Response of cotton genotypes to the incidence of Alternaria leaf spot

Resposta de genótipos de algodoeiro à incidência de mancha de Alternaria

Edivaldo Cia Milton Geraldo Fuzatto Julio Isao Kondo Luiz Henrique Carvalho Margarida Fumiko Ito Fábio Luis Ferreira Dias Paulo Boller Gallo About the authors

ABSTRACT

In field experiments and under natural occurrence of the pathogen, 18 cotton genotypes, comprising cultivars and lineages, were evaluated for their reaction to Alternaria leaf spot caused by Alternaria macrospora Zimm. High genetic diversity of resistance to the pathogen was observed, and four groups of reaction to the disease were detected in the environment where the disease showed greater intensity. Differences in the phenotypic stability of resistance were also found, and there were stable genotypes, i.e. of expected performance, both in the resistant and in the susceptible material. It must be emphasized that the existence of unstable genotypes of inconsistent performance, according to the intensity of the disease occurrence, can lead to errors with respect to their resistance degree.

Keywords
Gossypium hirsutum; Alternaria macrospora; genetic resistance

RESUMO

Em experimentos de campo e sob ocorrência natural do patógeno, 18 genótipos de algodoeiro, compreendendo cultivares e linhagens, foram avaliados quanto à reação à incidência de mancha de alternária, causada por (Alternaria macrospora Zimm). Foi observada alta diversidade genética da resistência ao patógeno, detectando-se a formação de quatro grupos de resposta à doença, em ambiente onde esta ocorreu com maior intensidade. Diferenças quanto à estabilidade fenotípica da resistência também foram verificadas, havendo genótipos estáveis, portanto de desempenho previsível, tanto entre o material resistente quanto no suscetível. É ressaltada, especialmente, a existência de genótipos instáveis, cujo desempenho inconsistente, conforme a intensidade de ocorrência da doença, podem levar a equívocos com respeito ao seu grau de resistência.

