Sao Paulo Medical Journal, Volume: 135, Issue: 6, Published: 2017
  • Lowering blood pressure is a priority in Brazil and worldwide Editorial

    Lotufo, Paulo Andrade
  • Addiction to work and factors relating to this: a cross-sectional study on doctors in the state of Paraíba Original Article

    Azevedo, Walter Fernandes; Mathias, Lígia Andrade da Silva Telles

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Addiction to work is one of the new behavioral phenomena present in organizations and it is characterized by excess work and compulsion to work. This phenomenon may give rise to different sicknesses and may affect different professionals, including doctors. Thus, the aims of this study were to analyze the factorial validity and internal consistency of the Dutch Work Addiction Scale (DUWAS); to evaluate the prevalence of addiction to work among doctors in the state of Paraíba; and to investigate factors relating to addiction to work among these doctors. DESIGN AND SETTING: This was an exploratory, descriptive cross-sectional study with a quantitative approach conducted in municipalities in the state of Paraíba. METHODS: Data were gathered between June and October 2015, by applying a questionnaire containing sociodemographic questions and the Work Addiction Scale. RESULTS: The results showed that the Work Addiction Scale has internal consistency and factorial validity and that, in the population studied, only one factor was pointed out: addiction to work. Most of the doctors were not addicted to work; among the addicts, the addiction was not excessive; and the addiction had a positive correlation with the number of shifts done and a negative correlation with age. CONCLUSION: Greater attention to this phenomenon is required and further research on this topic is needed in order to elucidate the harm caused by addiction to work in daily medical practice.
  • Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire for screening children and adolescents for plastic surgery: cross-cultural validation study Original Article

    Sucupira, Eduardo; Sabino, Miguel; Lima, Edson Luiz de; Dini, Gal Moreira; Brito, Maria José Azevedo de; Ferreira, Lydia Masako

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Patient-reported outcome measurements assessing the emotional state of children and adolescents who seek plastic surgery are important for determining whether the intervention is indicated or not. The aim of this study was to cross-culturally adapt and validate the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (child/adolescent and parent versions) for Brazilian Portuguese, test its psychometric properties and assess the emotional state of children and adolescents who seek plastic surgery. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-cultural validation study conducted in a plastic surgery outpatient clinic at a public university hospital. METHODS: A total of 124 consecutive patients of both sexes were selected between September 2013 and February 2014. Forty-seven patients participated in the cultural adaptation of the questionnaire. The final version was tested for reliability on 20 patients. Construct validity was tested on 57 patients by correlating the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (child/adolescent and parent versions) with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem scale. RESULTS: The child/adolescent and parent versions of the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire showed Cronbach’s alpha of 0.768 and 0.874, respectively, and had good inter-rater reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient, ICC = 0.757 and ICC = 0.853, respectively) and intra-rater reliability (ICC = 0.738 and ICC = 0.796, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The Brazilian-Portuguese version of the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire is a reproducible instrument with face, content and construct validity.The mood state and feelings among children and adolescents seeking cosmetic surgery were healthy.
  • Characteristics of role models who influenced medical residents to choose surgery as a specialty: exploratory study Original Article

    Piccinato, Carlos Eli; Rodrigues, Maria de Lourdes Veronese; Rocha, Laura de Andrade; Troncon, Luiz Ernesto de Almeida

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Choosing a medical specialty and making decisions concerning a career are difficult processes for medical students and newly graduated physicians.This exploratory study aimed to investigate the influence of role models on the choice of surgery as a career, and to determine the most influential model characteristics. DESIGN AND SETTING: Qualitative analysis on responses to a self-administered questionnaire, in different teaching-learning settings. METHODS: Residents from all years of various surgical subspecialties in a university hospital were included in a survey about the factors that determined their choice of surgery. The questions included items on whether a role model had influenced them in choosing surgery, and the personal or professional characteristics of the models that had been most influential. The responses were subjected to qualitative content analysis. RESULTS: Sixty-four out of 96 medical residents participated. Fifty-three residents (82.8%) acknowledged the influence of role models. Sixteen model characteristics were indicated as important, with 136 mentions. Characteristics classified as technical skills (55%), such as"medical knowledge"and "manual dexterity" predominated over humanistic characteristics (35%), such as "patient-physician relationships" and "ethical behavior". However, this difference was not statistically significant (Fisher test, P = 0.11).There were no age differences regarding the proportions mentioning "technical" and "non-technical" attributes, but female residents mentioned significantly more technical skills than their male colleagues did. CONCLUSIONS: The influence of role models seems to be an important factor determining the choice of surgery as a career. The influential characteristics of the models include not only technical but also humanistic qualities.
  • Prevalence of thyroid autoantibodies in patients with systematic autoimmune rheumatic diseases. Cross-sectional study Original Article

