Abstract in English:ABSTRACT: Several non-destructive testing techniques have been improved and tested in recent years. The non-destructive testing techniques using particle image velocimetry (PIV) and digital image correlation (DIC) differ from conventional testing techniques, as they allow making measurements indirectly. In this study, the elastic modulus in wood beams of Eucalyptus grandis and Pinus oocarpa were determined using PIV and DIC. The application of PIV and DIC techniques occurred during the static bending tests, when the displacements were also measured by the conventional method. The applied load values allowed calculating the elasticity modulus. In all regions of analysis, the mean values of the elasticity modulus found by the DIC, PIV and conventional method are statistically equivalent. It is concluded that the PIV and DIC testing techniques can be used to determine mechanical properties of wood.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT: Due to their remarkable characteristics, cellulose nanocrystals are strategic materials that has various industrial applications, and are capable of being produced from vegetable fibers derived from the discards of agricultural practices. Peanut(Arachis hypogaea L.) peel is a residue considered of low commercial value and high polluting potential that needs new applications in order to mitigate these problems. Thus, in this study the feasibility of extracting cellulose nanocrystals was investigated. Two chemical routes were followed for this extraction. In the first, the fibers were bleached before acid hydrolysis whereas mercerization was used in the second. The second route was more efficient, as it enabled the elimination of proteins and phenolic compounds, which could be confirmed through solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) that revealed no signs of lignin residues. The cellulose nanocrystals composed of mainly type I cellulose presented a high degree of crystallinity index, 75 %, a thermal stability up to 200 °C, considerable stability in suspension (zeta potential of –48.1 ± 2.1 mV), and an aspect ratio of 125. They represent options that could add value to this residue, which would ease environmental problems.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT: Lowlands have been cultivated with irrigated rice (Oryza sativa) in a monoculture cropping system for more than a century in southern Brazil. Shallow topsoil with high bulk density and deficient water infiltration favors the of production paddy rice; however, this condition does not favor species non-tolerant to flooding or oxygen restriction. Thus, soil and irrigation management may be necessary to raise the rice-soybean (Glycine max) rotation systems to sustainable levels. We carried out a two-year field experiment to assess the effects of irrigation treatments and soil management on soil physical properties, soybean growth, and grain yield in lowland systems. The experiment comprised a randomized block design with two factors and three replications. The main factor comprised the following irrigation treatments: sprinkler; surface, and rainfed. Four soil managements composed the second factor: conventional tillage (CT), no-tillage (NT), conventional tillage with raised-seedbed, and no-tillage with raised-seedbed. Soil physical properties, soil penetration resistance, crop parameters, grain yield and water productivity were evaluated. CT increased the soil penetration resistance near the soil surface layer. The highest soil bulk density at the 0.05-0.10 m layer in the CT reduces grain yield in rainfed soybean compared to NT. Supplementary irrigation increased soybean yield of about 36 % in years of uneven rainfall distribution. Sprinkler irrigation resulted in higher irrigated water productivity (90 %) compared to surface irrigation, contributing to a more sustainable increase in grain yield. Crop rotation in a no-tillage cropping scheme could improve the sustainability of diversified agriculture in lowlands.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT: The interaction between leguminous plants and rhizosphere microorganisms is essential because it can either enhance or inhibit the beneficial effects of individual species. Phages are one of the biotic factors with a negative impact on the beneficial bacteria in soil rhizosphere. In the current study, phage showed lytic activity against Bradyrhizobium sp. Vigna (tal16) with an icosahedral head at a 43.44 nm diameter and a long non–contractile tail, measuring 99.85 nm. This phage belongs to the Siphoviridae family, found in the Met El–Ez area of Dakalia Governorate in Egypt. The results revealed that the presence of phage in soil affected nodulation and growth parameters. Mycorrhizal inoculation aggravated the negative effects of this phage. Cowpea grown in soil containing phage VB_BrV_SD4 showed a reduction in the nodule number, nitrogenase activity, and total N of 40–50 %; however, mycorrhizal inoculation augmented this negative effect with a reduction percentage to 20–28 %. Mycorrhizal inoculation also improved total chlorophyll, carotenoids, legume amount, and the seed protein content.