Sao Paulo Medical Journal, Volume: 136, Issue: 4, Published: 2018
  • Stroke prevention within primary care: management of atrial fibrillation using oral anticoagulation Editorial

    Lotufo, Paulo Andrade
  • Validity and reproducibility of retinal arteriole and venule diameter measurements: ELSA-Brasil study. A cross-sectional study Original Article

    Dartora, William Jones; Maestri, Marcelo Krieger; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow; Chambless, Lloyd; Klein, Ronald; Meuer, Stacy; Luft, Vivian Cristine

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Investigation of alterations to retinal microvasculature may contribute towards understanding the role of such changes in the pathophysiology of several chronic non-communicable diseases. The objective here was to evaluate the validity and reproducibility of retinal arteriole and venule diameter measurements made by Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) graders. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study at six teaching and research institutions. METHODS: To evaluate validity, each of 25 retinal images from the University of Wisconsin (gold standard) was measured by five ELSA-Brasil graders. To evaluate reproducibility, 105 images across the spectrum of vessel diameters were selected from 12,257 retinal images that had been obtained between 2010 and 2012, and each image was reexamined by the same grader and by an independent grader. All measurements were made using the Interactive Vessel Analysis (IVAN) software. Bland-Altman plots, paired t tests and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were analyzed. RESULTS: Mean differences between ELSA-Brasil and gold-standard readings were 0.16 µm (95% CI -0.17-0.50; P = 0.31) for central retinal artery equivalent (CRAE), -0.21 µm (95% CI -0.56-0.14; P = 0.22) for central retinal vein equivalent (CRVE) and 0.0005 (95% CI -0.008-0.009; P = 0.55) for arteriole/venule ratio (AVR). Intragrader ICCs were 0.77 (95% CI 0.67-0.86) for CRAE, 0.90 (95% CI 0.780.96) for CRVE and 0.70 (0.55-0.83) for AVR. Intergrader ICCs were 0.75 (95% CI 0.64-0.85) for CRAE, 0.90 (95% CI 0.79-0.96) for CRVE and 0.68 (95% CI 0.55-0.82) for AVR. CONCLUSIONS: Retinal microvascular diameter measurements are valid and present moderate to high intra and intergrader reproducibility in ELSA-Brasil.
  • Experience of treatment of prosthetic valve endocarditis: a retrospective single-center cross-sectional study Original Article

    Andrade, Matheus de Oliveira; Raffoul, Gabriel Elias Salmen; Macedo, Murilo Teixeira; Silva, Claudia Neto Gonçalves Neves da; Teixeira, Maria Aparecida Santos; Pontes, Sônia Jaciara Neto; Daher, Mauricio; Cunha, Claudio Ribeiro da; Atik, Fernando Antibas

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to describe the experience of treatment of early prosthetic valve endocarditis at a heart center. DESIGN AND SETTING: Retrospective single-center study on data collected from electronic medical records covering the period from January 2009 to December 2015. METHODS: Over the study period, 1,557 consecutive valve operations were performed on adult patients. The study population comprised 32 patients (2%) who were diagnosed with prosthetic valve endocarditis within 12 months after the index surgery. Medical records were retrieved from electronic hospital records, retrospectively. Descriptive clinical, echocardiographic, microbiological and treatment-type data were used. Risk factors for early mortality were studied through univariate and multivariate analyses. RESULTS: The main clinical manifestation of infective endocarditis was fever, and this was present in all patients. Most of the prostheses were affected in the aortic position (40.6% of cases). The most commonly cultured microorganisms were Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus. Twenty-six patients (81.3%) underwent surgical treatment and six (18.7%) underwent exclusive clinical treatment. The prevalence of postoperative complications was 31.3% and hospital mortality occurred in seven cases (21.9%). The mortality rate was 50% among the patients who underwent medical treatment and 15.4% among those who underwent surgery. There were no independent risk factors for mortality. CONCLUSION: Prosthetic valve endocarditis is an infrequent complication of valve replacement. Surgical treatment has mortality rates compatible with the severity of patients’ conditions. Surgical indication should not be delayed when clinical treatment has been ineffective
  • Sensitivity and specificity of ultrasonography in diagnosing supraspinatus lesions: a prospective accuracy diagnostic study Original Article