    Posselt, Rayana Taques; Coelho, Vinícius Nicolelli; Pigozzo, Danieli Cristina; Guerrer, Marcela Idalia; Fagundes, Marília da Cruz; Nisihara, Renato; Skare, Thelma Larocca

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Thyroid autoimmunity is more common in patients with rheumatic diseases than in healthy populations. The degree of association seems subject to influence from patients’ geographical location. Here, we aimed to ascertain the prevalence of thyroid autoantibodies in a cohort of patients with systemic rheumatic disease and the degree of association between its presence and inflammatory activity. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional observational study in a rheumatology unit. METHODS: 301 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), 210 with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), 58 with scleroderma (SSc) and 80 with spondyloarthritis (SpA) were studied regarding thyroid function (TSH and T4), anti-thyroglobulin (TgAb) and anti-thyroperoxidase (TPOab) and compared with 141 healthy controls. Disease activity in patients with rheumatic disease was assessed through appropriate indexes. RESULTS: There were more antithyroid antibodies in SLE patients with hypothyroidism (P = 0.01; odds ratio, OR 2.7; 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.20-6.26) and in those without hypothyroidism (P = 0.06; OR 2.4; 95% CI: 1.28-4.55) than in controls. SSc patients also showed: P = 0.03 both with antithyroid antibodies and hypothyroidism (OR 3.4; 95% CI: 1.06-10.80) and without hypothyroidism (OR 3.1; 95% CI: 1.11-0.13). RA and SpA patients had the same prevalence as controls (P not significant). Presence of autoantibodies with and without hypothyroidism was not associated with the activity or functional indexes evaluated. CONCLUSION: SLE and SSc were associated with higher prevalence of thyroid autoantibodies in patients with and without hypothyroidism, unlike SpA and RA. There was no link between thyroid autoantibody presence and disease activity or functional impairment.
  • Use of a child health surveillance instrument focusing on growth. A cross-sectional study Original Article

    Araujo, Erika Morganna Neves de; Gouveia, Marcia Teles de Oliveira; Pedraza, Dixis Figueroa

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Proper use of a child health handbook is an important indicator of the quality of care provided to children at healthcare services. This study aimed to evaluate the use of child health surveillance tool (by health professionals?), especially focusing on growth. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study carried out in the context of the Family Health Strategy in two municipalities in Paraíba, Brazil. METHODS: Three hundred and twenty-one children under five years of age from areas covered by health workers were included in the study. Mothers answered a questionnaire asking for information on sociodemographic characteristics. Growth charts, records of iron and vitamin A supplementation and notes on immunization schedules registered in the instrument were analyzed. In the case of children for whom the third version of the child health handbook was used, the association between completion of this handbook and sociodemographic characteristics was analyzed. RESULTS: All the parameters studied showed high frequencies of inadequate data entry, ranging from 41.1% for the weight-versus- age chart to 95.3% for the body mass index-versus-age chart. Higher frequency of inadequate data entry was found among children aged 25 months and over and among those living in areas of these municipalities with minimal numbers of professionals in the healthcare teams. CONCLUSIONS: The use of a child health handbook to monitor children’s growth in the municipalities studied appeared to be faulty. Data entry to this instrument was better at locations with larger healthcare teams.
  • Engagement in physical education classes and health among young people: does sports practice matter? A cross-sectional study Original Article

    Coledam, Diogo Henrique Constantino; Ferraiol, Philippe Fanelli

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Physical education classes aim to promote health but it is unknown whether benefits occur independently of sports practice. The purpose of this study was to examine associations between engagement in physical education classes and physical fitness and obesity according to sports practice among Brazilian students. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional school-based study involving 737 students aged 10-17 years in southern Brazil. METHODS: Engagement in physical education classes and sports practice were analyzed using a self-report questionnaire. The health indicators analyzed were cardiorespiratory fitness, muscle strength, obesity and combinations thereof. The covariates were sex, age, socioeconomic status, physical activity and sedentary behavior. Prevalence ratios (PR) adjusted for confounding variables were estimated using Poisson regression. Analyses were stratified according to sports practice. RESULTS: Engagement in physical education classes was associated with achievement of health-related criteria for cardiorespiratory fitness (PR = 1.52), muscle strength (PR = 1.55), obesity + cardiorespiratory fitness (PR = 1.51), obesity + muscle strength (PR = 1.70), cardiorespiratory fitness + muscle strength (PR = 2.60) and the three outcomes combined (PR = 2.43), only among non-sports practitioners, all P < 0.05. Engagement in physical education classes was not associated with obesity (PR = 1.00, P > 0.05). No associations were found for sports practitioners (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Engagement in physical education classes was associated with health among non-sports practitioners. However, to protect students from obesity and promote additional health benefits for sports practitioners, the conventional physical education program offered to the sample studied should be reformulated.
  • Evidence hierarchies relating to hand surgery: current status and improvement. A bibliometric analysis study Original Article

