Abstract in English:ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Despite the several options available for supplements containing vitamins C and E, evidence regarding the prevalence of deficiency or insufficiency of these vitamins is weak. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence of deficiency or insufficiency of vitamins C and E and associated factors among women of childbearing age, in Brazil. DESIGN AND SETTING: Systematic review and meta-analysis conducted at a Brazilian public university. METHODS: A search from index inception until May 2020 was conducted. Meta-analyses were performed using inverse variance for fixed models, with summary proportions calculation using Freeman-Tukey double arcsine (base case). Reporting and methodological quality were assessed using the Joanna Briggs Institute tool for prevalence studies. RESULTS: Our review identified 12 studies, comprising 1,316 participants, especially breastfeeding women. There was at least one quality weakness in all studies, mainly regarding sampling method (i.e. convenience sampling) and small sample size. The prevalence of vitamin C deficiency ranged from 0% to 40%. Only vitamin E deficiency was synthetized in meta-analyses, with mean prevalences of 6% regardless of the alpha-tocopherol cutoff in plasma, and 5% and 16% for cutoffs of < 1.6-12.0 mmol/l and < 16.2 mmol/l, respectively. The cumulative meta-analysis suggested that a trend to lower prevalence of vitamin E deficiency occurred in recent studies. CONCLUSIONS: Although the studies identified in this systematic review had poor methodological and reporting quality, mild-moderate vitamin C and E deficiencies were identified, especially in breastfeeding women. Thus, designing and implementing policies does not seem to be a priority, because the need has not been properly dimensioned among women of childbearing age in Brazil. REGISTRATION NUMBER IN PROSPERO: CRD42020221605.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Hypoxemia and pulmonary complications are common after upper abdominal surgery (UAS). OBJECTIVE: To examine whether inclusion of autogenic drainage (AD) in chest physiotherapy after UAS confers additional benefits in improving blood gases and reducing postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs). DESIGN AND SETTING: Randomized controlled study conducted at Kasr Al-Ainy teaching hospital, Egypt. METHODS: A randomized controlled trial was conducted on 48 subjects undergoing elective UAS with high risk of developing PPCs. The study group received AD plus routine chest physiotherapy (deep diaphragmatic breathing, localized breathing and splinted coughing) and the control group received routine chest physiotherapy only. The outcomes included arterial blood gases measured at the first and seventh postoperative days, incidence of PPCs within the first seven days and length of hospital stay. RESULTS: Baseline characteristics were similar between groups. In the AD group, SaO2, PaO2, PaCO2 and HCO3 significantly improved (P < 0.05) while in the physiotherapy group, only SaO2 and PaO2 significantly improved (P < 0.05). Nonetheless, significant differences in post-treatment SaO2 and PaO2 between the groups were observed. The overall incidence of PPCs was 16.66% (12.5% in the AD group and 20.8% in the physiotherapy group) (absolute risk reduction -8.3%; 95% confidence interval, CI, -13.5 to 29.6%), with no significant difference between the groups. The AD group had a significantly shorter hospital stay (P = 0.0001). CONCLUSION: Adding AD to routine chest physiotherapy after UAS provided a favorable blood gas outcome and reduced the length of hospital stay. It tended to reduce the incidence of PPCs. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04446520.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Gastritis consists of inflammation of the gastric mucosa and is one of the main causes of dyspeptic symptoms in children. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the presence of inflammation by evaluating fecal calprotectin (FC) in children diagnosed with chronic gastritis. DESIGN AND SETTING: Descriptive study in Pediatric Gastroenterology Department of Ondokuz Mayis University Hospital in Turkey. METHODS: Between January 2016 and July 2018, FC levels were compared retrospectively in children with chronic gastritis (histopathology-based diagnosis), patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and healthy children. RESULTS: A total of 67 chronic gastritis patients (61.2% girls) with a mean age of 13.09 ± 3.5 years were evaluated. The mean FC levels were 153.4 μg/g in the chronic gastritis group, 589.7 μg/g in the IBD group and 43.8 μg/g in the healthy group. These levels were higher in chronic gastritis patients than in healthy individuals (P = 0.001) and higher in IBD patients than in the other two groups (P < 0.001). The FC level in the patients with chronic active gastritis (156.3 μg/g) was higher than in those with chronic inactive gastritis (150.95 μg/g) (P = 0.011). Among the patients with chronic active gastritis, the FC level was significantly higher in Helicobacter pylori-positive individuals than in negative individuals (P = 0.031). CONCLUSION: We confirmed the association between increased FC and chronic gastritis. Elevated FC levels may be seen in patients with chronic active gastritis. In order to be able to use FC as a screening tool for chronic gastritis, further studies in a larger study group are needed.