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT: The principal component regression (PCR) and the independent component regression (ICR) are dimensionality reduction methods and extremely important in genomic prediction. These methods require the choice of the number of components to be inserted into the model. For PCR, there are formal criteria; however, for ICR, the adopted criterion chooses the number of independent components (ICs) associated to greater accuracy and requires high computational time. In this study, seven criteria based on the number of principal components (PCs) and methods of variable selection to guide this choice in ICR are proposed and evaluated in simulated and real data. For both datasets, the most efficient criterion and that drastically reduced computational time determined that the number of ICs should be equal to the number of PCs to reach a higher accuracy value. In addition, the criteria did not recover the simulated heritability and generated biased genomic values.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT: The average yield of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) in Brazil is below the crop potential, and appropriate cultural practices and more productive cultivars are needed to improve crop yield. The Beauregard sweet potato cultivar, originally from the United States, has shown high productive potential. This study evaluated the performance of features of agronomic importance of the Beauregard cultivar in comparison to local cultivars and eight sweet-potato clones in Brazilian regions. For that purpose, two sets of experiments were carried out. The first set evaluated eight sweet potato clones and cultivars Beauregard, Olho Roxo and Ourinhos in Brasília–DF and Itabaiana–SE using as criteria two foliage and six root traits. In the second set, two sweet potato clones (9 and 75), and Beauregard, Brazlândia Branca and Canadense cultivars were evaluated in Piacatú–SP, Brasília–DF, PAD–DF, Canoinhas–SC and Altamira–PA, for the traits: commercial, non-commercial, and total yield. Beauregard presented little foliage production but great root yield across the different environments. Since it has low dry matter content, acceptance of this cultivar may be limited in some regions. None of the sweet potato clones showed stable yield to justify a commercial launch.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT: A generalized concept in the Citrus genus is that highly polyembryonic varieties produce only a small number of hybrids. Small zygotic embryos congregate primarily near the micropyle, while nucellar embryos organize near or away from the micropyle. In the present study, the authors determined the number of polyembryonic seeds, embryos per seed, and the largest embryo (LE) position in five citrus cultivars: C35 citrange, Volkamer lemon, Amblycarpa mandarin, Minneola tangelo, and Valencia orange. The percentage of nucellar seedlings obtained exclusively from the LE per seed was then calculated. The polyembryony percentage varied largely between genotypes, from 65 to 98 %, and the mean number of embryos ranged from 2.9 to 4.6. The chalaza contained up to 87 % of the LE. Out of 30 primers, 17 Simple sequence repeats [SSRs] (AG14, ATC09, CAT01, CCSM147, CCSM18, CCSM13, CCSM4, F2, F4, F6, GT03, TAA41, TAA45, TAA1, F7, F11 and TAA52) identified nucellar plants identical to the female parent (genetic similarity index [GSI] value ≥ 0.95). This study establishes for the first time the relationship between the sexual or asexual origin of seedlings derived from LE embryos isolated from seeds and the SSR primers described above. While the five citrus cultivars had high polyembryony levels, 30 % of the resulting plants differed from the female parent in C35 Citrange, 45 % in Volkamer lemon, 15 % in Amblycarpa mandarin, 15 % in Valencia orange, and 45 % in Minneola tangelo. The largest seedling is not always nucellar: in the five citrus species studied, the LE produces 55 to 85 % of the nucellar embryos.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT: The Fisher’s infinitesimal model is traditionally used in quantitative genetics and genomic selection, and it attributes most genetic variance to additive variance. Recently, the dominance maximization model was proposed and it prioritizes the dominance variance based on alternative parameterizations. In this model, the additive effects at the locus level are introduced into the model after the dominance variance is maximized. In this study, the new parameterizations of additive and dominance effects on quantitative genetics and genomic selection were evaluated and compared with the parameterizations traditionally applied using the genomic best linear unbiased prediction method. As the parametric relative magnitude of the additive and dominance effects vary with allelic frequencies of populations, we considered different minor allele frequencies to compare the relative magnitudes. We also proposed and evaluated two indices that combine the additive and dominance variances estimated by both models. The dominance maximization model, along with the two indices, offers alternatives to improve the estimates of additive and dominance variances and their respective proportions and can be successfully used in genetic evaluation.