    Barroso, Thaís Silva; Cavalcante, Marcelo Cortês; Santos, João Baptista Gomes dos; Belloti, João Carlos; Faloppa, Flávio; Moraes, Vinícius Ynoe de

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Hierarchy of evidence is an important measurement for assessing quality of literature. Information regarding quality of evidence within the Brazilian hand surgery setting is sparse, especially regarding whether research has improved in either quality or quantity. This study aimed to identify and classify hand surgery studies published in the two most important Brazilian orthopedics journals based on hierarchy of evidence, with comparisons with previously published data. DESIGN AND SETTING: Bibliometric analysis study performed in a federal university. METHODS: Two independent researchers conducted an electronic database search for hand surgery studies published between 2010 and 2016 in Acta Ortopédica Brasileira and Revista Brasileira de Ortopedia. Eligible studies were subsequently classified according to methodological design, based on the Haynes pyramid model (HP) and the JBJS/AAOS levels of evidence and grades of recommendations (LOR). Qualitative and quantitative data were gathered regarding all studies. Previous data were considered to assess whether the proportion of high-quality studies had improved over time (2000-2009 versus 2010-2016). RESULTS: The final analysis included 123 studies, mostly originating from the southeastern region (78.8%) and private institutions (65%), with self-funding (91.8%). Methodological assessment showed that 15.4% were classified as level I/II using HP and 16.4% using LOR. No significant difference in proportions of high-quality studies was found between the two periods of time assessed (5% versus 12%; P = 0.13). CONCLUSION: Approximately 15% of hand surgery studies published in two major Brazilian journals were likely to be classified as high-quality through two different systems. Moreover, no trend towards quality-of-evidence improvement was found over the last 15 years.
  • Smoking among adolescents is associated with their own characteristics and with parental smoking: cross-sectional study Original Article

    Andrade, Rafaela Campos Cuissi de; Ferreira, Aline Duarte; Ramos, Dionei; Ramos, Ercy Mara Cipulo; Scarabottolo, Catarina Covolo; Saraiva, Bruna Thamyres Ciccotti; Gobbo, Luis Alberto; Christofaro, Diego Giulliano Destro

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: This study aimed to analyze the association between smoking during adolescence and the characteristics of smoking and alcohol consumption among their parents. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study in Londrina (PR), Brazil. METHODS: The subjects comprised 1,231 adolescents aged 14-17 years. The adolescents and their parents answered a self-report questionnaire that asked for sociodemographic information and data on smoking and alcohol consumption. Multiple logistic regression models were used to analyze associations between smoking among adolescents and their characteristics (age, sex, period of the day for attending school, alcohol consumption and socioeconomic level) and their parents’ characteristics (smoking, alcohol consumption, age and education level), adjusted according to the adolescents’ characteristics (sex, age and socioeconomic level). RESULTS: The prevalence of smoking among adolescents was 3.4% (95% confidence interval, CI: 2.4-4.4). Adolescents whose mothers or fathers were smokers were 2.0 and 2.5 times more likely to be smokers, respectively. The prevalence of smoking among adolescents with a smoking mother was 7.1% (95% CI: 2.6-10.7) and a smoking father, 5.4% (95% CI: 1.6-8.5). There were significant associations between smoking adolescents and age [5.2% (95% CI: 3.3-6.6)], studying at night [9.6% (95% CI: 4.0-15.5)] and alcohol consumption [69.0% (95% CI: 55.0-83.0)]. It was observed that the number of alcoholic beverage doses consumed was higher among smoking adolescents (P = 0.001). CONCLUSION: Adolescent smoking was associated with smoking by their parents, regardless of the gender of the parents or adolescents. Age, alcohol consumption and studying at night are characteristics of adolescents that can contribute towards smoking.
  • A study of pulmonary function in end-stage renal disease patients on hemodialysis: a cross-sectional study Original Article