    Yazigi Junior, João Alberto; Nicolao, Fábio Anauate; Matsunaga, Fabio Teruo; Archetti Netto, Nicola; Matsumoto, Marcelo Hide; Tamaoki, Marcel Jun Sugawara

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: This study was designed to define the accuracy of shoulder ultrasonography for diagnosing supraspinatus tendon tears. This examination is routinely used by orthopedists and may do away with the need for other examinations for diagnosing these tendon injuries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of shoulder ultrasonography for diagnosing supraspinatus tendon injuries, using magnetic resonance imaging as the reference. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective accuracy study at a single center: the Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Clinic of the Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology. METHODS: Shoulder ultrasonography was performed on 80 patients of both genders, over 18 years of age, with complaints of shoulder pain and clinically suspected supraspinatus tendon lesions. Jobe’s test and a full can test were performed. In addition, they underwent magnetic resonance imaging in a 3.0-tesla machine, as the reference standard. The examinations were performed and interpreted by radiologists. RESULTS: Ultrasonography showed sensitivity of 36.3% and specificity of 91.7% for supraspinatus tears overall: sensitivity of 25.8% and specificity of 91.8% for partial tears and sensitivity of 46.2% and specificity of 100% for full-thickness tears. Ultrasonography showed high accuracy for diagnosing full-thickness tears: 91.3%. The p-values were 0.003 for tears overall, 0.031 for partial tears and < 0.001 for full-thickness tears. CONCLUSIONS: Ultrasonography showed low sensitivity for detecting supraspinatus tears, but high specificity for both partial and full-thickness tears.
  • Incorrect use of inhalation devices among patients with bronchial asthma. A hospital-based cross-sectional study in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Original Article

    Pessôa, Carlos Leonardo Carvalho; Mattos, Maria Julia da Silva; Alho, Artur Renato Moura; Fischmann, Marianna Martini; Côrtes, Ana Carolina Castro; Mendes, Flávio de Oliveira; Haerdy, Bruno Mendes; Brignol, Sandra Mara Silva

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Treatment of asthma implies inhalation of specific drugs to reach high concentrations in the respiratory tree and ensure low drug bioavailability and few adverse effects. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the inhalation technique among outpatients with asthma. DESIGN AND SETTING: Tertiary-care hospital-based cross-sectional study in Rio de Janeiro. METHODS: We evaluated inhalation practices in a convenience sample. A questionnaire was used to investigate sociodemographic data and assess disease control level, duration of use of the inhalation device, length of treatment and previous instructions provided by the prescribing physician. Patients demonstrated their inhalation technique using empty devices, and their technique was considered correct when all steps were appropriately performed or when errors did not interfere with the treatment outcome. RESULTS: Among the 71 participants, 53 (74.7%) had been using the same inhaler device for at least two years and 41 (57.8%) had been under treatment for two years or more. Twelve (17.1%) said that they had been taught once and 57 (81.4%) at least twice, while one (1.4%) reported not having received any guidance regarding use of inhaler devices. Eighteen patients (25.3%) presented controlled asthma and 28 (39.5%) performed the inhalation technique correctly. Incorrect technique was associated with fewer evaluations of the inhalation technique (P =0.04) and uncontrolled asthma (P = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Less than half of the sample performed the inhalation technique correctly. Incorrect inhalation technique was related to lower number of evaluations of the use of the inhalation device and uncontrolled asthma.
  • Pediatric Wilson’s disease: findings in different presentations. A cross-sectional study Original Article