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: The population with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is more predisposed to early development of frailty. Although the concept of frailty is well established from a physical point of view, it is not an exclusively physical syndrome. It can be characterized as an interaction of physical, psychological and social factors. OBJECTIVE: To ascertain the relationship between frailty, social support and family functionality among CKD patients undergoing hemodialysis. DESIGN AND SETTING: Correlational, cross-sectional and quantitative study conducted at a service in the interior of the state of São Paulo. METHODS: This study included 80 patients with CKD who were on hemodialysis. The participants were interviewed individually, with application of the following instruments: sociodemographic and economic characterization, Tilburg Frailty Indicator, Medical Outcomes Study and Family APGAR. Females and white ethnicity predominated among the participants, and their mean age was 59.63 ± 15.14 years. RESULTS: There was high prevalence of frailty (93.8%). Although there was a difference in scores for the dimensions of social support between the frail group and the non-frail group, only family functionality reached a statistically relevant difference. There was a significant correlation between physical frailty, social support and family functionality. CONCLUSIONS: Presence of frailty is related to the social support and family functionality of patients with CKD undergoing hemodialysis.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: There are several anesthetic techniques for surgical treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). Results from this surgery using the “wide awake local anesthesia no tourniquet” (WALANT) technique have been described. However, there is no conclusive evidence regarding the effectiveness of the WALANT technique, compared with the usual techniques. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of the WALANT technique, compared with intravenous regional anesthesia (IVRA; Bier’s block), for surgical treatment of CTS. DESIGN AND SETTING: Randomized clinical trial, conducted at Hospital Alvorada Moema and the Discipline of Hand Surgery, Universidade Federal de São Paulo (UNIFESP), São Paulo (SP), Brazil. METHODS: Seventy-eight patients were included. The primary outcome was measurement of perioperative pain through a visual analogue scale (VAS). The secondary outcomes were the Boston Questionnaire score, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) score, need for use of analgesics, operating room times, remission of paresthesia, failures and complications. RESULTS: The WALANT technique (n = 40) proved to be superior to IVRA (n = 38), especially for controlling intraoperative pain (0.11 versus 3.7 cm; P < 0.001) and postoperative pain (0.6 versus 3.9 cm; P < 0.001). Patients spent more time in the operating room in the IVRA group (59.5 versus 46 minutes; P < 0.01) and needed to use more analgesics (10.8 versus 5.7 dipyrone tablets; P = 0.02). Five IVRA procedures failed (5 versus 0; P = 0.06). CONCLUSIONS: The WALANT technique is more effective than IVRA for CTS surgery.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Many scoring systems for predicting mortality, rebleeding and transfusion needs among patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) have been developed. However, no scoring system can predict all these outcomes. OBJECTIVE: To show whether the perfusion index (PI), compared with the Rockall score (RS), helps predict transfusion needs and prognoses among patients presenting with UGIB in emergency departments. In this way, critical patients with transfusion needs can be identified at an early stage. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective cohort study in an emergency department in Turkey, conducted between June 2018 and June 2019. METHODS: Patients’ demographic parameters, PI, RS, transfusion needs and prognosis were recorded. RESULTS: A total of 219 patients were included. Blood transfusion was performed in 174 patients (79.4%). The PI cutoff value for prediction of the need for blood transfusion was 1.17, and the RS cutoff value was 5. The area under the curve (AUC) value for PI (AUC: 0.772; 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.705-0.838; P < 0.001) was higher than for RS (AUC: 0.648; 95% CI: 0.554-0.741; P = 0.002). 185 patients (84.5%) were discharged, and 34 patients (15.5%) died. The PI cutoff value for predicting mortality was 1.1, and the RS cutoff value was 7. The AUC value for PI (AUC: 0.743; 95% CI: 0.649-0.837; P < 0.001) was higher than for RS (AUC: 0.725; 95% CI: 0.639-0.811; P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: PI values for patients admitted to emergency departments with UGIB on admission can help predict their need for transfusion and mortality risk.