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT: Simultaneous selection for various agronomic traits, cooking time and mineral concentration are major challenges for common-bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) breeding programs. The authors of this study proposed to analyze genetic gain estimates obtained by direct and indirect selection using selection indices and economic weights for 13 traits, and to determine the most efficient selection strategy for the simultaneous selection of fast cooking, mineral-biofortified common bean cultivars with high agronomic performance. For this purpose, three experiments were carried out in different growing seasons to evaluate 49 common bean cultivars of different grain types. Agronomic performance was evaluated based on six traits; cooking time was determined using a Mattson cooker; and the concentration of six minerals was analyzed in samples of raw grains. Significant genotype × environment interaction or genotype effects were observed for all traits, indicating the existence of genetic variability. Direct selection resulted in high genetic gain estimates for individual traits, but caused undesirable changes in one or more of the traits under selection. The classic, base, desired-gains and rank-sum selection indices tested with six economic weights do not provide genetic gain estimates favorable to the selection of all traits. The multiplicative index is the best selection strategy for use in the breeding program when aiming at the simultaneous selection of fast cooking, mineral-biofortified common bean cultivars with high agronomic performance.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT: Even though oats (Avena spp.) have the capacity to produce numerous compounds with the potential to act antagonistically against plant pathogens, studies on the genotypic effect of this crop focusing on their nematicidal activity are limited. The objective of this study was to verify the effect of the aqueous extracts prepared with the biomass of oat genotypes, on the hatching of second-stage juveniles of root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne javanica and Meloidogyne incognita). The bioassays were carried out in a completely randomized design with four replications. Eighteen extracts were evaluated, consisting of a combination of six oat genotypes Agro Quaraí, Agro Esteio, Embrapa 139, AF 12202, UPFPS Farroupilha, and AF 1345 Ucraniana, and three extract concentrations (5 %, 10 %, and 20 % w/v). Three additional treatments were added to the study (distilled water, chemical nematicides abamectin, and imidacloprid + thiodicarb). The treatments and the suspension containing nematode eggs were placed in Petri dishes and incubated in a growth chamber for ten days. At the 5 % and 10 % w/v concentration levels, a genotype effect was observed in the hatching of juveniles for both nematode species. For the control of M. javanica the extracts of Embrapa 139 had a better performance, while the extracts of Agro Quaraí and AF1345 Ucraniana performed better when under the control of M. incognita. Thus, oat biomass formation might have the ability to suppress the nematode population in the soil, and could therefore, be used for the management of root-knot nematodes.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT: Crop residues left in the field cover and protect the soil surface, and regulate key processes and functions, such as gas and water exchanges. However, the Brazilian sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) sector has begun to use straw as feedstock to produce bioenergy. We conducted a field study to evaluate the effects of sugarcane straw removal in soil temperature and moisture changes at three sites (with different soil textures: Site 1 - clayey Oxisol, Site 2 - medium texture Oxisol, and Site 3 - sandy Ultisol) in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The experimental design was randomized blocks with four rates of straw removal: i) no removal (NR); ii) moderate removal (MR); iii) substantial removal (SR), and iv) total removal (TR). Soil temperature was measured by sensors in the 0- to 5- and 5- to 10-cm soil layers. Undisturbed soil samples were collected from the 0- to 20- and 20- to 40-cm layers to determine soil moisture. Intensive straw removal (HR and TR) increased the soil temperature between 2 and 3 °C and the thermal amplitude between 5 and 9 °C in the 0- to 5-cm layer, compared to MR and NR. Soil moisture decreased between 0.03 and 0.07 g g–1 in the 0- to 20-cm layer with intensive straw removal. The sandy soil was more susceptible to straw removal. Therefore, straw maintenance on the soil surface plays an essential role in temperature regulation and preservation of higher soil moisture, especially in regions with severe water deficits and long periods of water stress.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT: The species Pinus taeda is largely used in intensive silviculture worldwide. This species has propagation through seeds, which requires determining seeds viability for their commercialization. The germination test recommended for this species usually requires up to 63 days to provide results on the quality of freshly harvested seeds, delaying commercialization and favoring contamination during the conduction of the test. The authors of this study aimed to establish the developmental stages of P. taeda seedlings to determine a criterion for interpreting the germination test with greater speed and efficiency to obtain results. The seeds were sown in transparent plastic boxes on two sheets of blotting paper and placed in a germinator at 22 °C with constant lighting. Five morphological stages of seedling development were defined with daily counts of the number of normal seedlings for each criterion, distribution in time, and the accumulated percentage of normal seedlings adjusted to time-to-event nonlinear regression. The new interpretation criterion proposed in this study is efficient, and P. taeda seedlings can be considered normal when cotyledon leaves differ by approximately 3 mm between the integument and hypocotyl, reducing the time to conduct the germination test by up to ten days compared to the criterion usually used in the routine analysis of seed laboratories.