Palavras-chave
Gossypium hirsutum; Alternaria macrospora; resistência genética

Alternaria leaf spot, known and described for more than one century (2020 Watkins, G.M. Compendium of cotton diseases. St. Paull, Minnesota. The American Phytopathology Society. Cotton Disease Council. Minnesota. 87p, 1981.), is caused by at least three pathogens: Alternaria macrospora, A. alternata and A. gossypina. The first one is most widespread in the world and has been identified in Brazil (1414 Lima, E.F.; Batista, F.A.Z.; Vieira, R.M. Principais doenças do algodoeiro e seu controle. In: Beltrão, N.E.M. (Ed.). O agronegócio do algodão no Brasil. 1ª. Ed. Brasília-DF, EMBRAPA. 1999. p.715-752.,1515 Metha, Y.R.; Cassetari Neto, D.; Cia, E.; Pizzinatto, M.A.; Teixeira, E.A.; Cunha, H.C. (2004) Variabilidade genética entre isolados de Alternaria macrospora do algodoeiro. Summa Phytopathologica, Botucatu, 30(4):480-487, 2004.,1717 Pizzinatto, M.A.; CIA, E.; Parisi, J.J.D.; Medina, P.F.; Fuzatto, M.G. Associação de Alternaria macrospora e A. alternata em sementes do algodoeiro e sua ação patogênica. Summa Phytopathologica, Botucatu, 31(4):311-318, 2005.,1919 Suassuna, N.D.; Coutinho, W.M.; Asmus, G.Ll; Inomoto, M.M.; Chitarra, L.G. Manejo de doenças do algodoeiro. In.: Beltrão, N.E.M; Azevedo, D.M.P. editores técnicos. O Agronegócio do Algodão no Brasil. 2ª. Ed. Brasília-DF. Embrapa Informação Tecnológica. 2008. p.983-1032, 2008.). Its importance for the cotton crop has been emphasized, especially due to the focus on cultivars of Gossypium barbadense L. causing yield losses of up to 20% (1111 Hillocks RJ (1992) Fungal diseases of the leaf. In: Hillocks, R.J. Cotton diseases. Ed. C.A.B. Wallingford, International p. 191-192.,1212 Laidou, R.J.; Koulakiotu, E.K.; Thanassoulopoulus, C.C. First reporter on stem canker caused by Alternaria alternate on cotton. Plant Disease, Saint Paulo, 84(1): 103, 2000.,1313 Lima, E.F.; Carvalho, J.M.F.C.; Batista, F.A.Z.; Santos, J.W. Avaliação do nível de resistência a Alternaria sp. Campina Grande, EMBRAPA/CNPA. Comunicado Técnico 40. 4p, 1995.,2020 Watkins, G.M. Compendium of cotton diseases. St. Paull, Minnesota. The American Phytopathology Society. Cotton Disease Council. Minnesota. 87p, 1981.) and due to seed transmission (22 Arias, S.M.S.; Arias, E.R.A.; Loeff, F.; Henrichsen, I.; Liell, R.M. Microflora fúngica associada à sementes de algodão oriundas da região de Chapadão do Sul, MS. Safra 1999/2000. In: Congresso Brasileiro do Algodão, 3., 2001. Campo Grande-MS. Resumos. Campina Grande-PB, EMBRAPA/CNPA. 2001. p. 574-576.). However, possible damage caused by this disease to cultivars of Gossypium hirsutum L., the dominant species in Brazilian cotton production, cannot be ruled out, especially when it affects highly susceptible cultivars. Thus, it is important to evaluate the reaction to the disease on available cultivars. In fact, studies carried out both abroad (88 Cotti, P.J. Evaluation of cotton cultivar suscetibility to Alternaria leaf spot. Plant Disease, Saint Paul, 71:1082-1084, 1987.) and in Brazil (11 Araújo, A.E.; Suassuna, N.D.; Farias, F.J.C.; Freire, E.C. Avaliação da resistência de linhagens de algodoeiro às manchas de Alternaria, Stemphylium e Ramularia. In: Congresso Brasileiro do Algodão, 4., 2003. Goiânia-GO, Anais. Campina Grande-PB, EMBRAPA/CNPA. 2003. CD ROM.,33 Chiavegato, E.J.; Gridi-Papp, I.L.; Fuzatto, M.G.; Carvalho, L.H.; Cia, E.; Kondo, J.I.; Gondim, R.M.A. Comportamento agronômico das variedades estudadas no ensaio internacional de algodoeiro herbáceo. In: Reunião Nacional do Algodão, 7. 1993 Cuiabá-MT. Resumos. Campina Grande-PB. EMBRAPA/CNPA. 1993. p. 29.,44 Cia, E.; Fuzatto, M.G.; Chiavegato, E.J.; Gridi-Papp, I.L.; Sabino, J.C. Comportamento de variedades de algodoeiro herbáceo em face a ocorrência da mancha de Alternaria. In: Reunião Nacional do Algodão, 5. 1988. Campina Grande-PB. Resumos. Campina Grande-PB, EMBRAPA/CNPA. 1988. p.26.,55 Cia, E.; Salgado, C.L. Doenças do algodoeiro In: Kimati, H.; Amorim, L.; Rezende, J.A.M; Bergamin Filho, A.; Camargo, L.E.A. Manual de Fitopatologia. Doenças das Plantas cultivadas. 4ª.Ed. Editora Agronômica Ceres Ltda. São Paulo. p 41-52, 2005.,66 Cia, E.; Fuzatto, M.G.; Kondo, J.I.; Galbieri, R.; Luders, R.R.; Almeida, W.P.; Oliveira, A.B.; Krzyzanowsky, A.A.; Lebedenco, A.; Martins, A.L.M.; Morello, C.L.; Pereira, J.D.; Mesquita Neto, D.R.; Bolonhezi, D.; Foltran, D.E.; Chiavegato, E.J.; Machado, F.E.; Furlani Junior, E.; Takizawa, E.K.; Dias, F.L.F.; Farias, F.J.C.; Kasai, F.S.; Ohl, G.A.; Cunha, H.F.; Belot, J.L.; Cavichioli, J.C.; Carvalho, L.H.; Beriam, L.O.S., Oliveira, M.A.C.; Lanza, M.A.; Ito, M.A.; Pereira, M.; Michelotto, M.D.; Ito, M.F.; Pedrosa, M.B.; Suassuna, N.D.; Vilela, P.A.; Gallo, P.B.; Reco, P.C.; Aguiar, P.H.; Mattos, R.E.M.F.; Freitas, R.S. Desempenho de cultivares e linhagens de algodoeiro em face da ocorrência de doenças e nematoides. Resultados de 2007/08 e 2008/09. Boletim Científico do Instituto Mato-grossense do Algodão 2. Cuiabá-MT. 2011. P.27-28.,77 Cia, E.; Fuzatto, M.G.; Almeida, W.P.; Kondo, J.I.; Ito, M.F.; Dias, F.L.F. Reação de genótipos de algodoeiro a mancha-de-alternária. Summa Phytopathologica, Botucatu, 40(1):81-83, 2014.,99 Freire, E.C.; Farias, F.J.C.; Aguiar, P.H.; Araújo, A.E. Comportamento de novas cultivares e linhagens com relação a doenças no centro-oeste. Safra 1998/99. In: Congresso Brasileiro do Algodão, 2. 1999. Ribeirão Preto-SP. Anais. Campina Grande-PB. EMBRAPA/CNPA. 1999..p. 454-457.,1616 Mehta, R.; Teixeira, E.A.; Cunha, H.; Erivaldo, J.; Ruano, O. Resposta diferencial das cultivares de algodoeiro a Alternaria macrospora. Summa Phytopathologica, Botucatu, 32(2):186-187, 2006.,1818 Suassuna, N.D.; Morello, C.L.; Freire, E.C.; Araújo, A.E.; Santos, J.W. Andrade, F.P.; Fernandez Junior, I.; Assunção, J.H.; Bezerra, W. Resistência de cultivares de algodoeiro às manchas de Ramularia, Alternária, mancha angular e “doença azul” no estado de Goiás. . In: Congresso Brasileiro do Algodão, 4. 2003. Goiânia-GO. Campina Grande-PB. EMBRAPA/CNPA.2003. CD ROM.) have shown high genetic diversity for resistance to this pathogen in cotton genotypes. The present study aimed to verify this fact in cotton cultivars and lineages currently available in Brazil.