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Exposure to air pollutants is associated with hospital admissions due to cardiovascular diseases and premature deaths. OBJECTIVE: To estimate years of life lost (YLL) due to premature deaths and their financial costs. DESIGN AND SETTING: Ecological time-series study carried out in São José dos Campos, Brazil, in 2016. METHODS: Data on deaths among residents of this city in 2016 were assessed to estimate the financial cost of premature deaths associated with air pollution. The diagnoses studied were ischemic heart disease, congestive heart failure and cerebrovascular disease, according to YLL. The fractions attributable to deaths associated with air pollutant exposure and to each potential year of life lost were calculated using negative binomial regression with lags of 0-7 days between exposure and outcome. Nitrogen dioxide, particulate matter (PM10) and ozone concentrations were included in the model and adjusted for temperature, humidity and seasonality. RESULTS: Exposure to particulate matter was significant at lag 3 days. There were 2177 hospitalizations over the study period, with 201 deaths (9.2%). Premature deaths led to 2035.69 years of life lost. A 10 μg/m3 increase in PM10 concentrations was correlated with 8.0% of the hospitalizations, which corresponded to 152.67 YLL (81.67 for males and 71.00 for females). The cost generated was approximately US$ 9.1 million in 2016. CONCLUSION: In this first study conducted in a medium-sized Brazilian city, using the YLL methodology, we identified an excess expense attributable to air pollution.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Few reports have examined the effects of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), one-anastomosis gastric bypass (OAGB) and sleeve gastrectomy (SG) on changes to serum albumin (Alb) and liver enzyme levels. OBJECTIVE: To compare short-term post-surgery changes in serum Alb, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALKP) levels. Body composition changes were also measured and compared among three groups. DESIGN AND SETTING: Retrospective cohort study conducted in Tehran, Iran. METHODS: 151 OAGB, RYGB and SG patients referred to the obesity clinic of Hazrat-e Rasool General Hospital, Tehran, Iran, were evaluated. Physical characteristics and biochemical parameters were measured pre-surgery and then after three and six months. RESULTS: Through repeated measurements to determine intragroup changes, significant changes in serum AST (P = 0.003) and ALT (P < 0.001) were observed in follow-ups. However, Alb levels did not change (P = 0.413). Body fat, fat-free mass and muscle mass decreased significantly in each group (P < 0.05). In a univariate general linear model for determining intergroup changes, SG showed greater decreases in ALT and AST at three and six months (P < 0.05) and in ALKP at six months (P = 0.037), compared with OAGB. There were no significant differences in Alb levels. Also, RYGB had a greater effect on reducing fat percentage (three months, P = 0.011; six months, P = 0.059) and fat mass (three months, P = 0.042) than OAGB. CONCLUSION: SG and RYGB may be superior to OAGB in reducing liver enzymes and body fat, respectively. However, Alb levels showed no significant differences.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection is a worldwide concern given its presence even in non-hospitalized healthy individuals, such as university students. OBJECTIVE: To identify in the literature the prevalence of colonization by MRSA among healthcare students. DESIGN AND SETTING: Integrative review of the literature conducted in Universidade Federal do Piauí. METHOD: A search for primary studies was performed in the following databases: Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System on-line; Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature; Web of Science; Scopus; and LILACS. RESULTS: This review included 27 studies that demonstrated MRSA infection prevalence ranging from 0.0 to 15.3% among students. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of colonization of MRSA among healthcare students is high, and the nasal cavity was cited as an important reservoir location for these microorganisms.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Rheumatic diseases (RDs) are a group of pathological conditions characterized by inflammation and functional disability. There is evidence suggesting that regular consumption of polyphenols has therapeutic effects capable of relieving RD symptoms. OBJECTIVE: To synthesize data from randomized controlled trials on administration of polyphenols and their effects on RD activity. DESIGN AND SETTING: Systematic review conducted at Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto, Minas Gerais, Brazil. METHODS: A systematic search was conducted in the databases PubMed (Medline), LILACS (BVS), IBECS (BVS), CUMED (BVS), BINACIS (BVS), EMBASE, Web of Science and Cochrane Library and in the grey literature. The present study followed a PRISMA-P checklist. RESULTS: In total, 646 articles were considered potentially eligible, of which 33 were then subjected to complete reading. Out of these, 17 randomized controlled trials articles were selected to form the final sample. Among these 17 articles, 64.71% assessed osteoarthritis (n = 11), 23.53% rheumatoid arthritis (n = 4), 5.88% rheumatoid arthritis and fibromyalgia (n = 1) and 5.88% osteoarthritis and rheumatoid (n = 1). Intake of polyphenol showed positive effects in most of the studies assessed (94.12%): it improved pain (64.70%) and inflammation (58.82%). CONCLUSION: Polyphenols are potential allies for treating RD activity. However, the range of polyphenol sources administered was a limitation of this review, as also was the lack of information about the methodological characteristics of the studies evaluated. Thus, further primary studies are needed in order to evaluate the effects of polyphenol consumption for reducing RD activity. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTER: PROSPERO - CRD42020145349.