    Güngör, Şükrü; Selimoğlu, Mukadder Ayşe; Varol, Fatma İlknur; Güngör, Serdal

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Wilson’s disease (WD) may present with different manifestations: from an asymptomatic state to liver cirrhosis. Here, we aimed to evaluate clinical presentations and laboratory findings and prognoses among WD cases. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study based on patients’ records from the university hospital, İnönü University, Malatya, Turkey. METHODS: The medical records of 64 children with WD were evaluated focusing on the clinical, laboratory and liver biopsy findings in different clinical presentations. RESULTS: The mean age at diagnosis was 8.6 ± 3.26 years (range 3.5-17) and mean length of follow-up was 2.49 years (range 0-9). There were 18 cases (28.1%), 12 (18.8%), 9 (14.1%) and 6 (9.4%) of chronic liver disease, fulminant liver failure, neurological WD and acute hepatitis, respectively. Nineteen (29.7%) were asymptomatic. The most common sign and laboratory finding were jaundice (45.3%) and hypertransaminasemia (85.9%), respectively. The lowest serum zinc level was found in the fulminant liver failure group (P = 0.035). Hepatosteatosis was detected in 35% of the 20 patients who underwent liver biopsy. Among those with hepatosteatosis, 57.1% were asymptomatic. While 35% had copper staining, 25% presented iron accumulation in liver biopsies. Nine cases underwent liver transplantation and seven of these presented fulminant liver failure (77.8%). CONCLUSION: The presentation, symptoms and signs of our cases were similar to those in previously reported series, except for the high proportion of fulminant WD cases. Further studies are needed to clarify the relationship between zinc levels and development of a fulminant course and between iron status and WD.
  • Relationship between socioeconomic and nutritional status in the Serbian adult population: a cross-sectional study Original Article

    Rakić, Jelena Gudelj; Maksimović, Miloš; Janković, Janko; Vlajinac, Hristina; Marinković, Jelena

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Socioeconomic status is a well-known risk factor for obesity. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between socioeconomic and nutritional status in the Serbian adult population. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study on data from the 2013 National Health Survey performed in Serbia. METHODS: The study population consisted of adults aged ≥ 20 years. Face-to-face interviews and anthropometric measurements were conducted by trained staff. Associations between body mass index and sociodemographic variables were analyzed using multivariable logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: Out of 12,461 subjects of both sexes, 36.4% were overweight and 22.4% were obese. The prevalences of overweight and obesity differed significantly between the sexes, regarding all sociodemographic characteristics. Among women, educational attainment was associated with lower risk of being overweight (odds ratio, OR = 0.82; 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.69-0.98 for medium-level and OR = 0.77; CI: 0.62-0.97 for higher education) or obese (OR = 0.68; CI: 0.57-0.82 for medium-level and OR = 0.41; CI: 0.31-0.54 for higher education). In contrast, medium-level (OR = 1.28; CI: 1.08-1.52) and highly educated men (OR = 1.39; CI: 1.11-1.74) were more frequently overweight than were those with low education. Among men, grade I obesity was positively related to the richest wealth index group (OR = 1.27), while the opposite was true for grade II obesity among women (OR = 0.61). CONCLUSION: This study showed significant socioeconomic inequalities in nutritional status between men and women. Continuous monitoring of socioeconomic patterns relating to weight is important, especially with further exploration of the link between education and obesity.
  • Prevalence of Entamoeba histolytica and other enteral parasitic diseases in the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. A cross-sectional study Original Article

    Costa, Juliana de Oliveira; Resende, José Adão; Gil, Frederico Ferreira; Santos, Joseph Fabiano Guimarães; Gomes, Maria Aparecida

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Enteral parasitic diseases are a public health problem in nations with low economic development and in settings with poor sanitation. Amebiasis is the second most frequent form of parasitosis, with a high burden of disease. Knowledge of the prevalence of enteroparasitoses in a given region is useful for planning clinical decision-making. Thus, the aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of enteral parasitic diseases, especially amebiasis, through analysis on stool samples from public and private laboratories in a metropolitan area in southeastern Brazil. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study conducted in the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. METHODS: We evaluated 6,289 fecal samples from one private and one public laboratory. The samples were concentrated by means of spontaneous sedimentation, and those that were positive for Entamoeba histolytica or Entamoeba dispar in optical microscopy analyses were processed to obtain deoxyribonucleic acid, with subsequent identification through the polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: Among the stool samples, 942 (15.0%) had parasitic infections; 73 (1.2%) of these were helminthic infections and 847 (13.5%) were protozoan infections, caused mainly by Escherichia coli (6.0%), Endolimax nana (5.2%) and Giardia lamblia (1.2%). Infections due to Entamoeba histolytica or Entamoeba dispar occurred in 36 samples (0.6%) and the polymerase chain reaction revealed five (13.9%) as Entamoeba histolytica. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of enteral parasitic diseases is high in the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte, although amebiasis may not be a problem.
  • Evidence for varicose vein treatment: an overview of systematic reviews Original Article