The study was carried out as three field experiments in the regions of Piracicaba-SP, Mococa-SP and Miguelópolis-SP, respectively, in the 2013/14 growing season. These tests involved 18 cotton genotypes, comprising cultivars and lineages obtained by the major entities that perform breeding programs with this plant in Brazil. In all three trials, one fertilization was carried out on line, using 360 kg / ha (4: 20: 20 + B) and cover of 180 kg / ha (20:00:20). Control of weeds and pests was done as recommended for the cotton crop. There was no significant effect of other diseases. The experiments were designed as randomized blocks with five replicates and plots consisting of one 5m line, containing 35 plants after thinning. There was natural incidence of Alternaria and the disease was evaluated when plants were approximately 90 days old by rating the plots from 1 to 5, according to the following criteria: 1 – no plants showing symptoms; 2 - up to 10% plants showing one or two leaves with three lesions at the most; 3 - approximately 30% plants showing more than three leaves each with around 15% severity; 4 - 50% to 80% plants showing most leaves with around 30% severity; 5 - more than 80% plants showing all leaves with more than 30% severity. Data were transformed into √x and subjected to analysis of variance and Scott & Knott test at 5% probability. In the joint analysis of the experiments, significant genotype x environment interaction was detected. The phenotypic stability of the resistance of genotypes to the pathogen was studied by means of regression analysis between the performance parameters and the indexes representing the average intensity of the disease occurrence at each site, as proposed by Fuzatto et al. (1010 Fuzatto, M.G.; Cia E.; Kondo J.I. Estabilidade fenotípica, um complemento relevante na avaliação e classificação genotípica de algodoeiro para resistência a doenças. Summa Phytopathologica, Botucatu, 39(2):117-121, 2013.).

At the three localities, there was a highly significant effect of genotypes, evidencing the expressive genetic diversity among them for disease resistance. The Scott & Knott means grouping test showed the formation of four groups of reaction to the pathogen in Miguelópolis-SP and Mococa-SP. Even in the experiment at Piracicaba-SP, in which the disease occurred to a lower intensity, two distinct groups were found (Table 1).

Table 1
Mean scores in a 1 - 5 scale obtained by cotton genotypes in Alternaria leaf spot evaluation during 2013/14.

According to the adopted method, genotypes with regression coefficients not differing significantly from zero in the score x environment index analysis were considered stable. Two groups of genotypes were well defined concerning the expected performance to the disease. Those that were stable and resistant, attributes that make them safers, included IAC 08-2031, NUOPAL and IMA 09-474 (Table 1), while those that were stable and likely to predict, although with negative performance, included TMG 42 WS and TMG 43 WS as the worst of them. In the intermediate resistance groups, stable genotypes, such as FM 944 GL and FM 975 WS, represent calculated risks, depending on the disease intensity (Table 2). Effectively, even in the absence of cotton yield losses, their use can promote increase in the inoculum potential, increasing the disease problem in the future. Finally, it is useful to point out the group of unstable susceptible genotypes, which included IMA 08-12427, FM 982 GL and BRS 372, as well as the group of moderately susceptible genotypes, such as IMA 09-2059. Their inconsistent performance makes them present the major probability of inducing to error in the classification of the pathogen resistance degree. In fact, if evaluated under less intense incidence of the disease, as in the experiment at Piracicaba-SP, these genotypes may show satisfactory levels of resistance which, however, cannot be confirmed under more severe occurrences of the pathogen, as in the other two trials reported here. What should be emphasized, therefore, is the potential risk of using cultivars with such performance in environments that may favor the development of the disease. It is convenient to point out that yield losses attributable to the disease in question in the present trials were estimated at approximately 12%, when occurring on the most susceptible genotypes.