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: In Brazil, the right to healthcare and the incorporation of best scientific evidence in public health are universally guaranteed by law. However, the treatment offered to patients with mental disorders in custodial hospitals in this country has not been rigorously evaluated. OBJECTIVES: To analyze the psychiatric diagnoses and treatments implemented in three Brazilian custodial institutions. DESIGN AND SETTING: This was a retrospective, cross-sectional and descriptive study on patients held in custody in three Brazilian institutions, as judicially-determined safety measures due to their mental disorders, and the tools used in diagnoses and treatments. These institutions are in Rio de Janeiro and the Federal District. METHODS: The data from medical and judicial records that were made available were assessed regarding the diagnoses that were made and the instruments that were used. RESULTS: None of these inpatients were evaluated using validated tools, and only a few medical records presented clear descriptions of the cases. No patient with substance involvement had undergone laboratory toxicological assays. It was not possible to verify the adequacy of treatments because the procedures were inadequately described in the records. CONCLUSIONS: No standardized protocols or instruments for diagnosing mental health disorders or assessing use of psychoactive substances had been applied among the inpatients at these custodial institutions in Rio de Janeiro and the Federal District. The treatments that were prescribed to these inpatients consisted mainly of drugs.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: In plastic surgery, a lack of ethical and moral behavior by professionals can result in unfortunate circumstances and can justify ethical-disciplinary procedures. OBJECTIVE: To review 421 plastic surgery professional-misconduct cases filed before the São Paulo State Medical Board (CREMESP) between 2008 and 2017. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study conducted in a medical council. METHODS: The cases were categorized according to sex, age, medical specialty (plastic surgery, other field or none), medical ethics code chapter(s) involved, ethics code articles violated and board ruling/outcome. RESULTS: Most of the defendants were men over 40 years of age who were experienced in their professional practice and who graduated from public and private universities all over Brazil; 47.74% had a specialist title in plastic surgery. Violation of professional responsibility (medical malpractice, recklessness or negligence) was the commonest complaint (28.43%), followed by medical advertising (24.19%) and poor doctor-patient relationship (10.39%), in violation of articles 18, 51, 75 and 1. Among the 233 cases adjudicated over this period, 133 resulted in disciplinary sanction, 80 were ruled in the physician’s favor and 20 were dismissed. CONCLUSION: Classification of plastic surgery professional-misconduct cases creates possibilities for adopting preventive measures for good practice in this specialty, which would consequently reduce the number of complaints to the regional medical boards.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is characterized by recurrent pharyngeal wall collapse during sleep caused by anatomical or functional changes associated with obesity or dislocation of maxillofacial structures. OBJECTIVE: To determine the major risk factors for obstructive sleep apnea monitored in the home. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study conducted in a private clinic in Fortaleza (CE), Brazil. METHODS: Between 2015 and 2018, 427 patients were screened for OSA with home-based monitoring, yielding 374 positives. Information was collected on age, sex, body mass index (BMI), hypertension, diabetes (DM), dyslipidemia, coronary artery disease (CAD), arrhythmia, peripheral artery occlusive disease (PAOD), heart failure (HF) and lung disease. The home sleep apnea test result was then compared with the clinical diagnosis. Lastly, parameters identified as significant in the univariate analysis were subjected to multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: Male sex predominated, although not significantly. OSA was associated with hypertension, DM, dyslipidemia, age and BMI. The risk of OSA being associated with these parameters was 2.195 (hypertension), 11.14 (DM), 2.044 (dyslipidemia) and 5.71 (BMI). The association was also significant for BMI categories (normal, overweight or obese). No significant association was observed for CAD, arrhythmia, PAOD, HF or lung disease. After multivariate logistic analysis, only age and BMI (and its categories) remained significant. CONCLUSION: OSA was associated with hypertension, DM, dyslipidemia, age and BMI in univariate analyses, but only with age and BMI (and its categories) in multivariate logistic analysis.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Meta-analyses have demonstrated that isometric handgrip training (IHT) decreases blood pressure in hypertensive individuals. Nonetheless, most studies were conducted in laboratory settings and its effects in real-world settings remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the eﬀects of IHT on office and ambulatory blood pressure in hypertensive patients attended within primary healthcare. DESIGN AND SETTING: Randomized controlled trial conducted in primary healthcare units within the Family Health Program, Petrolina, Pernambuco, Brazil. METHODS: 63 hypertensive patients (30-79 years old; 70% female) were randomly allocated into IHT or control groups. IHT was performed three times per week (4 x 2 minutes at 30% of maximal voluntary contraction, one-minute rest between bouts, alternating the hands). Before and after the 