    Sharma, Ashima; Sharma, Ashok; Gahlot, Sushila; Prasher, Pawan Kumar

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: The aim here was to study acute effects of hemodialysis among end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective study in tertiary-level care center. METHODS: Fifty ESRD patients undergoing hemodialysis were studied. Spirometric pulmonary function tests were performed before and after four-hour hemodialysis sessions. RESULTS: The patients’ average age was 45.8 ± 10.0 years; 64% were males and 64% had normal body mass index. Anemia (94%) and hypoalbuminemia (72%) were common. Diabetes mellitus (68%), hypertension (34%) and coronary artery disease (18%) were major comorbidities. Forty-five patients (90%) had been on hemodialysis for six months to three years. The patients’ pre-dialysis mean forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) were below normal: 45.8 ± 24.9% and 43.5 ± 25.9% of predicted, respectively. After hemodialysis, these increased significantly, to 51.1 ± 23.4% and 49.3 ± 25.5% of predicted, respectively (P < 0.01). The increase in mean FEV1/FVC, from 97.8 ± 20.8% to 99.3 ± 20.1% of predicted, was not significant (P > 0.05). The pre-dialysis mean forced expiratory flow 25-75% was 50.1 ± 31% and increased significantly, to 56.3 ± 31.6% of predicted (P < 0.05). The mean peak expiratory flow was below normal (43.8 ± 30.7%) and increased significantly, to 49.1 ± 29.9% of predicted (P < 0.05). Males and females showed similar directions of change after hemodialysis. CONCLUSIONS: Pulmonary function abnormalities are common among ESRD patients. Comparison of pre and post-hemodialysis parameters showed significant improvements, but normal predicted values were still not achieved.
  • Translation and cultural adaptation of the revised foot function index for the Portuguese language: FFI-R Brazil Original Article

    Yi, Liu Chiao; Cabral, Ana Carolina Camacho; Kamonseki, Danilo Harudy; Budiman-Mak, Elly; Vidotto, Milena Carlos

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: The revised foot function index (FFI-R) is used to evaluate the functionality of patients with conditions that affect the feet. The objective here was to produce the Brazilian Portuguese version of this index. DESIGN AND SETTING: Translation and validation study conducted at the Federal University of São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: The translation and cultural adaptation process involved translation by two independent translators, analysis by an expert committee, back translation into the original language, analysis by the expert committee again and a pretest. The Portuguese-language version was administered to 35 individuals with plantar fasciitis and metatarsalgia to determine their level of understanding of the assessment tool. RESULTS: Changes were made to the terms and expressions of some original items to achieve cultural equivalence. Terms not understood by more than 10% of the sample were altered based on the suggestions of the patients themselves. CONCLUSION: The translation and cultural adaptation of the FFI-R for the Portuguese language were completed and the Brazilian version was obtained.
  • What do Cochrane systematic reviews say about probiotics as preventive interventions? Cochrane Highlight

    Braga, Vinícius Lopes; Rocha, Luana Pompeu dos Santos; Bernardo, Daniel Damasceno; Cruz, Carolina de Oliveira; Riera, Rachel

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Probiotics have been used for a range of clinical situations and their use is strongly encouraged by the media worldwide. This study identified and summarized all Cochrane systematic reviews about the preventive effects of probiotics in clinical practice. DESIGN AND SETTING: Review of systematic reviews, conducted in the Discipline of Evidence-Based Medicine, Escola Paulista de Medicina (EPM), Universidade Federal de São Paulo (Unifesp). METHODS: We included all Cochrane reviews on any probiotics when they were used as preventive interventions and compared with no intervention, placebo or any other pharmacological or non-pharmacological intervention. RESULTS: 17 Cochrane systematic reviews fulfilled our inclusion criteria and were summarized in this report. None of the reviews included in the present study provided high-quality evidence for any outcome. The benefits from use of probiotics included decreased incidence of antibiotic-associated diarrhea and Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea; decreased incidence of upper respiratory tract infections and duration of episodes; decreased need for antibiotics and absences from school due to colds; and decreased incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia. Probiotics seem to decrease the incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus, birthweight, risk of vaginal infection and incidence of eczema. CONCLUSION: Despite the marketing and the benefits associated with probiotics, there is little scientific evidence supporting the use of probiotics. None of the reviews provided any high-quality evidence for prevention of illnesses through use of probiotics. More trials are needed to gain better knowledge of probiotics and to confirm when their use is beneficial and cost-effective.
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