Table 2
Parameters and classification obtained by cotton genotypes in the analysis of the phenotypic stability of resistance to Alternaria leaf spot

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The study was financially supported by “Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo” (FAPESP) and “Instituto Mato-grossense do Algodão” (IMA-mt)

REFERENCES

  • 1
    Araújo, A.E.; Suassuna, N.D.; Farias, F.J.C.; Freire, E.C. Avaliação da resistência de linhagens de algodoeiro às manchas de Alternaria, Stemphylium e Ramularia In: Congresso Brasileiro do Algodão, 4, 2003. Goiânia-GO, Anais Campina Grande-PB, EMBRAPA/CNPA. 2003. CD ROM.
  • 2
    Arias, S.M.S.; Arias, E.R.A.; Loeff, F.; Henrichsen, I.; Liell, R.M. Microflora fúngica associada à sementes de algodão oriundas da região de Chapadão do Sul, MS. Safra 1999/2000. In: Congresso Brasileiro do Algodão, 3, 2001. Campo Grande-MS. Resumos Campina Grande-PB, EMBRAPA/CNPA. 2001. p. 574-576.
  • 3
    Chiavegato, E.J.; Gridi-Papp, I.L.; Fuzatto, M.G.; Carvalho, L.H.; Cia, E.; Kondo, J.I.; Gondim, R.M.A. Comportamento agronômico das variedades estudadas no ensaio internacional de algodoeiro herbáceo. In: Reunião Nacional do Algodão, 7 1993 Cuiabá-MT. Resumos Campina Grande-PB. EMBRAPA/CNPA. 1993. p. 29.
  • 4
    Cia, E.; Fuzatto, M.G.; Chiavegato, E.J.; Gridi-Papp, I.L.; Sabino, J.C. Comportamento de variedades de algodoeiro herbáceo em face a ocorrência da mancha de Alternaria In: Reunião Nacional do Algodão, 5 1988. Campina Grande-PB. Resumos Campina Grande-PB, EMBRAPA/CNPA. 1988. p.26.
  • 5
    Cia, E.; Salgado, C.L. Doenças do algodoeiro In: Kimati, H.; Amorim, L.; Rezende, J.A.M; Bergamin Filho, A.; Camargo, L.E.A. Manual de Fitopatologia. Doenças das Plantas cultivadas. 4ª.Ed Editora Agronômica Ceres Ltda. São Paulo. p 41-52, 2005.
  • 6
    Cia, E.; Fuzatto, M.G.; Kondo, J.I.; Galbieri, R.; Luders, R.R.; Almeida, W.P.; Oliveira, A.B.; Krzyzanowsky, A.A.; Lebedenco, A.; Martins, A.L.M.; Morello, C.L.; Pereira, J.D.; Mesquita Neto, D.R.; Bolonhezi, D.; Foltran, D.E.; Chiavegato, E.J.; Machado, F.E.; Furlani Junior, E.; Takizawa, E.K.; Dias, F.L.F.; Farias, F.J.C.; Kasai, F.S.; Ohl, G.A.; Cunha, H.F.; Belot, J.L.; Cavichioli, J.C.; Carvalho, L.H.; Beriam, L.O.S., Oliveira, M.A.C.; Lanza, M.A.; Ito, M.A.; Pereira, M.; Michelotto, M.D.; Ito, M.F.; Pedrosa, M.B.; Suassuna, N.D.; Vilela, P.A.; Gallo, P.B.; Reco, P.C.; Aguiar, P.H.; Mattos, R.E.M.F.; Freitas, R.S. Desempenho de cultivares e linhagens de algodoeiro em face da ocorrência de doenças e nematoides. Resultados de 2007/08 e 2008/09. Boletim Científico do Instituto Mato-grossense do Algodão 2 Cuiabá-MT. 2011. P.27-28.
  • 7
    Cia, E.; Fuzatto, M.G.; Almeida, W.P.; Kondo, J.I.; Ito, M.F.; Dias, F.L.F. Reação de genótipos de algodoeiro a mancha-de-alternária. Summa Phytopathologica, Botucatu, 40(1):81-83, 2014.
  • 8
    Cotti, P.J. Evaluation of cotton cultivar suscetibility to Alternaria leaf spot. Plant Disease, Saint Paul, 71:1082-1084, 1987.
  • 9