12-week training period, office and ambulatory blood pressure and heart rate variability were obtained. The signiﬁcance level was set at P < 0.05 (two-tailed testing) for all analyses. RESULTS: IHT signiﬁcantly decreased office systolic blood pressure (IHT: 129 ± 4 versus 121 ± 3 mmHg, P < 0.05; control: 126 ± 4 versus 126 ± 3 mmHg, P > 0.05), whereas there was no effect on diastolic blood pressure (IHT: 83 ± 3 versus 79 ± 2 mmHg, P > 0.05; control: 81 ± 3 versus 77 ± 3 mmHg, P > 0.05). Heart rate variability and ambulatory blood pressure were not altered by the interventions (P > 0.05 for all). CONCLUSION: IHT reduced office systolic blood pressure in hypertensive patients attended within primary care. However, there were effects regarding diastolic blood pressure, ambulatory blood pressure or heart rate variability. CLINICALTRIALS.GOV IDENTIFIER: NCT03216317.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Considering the disruptions imposed by lockdowns and social distancing recommendations, coupled with overwhelmed healthcare systems, researchers worldwide have been exploring drug repositioning strategies for treating severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). OBJECTIVE: To compile results from randomized clinical trials on the effect of dexamethasone, compared with standard treatment for management of SARS-CoV-2. DESIGN AND SETTING: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines in a Brazilian public university. METHODS: We sought to compile data from 6724 hospitalized patients with confirmed or suspected SARS-CoV-2 infection. RESULTS: Treatment with dexamethasone significantly reduced mortality within 28 days (risk ratio, RR: 0.89; 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.82-0.97). Dexamethasone use was linked with being discharged alive within 28 days (odds ratio, OR: 1.20; 95% CI: 1.07-1.33). CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that dexamethasone may significantly improve the outcome among hospitalized patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection and associated severe respiratory complications. Further studies need to consider both dose-dependent administration and outcomes in early and later stages of the disease. PROSPERO platform: CRD42021229825.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: This article systematically updates the literature on changes in visual functions during the phases of the normal menstrual cycle in women. OBJECTIVES: To update Guttridge's 1994 review of visual structures and functions associated with the menstrual cycle and broaden the search through psychophysical, neuroimaging and neurobehavioral measurements covering 1994-2020. DESIGN AND SETTING: Narrative review conducted in a neurosciences and behavior laboratory in Brazil. METHODS: The PubMed, Cochrane Clinical Answers and Google Scholar databases were searched. After screening and applying the eligibility criteria, 32 articles were examined. Through this analysis, the following information was extracted: (1) geographical distribution of the study; (2) sample size (according to age and phase of the menstrual cycle); (3) type of measurements according to psychophysical, neuroimaging and neurobehavioral instruments; (4) vision testing model; (5) visual subcategory evaluated; (6) categories of processed visual stimuli; and (7) main findings. RESULTS: The menstrual phases give rise to significant changes in visual functions, including in relation to orientation and spatial attention, visual campimetry and visual sensitivity. These relate specifically to the follicular and luteal phases. CONCLUSIONS: These findings theoretically expand the effects of menstrual cycles on visual functions found by Guttridge (1994). Despite some inconsistencies in the studies analyzed, it was found that visual processing during the follicular and luteal phases of the normal menstrual cycle of healthy women can explain physiological, cognitive, behavioral and social modulations.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is characterized by progressive narrowing of the arterial lumen, resulting from atherosclerotic plaques. Treatment for PAD aims to control atherosclerosis and improve blood flow. Use of antiplatelet agents and anticoagulants has played important roles in helping to prevent occlusions and stenosis. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the evidence from Cochrane systematic reviews regarding the accuracy, effectiveness and safety of use of anticoagulants and antiplatelets in lower-limb revascularization, in patients with peripheral arterial disease. METHODS: Systematic reviews found through searches in the Cochrane Library were included. Two authors evaluated whether the reviews found were in line with the inclusion criteria for this investigation. A qualitative synthesis of their findings was presented. RESULTS: Three systematic Cochrane reviews were included. Patients who underwent prosthetic bypass surgery probably presented greater benefit from use of antiplatelets, and patients who underwent vein revascularization probably presented greater benefit from use of anticoagulants. Patients who received endovascular treatment benefited from both antiplatelet and anticoagulant treatment. However, the reliability of the results found was impaired because at the time when these reviews were published, there was no mandatory assessment using the GRADE criteria. CONCLUSION: Despite the evidence found, it is necessary for these reviews to be updated in order to evaluate the degree of certainty of the results found.