    Oliveira, Ricardo de Ávila; Mazzucca, Andréa Castro Porto; Pachito, Daniela Vianna; Riera, Rachel; Baptista-Silva, José Carlos da Costa

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Varicose veins affect nearly 30% of the world’s population. This condition is a social problem and needs interventions to improve quality of life and reduce risks. Recently, new and less invasive methods for varicose vein treatment have emerged. There is a need to define the best treatment options and to reduce the risks and costs. Since there are cosmetic implications, treatments for which effectiveness remains unproven present risks to consumers and higher costs for stakeholders. These risks and costs justify conducting an overview of systematic reviews to summarize the evidence. DESIGN AND SETTING: Overview of systematic reviews within the Discipline of Evidence-Based Health, at Universidade Federal de São Paulo (UNIFESP). METHODS: Systematic reviews on clinical or surgical treatments for varicose veins were included, with no restrictions on language or publication date. RESULTS: 51 reviews fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Outcomes and comparators were described, and a narrative review was conducted. Overall, there was no evidence that compression stockings should be recommended for patients as the initial treatment or after surgical interventions. There was low to moderate evidence that minimally invasive therapies (endovenous laser therapy, radiofrequency ablation or foam sclerotherapy) are as safe and effective as conventional surgery (ligation and stripping). Among these systematic reviews, only 18 were judged to present high quality. CONCLUSIONS: There was evidence of low to moderate quality that minimally invasive treatments, including foam sclerotherapy, laser and radiofrequency therapy are comparable to conventional surgery, regarding effectiveness and safety for treatment of varicose veins.
  • Self-reported assessment of female sexual function among Brazilian undergraduate healthcare students: a cross-sectional study (survey) Original Article

    Satake, Juliana Tamy; Pereira, Thalita Rodrigues Christovam; Aveiro, Mariana Chaves

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: The present study aimed to evaluate female sexual function among young undergraduate women. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional survey conducted among Brazilian undergraduate students. METHODS: This study used online questionnaires to assess sociodemographic and health-related data and used the Brazilian version of the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) among female undergraduate students aged 18 to 25 years who were regularly enrolled in undergraduate healthcare courses. The FSFI is composed of 19 items that measure female sexual function over the last four weeks, in six domains: desire and subjective stimulation, sexual arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction and pain or discomfort. RESULTS: Among the 149 female undergraduate students evaluated, 43 (28.8%) presented sexual dysfunction (score < 26.55). Health conditions were not associated with female sexual dysfunction. Among the women with sexual dysfunction, all domains of the sexual response cycle were affected (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Sexual dysfunction was identified in at least a quarter of these young undergraduate women and it was not associated with gynecological problems, menstrual cycles, dysmenorrhea, contraceptive use or physical activity.
  • Relationship between premenstrual syndrome and basic personality traits: a cross-sectional study Original Article

    Arslantaş, Hülya; Abacigil, Filiz; Çinakli, Şule

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Although many studies have investigated premenstrual syndrome and related factors, there is still only a limited number of studies investigating the relationship between premenstrual syndrome and basic personality traits. This study was conducted to investigate the association between premenstrual syndrome and basic personality traits among university students. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional analytical study conducted in a city in western Turkey. METHODS: The Premenstrual Syndrome Scale, the Basic Personality Traits Scale and a questionnaire on sociodemographic characteristics developed by the present researchers were applied to 490 female students at the College of Health Sciences of a state university. RESULTS: Premenstrual syndrome was more common among students living in rural areas (65.1%), students with chronic diseases (74.1%), students who suffered from menstrual cramps (61.1%), students who used cigarettes (72.1%) and students with alcohol intake (65.5%). In the final model of the logistic regression analysis, presence of pain during the menstrual period increased the risk of presence of PMS by a factor of 1.554 (95% confidence interval, CI: 1.033-2.336; P = 0.034) and high scores on the total basic personality traits scale increased it by a factor of 1.016 (95% CI: 1.002-1.030; P = 0.029). The prevalence of premenstrual syndrome was found to be higher among students who were less extrovert (P = 0.007) and less conscientious (P = 0.001); and among students with higher neuroticism (P = 0.000) and negative valance (P = 0.000). CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that personality may be associated with premenstrual syndrome.
  • Family functioning and quality of life among children with anxiety disorder and healthy controls. A cross-sectional study Original Article

