cláudia Alves de; Oliveira, Felipe Franco de; Fariña, Arnaldo; Kitajima, Elliot Watanabe; Bedendo, Ivan Paulo

    Resumo em Inglês:

    ABSTRACT: Physalis is an herbaceous species native to the Andes region. Currently, it is cultivated in various Brazilian states due to the economic interest of growers for this new fruit. Physalis plants grown in the field showed symptoms of shoot proliferation, leaf malformation, and chlorosis. Since these symptoms are commonly induced by phytoplasmas, this study investigated to confirm the presence of these prokaryotes in symptomatic plants. After DNA extraction from symptomatic and asymptomatic plants, phytoplasmas were found in all affected plants through the nested PCR. Examination by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) using appropriately prepared segments of leaf veins allowed the visualization of typical pleomorphic cells of phytoplasmas in the phloem of symptomatic plants. The computer-simulated RFLP patterns and the phylogenetic analysis allowed identifying the detected phytoplasmas as a ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma fraxini’-related strain belonging to the 16SrVII-B subgroup. Moreover, physalis was identified as an additional host species for phytoplasmas in the 16SrVII group, expanding the current knowledge on the host range of phytoplasmas in this group.
  • Hairy vetch role to mitigate crop yield gap in different yield environments at field level Soils And Plant Nutrition

    Pes, Luciano Zucuni; Amado, Telmo Jorge Carneiro; Gebert, Fábio Henrique; Schwalbert, Raí Augusto; Pott, Luan Pierre

    Resumo em Inglês:

    ABSTRACT: The spatial variability of soil organic matter, plant water availability, and soil nitrogen (N) availability are drivers of crop response to mineral N fertilizer. The complex interaction of these factors is responsible for within-field corn and wheat yield variability. The hairy vetch (HV) cover crop is an economic, environmentally friendly, and efficient N source capable of conciliating crop yield and soil health. Nevertheless, the HV effects to mitigate yield gap of management zone (MZ) have not yet been documented. This study evaluated the effects of HV and mineral N fertilization, in single or combined input, on alleviating crop yield gap. The study was carried out in two croplands southern Brazil. The experimental design was a complete randomized block in a split plot having MZ (high, medium, and low yield) and N fertilizer rates. Wheat and corn N uptake and grain yield had a quadratic adjustment with N fertilizer input, but there was a significant MZ effect, where low yield zone (LYZ) was less responsive. Consequently, mineral N fertilization as a single input to mitigate the yield gap in this MZ was not efficient. On the other hand, HV increased corn N uptake and grain yield mainly in LYZ compared to MYZ and HYZ. HV fully mitigated the yield gap between MYZ and HYZ. The combined use of HV and mineral N fertilization rate adjusted according to N legume credit and MZ was an efficient strategy to boost yield, favoring soil health and environmental protection.
  • Liming and Phosphating on growth, nutritional status and mycorrhizal colonization of yellow strawberry guava Soils And Plant Nutrition

    Benati, Jorge Atílio; Navroski, Renan; Barreto, Caroline Farias; Fischer, Lucas de Oliveira; Nava, Gilberto; Franzon, Rodrigo Cezar; Herter, Flavio Gilberto; Costa, Murilo Dalla

    Resumo em Inglês:

    ABSTRACT: Strawberry guava (Psidium cattleyanumm Sabine) is a species native to southern Brazil which exhibits significant potential for economic exploitation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the growth response of strawberry guava subjected to liming and phosphate fertilizer in pre-planting. The treatments consisted of four lime levels: 0; 33.3; 66.6 and 100 % of the dose needed to increase the pH in water to 6.0, and four phosphorus (P) doses: 0; 83.3; 166.6 and 250 kg ha–1 of P2O5. Plant growth parameters were evaluated for three years. In the years 2018 and 2019, the mineral composition of leaves, photosynthethic pigment indices and mycorrhizal colonization on strawberry guava roots were measured. Liming and phosphate fertilizer altered neither plant growth nor the photosynthetic pigment indices and there was no interaction between the factors studied and the remaining variables evaluated. However, liming promoted increases in the Ca and Mg shoot content, and the phosphate fertilizer increased the levels of shoot P in the third year of growth. Mycorrhizal colonization was stronger when the P soil levels were low, which could explain the absence of response to phosphate fertilization on plant growth for the first three years after planting.
  • Beneficial services of Glomalin and Arbuscular Mycorrhizal fungi in degraded soils in Brazil Review

    Matos, Priscila Silva; Silva, Cristiane Figueira da; Damian, Júnior Melo; Cerri, Carlos Eduardo Pellegrino; Pereira, Marcos Gervasio; Zonta, Everaldo

    Resumo em Inglês:

    ABSTRACT: Reducing soil degradation and its impacts on the environment have been one of the main challenges of the 21st century, exacerbated by a direct link between increases in the human population and soil degradation that raises current and future food security concerns. Despite this, experiences worldwide reveal that degraded land restoration projects have either achieved little success or failed. Thus, understanding the underlying causes and devising appropriate restoration mechanisms is crucial. Soil amelioration using beneficial microorganisms, particularly arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), is essential and pragmatic. Glomalin, a type of glycoprotein produced by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in the phylum Glomeromycota, contributes to the mitigation of soil degradation. Moreover, AMF and glomalin are highly correlated with other soil physico-chemical parameters and are sensitive to changes in the environment. As a result of this, they have been recommended for monitoring the recovery of degraded soil or stages of soil degradation. In this review, we discuss the role of AMF and glomalin in the restoration of degraded soils, including improvements to the soil structure and soil organic matter (SOM), microbial activity, reduction of fertility loss, bioremediation, and mitigation of the effects of drought and saline stress. We highlight the research gaps and discuss the prospects. This knowledge will improve our understanding of the ecological conduct of glomalin and AMF, stimulate future research, and be useful to sustainable restoration of degraded lands. Furthermore, we discussed the challenges and obstacles in the legislation and future perspectives on the production of inoculants based on AMF in Brazil.
São Paulo - Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz" USP/ESALQ - Scientia Agricola, Av. Pádua Dias, 11, 13418-900 Piracicaba SP Brazil, Tel.: +55 19 3429-4401 / 3429-4486, Fax: +55 19 3429-4401 - Piracicaba - SP - Brazil
E-mail: scientia@usp.br