    Freire, E.C.; Farias, F.J.C.; Aguiar, P.H.; Araújo, A.E. Comportamento de novas cultivares e linhagens com relação a doenças no centro-oeste. Safra 1998/99. In: Congresso Brasileiro do Algodão, 2 1999. Ribeirão Preto-SP. Anais Campina Grande-PB. EMBRAPA/CNPA. 1999..p. 454-457.
  • 10
    Fuzatto, M.G.; Cia E.; Kondo J.I. Estabilidade fenotípica, um complemento relevante na avaliação e classificação genotípica de algodoeiro para resistência a doenças. Summa Phytopathologica, Botucatu, 39(2):117-121, 2013.
  • 11
    Hillocks RJ (1992) Fungal diseases of the leaf. In: Hillocks, R.J. Cotton diseases Ed. C.A.B. Wallingford, International p. 191-192.
  • 12
    Laidou, R.J.; Koulakiotu, E.K.; Thanassoulopoulus, C.C. First reporter on stem canker caused by Alternaria alternate on cotton. Plant Disease, Saint Paulo, 84(1): 103, 2000.
  • 13
    Lima, E.F.; Carvalho, J.M.F.C.; Batista, F.A.Z.; Santos, J.W. Avaliação do nível de resistência a Alternaria sp. Campina Grande, EMBRAPA/CNPA. Comunicado Técnico 40. 4p, 1995.
  • 14
    Lima, E.F.; Batista, F.A.Z.; Vieira, R.M. Principais doenças do algodoeiro e seu controle. In: Beltrão, N.E.M. (Ed.). O agronegócio do algodão no Brasil 1ª. Ed. Brasília-DF, EMBRAPA. 1999. p.715-752.
  • 15
    Metha, Y.R.; Cassetari Neto, D.; Cia, E.; Pizzinatto, M.A.; Teixeira, E.A.; Cunha, H.C. (2004) Variabilidade genética entre isolados de Alternaria macrospora do algodoeiro. Summa Phytopathologica, Botucatu, 30(4):480-487, 2004.
  • 16
    Mehta, R.; Teixeira, E.A.; Cunha, H.; Erivaldo, J.; Ruano, O. Resposta diferencial das cultivares de algodoeiro a Alternaria macrospora Summa Phytopathologica, Botucatu, 32(2):186-187, 2006.
  • 17
    Pizzinatto, M.A.; CIA, E.; Parisi, J.J.D.; Medina, P.F.; Fuzatto, M.G. Associação de Alternaria macrospora e A. alternata em sementes do algodoeiro e sua ação patogênica. Summa Phytopathologica, Botucatu, 31(4):311-318, 2005.
  • 18
    Suassuna, N.D.; Morello, C.L.; Freire, E.C.; Araújo, A.E.; Santos, J.W. Andrade, F.P.; Fernandez Junior, I.; Assunção, J.H.; Bezerra, W. Resistência de cultivares de algodoeiro às manchas de Ramularia, Alternária, mancha angular e “doença azul” no estado de Goiás. . In: Congresso Brasileiro do Algodão, 4 2003. Goiânia-GO. Campina Grande-PB. EMBRAPA/CNPA.2003. CD ROM.
  • 19
    Suassuna, N.D.; Coutinho, W.M.; Asmus, G.Ll; Inomoto, M.M.; Chitarra, L.G. Manejo de doenças do algodoeiro. In.: Beltrão, N.E.M; Azevedo, D.M.P. editores técnicos. O Agronegócio do Algodão no Brasil 2ª. Ed. Brasília-DF. Embrapa Informação Tecnológica. 2008. p.983-1032, 2008.
  • 20
    Watkins, G.M. Compendium of cotton diseases St. Paull, Minnesota. The American Phytopathology Society. Cotton Disease Council. Minnesota. 87p, 1981.

Publication Dates

  • Publication in this collection
    Oct-Dec 2016

History

  • Received
    28 Aug 2015
  • Accepted
    16 Aug 2016
Grupo Paulista de Fitopatologia FCA/UNESP - Depto. De Produção Vegetal, Caixa Postal 237, 18603-970 - Botucatu, SP Brasil, Tel.: (55 14) 3811 7262, Fax: (55 14) 3811 7206 - Botucatu - SP - Brazil
E-mail: summa.phyto@gmail.com