    Öztürk, Yusuf; Özyurt, Gonca; Akay, Aynur

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Studies have shown that children with anxiety disorders (ADs) present impaired family functioning and quality of life. We aimed to evaluate family functioning and quality of life among children with AD and healthy controls. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study (survey) at two centers in Turkey. METHODS: The study group comprised 42 children diagnosed with AD and 55 controls. The Screen for Child Anxiety-Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED) questionnaire was filled out by their parents to measure the severity of anxiety symptoms. Family functioning among the children was assessed using the Family Assessment Device (FAD) and Parental Attitude Research Instrument (PARI). The children’s quality of life was assessed through the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL). RESULTS: The children’s average age was 10.00 ± 0.21 years in the AD group and 9.98 ± 1.53 years among the controls. There were higher scores on all FAD subscales in the AD group (2.15 ± 0.52; 2.29 ± 0.44; 2.44 ± 0.55; 2.10 ± 0.61; 2.56 ± 0.40; 2.32 ± 0.33; and 2.29 ± 0.47). On PARI subscales, there were significant differences favoring the AD group (p < 0.05), except for democratic attitude. All PedsQL subscales differed significantly between the groups, favoring the AD group. A statistically significant relationship was found between all PedsQL subscales and SCARED scores in the AD group. CONCLUSION: We found that both family functioning and quality of life among children with AD were negatively affected. However, further studies with larger sample sizes are required to reach stronger conclusions.
  • What do Cochrane systematic reviews say about interventions for treating psoriasis? Narrative Review

    Pacheco, Rafael Leite; Hosni, Nicole Dittrich; Latorraca, Carolina de Oliveira Cruz; Martimbianco, Ana Luiza Cabrera; Pachito, Daniela Vianna; Yarak, Samira; Riera, Rachel

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Psoriasis is a common chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by abnormal and increased growth of the cells that produce keratin and abnormal functioning of the immune system. We aimed to summarize the evidence available regarding interventions for patients with psoriasis. DESIGN AND SETTING: Review of systematic reviews, developed in the Discipline of Evidence-Based Medicine, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo. METHODS: A systematic search was conducted to identify Cochrane systematic reviews that fulfilled the eligibility criteria. Two authors screened titles and abstracts that had been retrieved through the search strategy. The results from all the Cochrane systematic reviews that were included were summarized and presented in a narrative synthesis. RESULTS: We included six Cochrane systematic reviews assessing interventions for treating psoriasis. The findings from high-quality evidence were that (a) etanercept reduced the psoriasis severity index, compared with placebo and (b) steroids plus vitamin D, compared with vitamin D alone, improved the skin clearance rate, as assessed by investigators, but was associated with a higher proportion of participants who dropped out due to adverse events. For all other comparisons, the quality of the evidence ranged from moderate to very low. CONCLUSION: This review included six Cochrane systematic reviews that provided evidence ranging in quality from unknown to high, regarding management of psoriasis. Further randomized controlled trials are imperative to reduce the uncertainties relating to several treatments that are already used in clinical practice.
  • Complex karyotype including ring chromosome 11 in a patient with acute myeloid leukemia: case report Case Report

    Ornellas, Maria Helena Faria; Maioli, Maria Christina Paixão; Lucena, Stella Beatriz Sampaio Gonçalves de; Bastos, Elenice Ferreira; Chaves, Tatiana Silva; Melo, Karina Vieira de; Ribeiro-Carvalho, Marilza de Moura; Liehr, Thomas; Alves, Gilda

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT CONTEXT: Complex karyotypes in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are characterized by an overall low response rate with frequent relapses after clinical treatment. CASE REPORT: Here, we describe the case of a 61-year-old obese female with clinically diagnosed AML who presented a complex karyotype involving an uncommon abnormality: ring chromosome 11. Immunophenotypic analysis confirmed the diagnosis. Classical and molecular cytogenetic analyses, using GTG banding and FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization), revealed the presence of complex structural rearrangement involving r(11), add(12)(p13), der(5) and der(13). CONCLUSIONS: Molecular cytogenetic analysis is suitable for better identification and characterization of chromosomal rearrangements in AML. Case reports like this, as well as population-based studies, are necessary for understanding the karyotypic changes that occur in humans.
  • Report of a rare case of histiocytic necrotizing lymphadenitis with bilateral pleural effusion diagnosed via cervical lymph node biopsy Case Report

    Liu, Xuchun; Huang, Shubin; Jiang, Guohua

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT CONTEXT: Histiocytic necrotizing lymphadenitis (HNL) is a rare disorder that is often benign and self-limiting. There have been reports of co-occurrence of HNL with other diseases, including systemic lupus erythematosus, hemophagocytic syndrome and antiphospholipid syndrome. CASE REPORT: Here, we report a case in which a patient experienced unexplained fever, swelling of the cervical lymph node and bilateral pleural effusion and was ultimately diagnosed with HNL based on results from a lymph node biopsy. After treatment with glucocorticoid, the patient regained normal body temperature, the swelling of the lymph nodes disappeared and the pleural effusion was reabsorbed. CONCLUSIONS: The pathogenesis of HNL remains unclear, and pleural effusion is rarely reported in HNL patients. We presented this case to improve diagnostic awareness of this condition among clinicians and help reduce the likelihood of misdiagnosis.
  • Prolonged survival after surgical resection of cerebral metastasis from melanoma with multisystemic metastasis already present: a case report and literature review Case Report

    Hoz, Samer Saad; Alkhaleeli, Ahmed Aman; Aktham, Awfa

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT CONTEXT: Malignant melanoma is the third most common cause of cerebral metastases after breast and lung cancer. Despite advances in therapeutic options, the prognosis for patients with cerebral metastases from melanoma remains poor, with a median survival time of six months after diagnosis. CASE REPORT: A 65-year-old woman was diagnosed with a malignant melanoma on the third toe of her left foot.The tumorous spot was excised surgically. However, the melanoma reappeared after one year and skin biopsy confirmed recurrence of malignant melanoma. Investigations showed metastasis to the left pelvic region, left lobe of the liver and right lobe of the lung.The patient then received chemotherapy. Subsequently, the patient was brought to the emergency department with an altered level of consciousness (Glasgow coma scale: 9) and hemiplegia on the right side of her body. Computed tomography scans of the brain revealed hemorrhagic lesions in the parieto-occipital lobes of the brain. Urgent surgical evacuation was done to remove the lesion, following which the patient showed improvement in her score on the Glasgow coma scale and a concomitant decrease in weakness. She was discharged from hospital with full consciousness.The patient died of acute renal failure 14 months after the brain surgery and approximately 4 years after the initial presentation of the case. CONCLUSION: This case outcome is rare and shows the effectiveness of surgery to treat cerebral metastasis from malignant melanoma in a situation with multisystem metastasis already present.
  • Pegylated interferon for treating severe recurrent respiratory papillomatosis in a child: case report Case Report

    Maunsell, Rebecca; Bellomo-Brandão, Maria Angela

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT CONTEXT: Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) is the most common laryngeal tumor. During childhood, it may present in extremely severe forms defined by the need for frequent surgical procedures to relieve respiratory distress and/or involvement of extralaryngeal sites such as lung involvement. Adjuvant therapies are indicated in these cases and interferon is one of the options. Pegylated interferon is more effective than conventional alpha interferon and, given its reported results in relation to treating hepatitis C over the past decade, we hypothesized that this might be more effective than conventional interferon also for treating respiratory papillomatosis. Use of a treatment strategy that eliminates the need for general anesthesia is particularly appealing, yet obtaining approval for use of medications that are not currently used for this purpose is challenging. CASE REPORT: We report the case of a child with severe RRP that had been followed for the preceding six years, who was treated with pegylated interferon after failure of other adjuvant therapies. There was noticeable improvement in the frequency of surgical procedures, which was regarded very receptively, considering the child’s history and previous response to other therapies. CONCLUSION: Pegylated interferon may be a good option for diminishing the need for surgical intervention in severe cases of recurrent respiratory papillomatosis.
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