Sao Paulo Medical Journal, Volume: 140, Issue: 1, Published: 2022
  • New challenges for lung transplantation in the era of COVID-19 Editorial

    Fernandes, Lucas Matos; Pêgo-Fernandes, Paulo Manuel
  • In search of disambiguation: development of eye drop bottle sleeves to aid in identification and survey among possible users. A cross-sectional study Original Article

    Costa, Ana Luiza Fontes de Azevedo; Martins, Thiago Gonçalves dos Santos; Santos, Vagner Rogério dos; Schor, Paulo

    Abstract in English:

    BACKGROUND: Considerable numbers of individuals present low vision, blindness, illiteracy and other conditions that could possibly impair their identification of medications, such as eye drops. Through helping these individuals to identify their eye drops, they can achieve greater autonomy. Misidentification can be avoided through use of multisensory sleeves that can be adapted to most eye drop bottles. Correct use of eye drops is important for preventing progression of diseases like glaucoma that could potentially lead to blindness. OBJECTIVE: To develop bottle sleeves to aid in identification of eye drops and then interview a group of possible users to evaluate the acceptance of the solution. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional survey performed at an ophthalmological clinic in São Paulo (SP), Brazil. METHODS: We describe the development of multisensory sleeves to assist in identification of eye drops. To assess the acceptance of this solution, we interviewed 18 patients who were currently using three or more types of eye drops. RESULTS: We developed four prototypes for eye drop bottle sleeves and conducted an acceptance test on them. Most of the patients who answered the survey about the sleeves were elderly. Most (95%) reported believing that the sleeves would help reduce the risk of mixing up eye drops with other medications that also dispense drops. They also believed that these would increase their autonomy in using eye drops. CONCLUSION: The solution presented was well accepted and may help increase safety in using eye drops through preventing misidentification.
  • Retrospective analysis on efficacy of convalescent plasma in acute respiratory distress syndrome due to COVID-19 Original Article

    Eren, Esma; Ulu-Kılıç, Ayşegül; Korkmaz, Serdal; Yıldız, Merve; Yüksel, Recep Civan; Kılınç-Toker, Ayşin; Arman-Fırat, Emine; Bestepe-Dursun, Zehra; Çelik, Ilhami

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an ongoing global health threat. However, currently, no standard therapy has been approved for the disease. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the clinical effectiveness of convalescent plasma (CP) in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) due to COVID-19. DESIGN AND SETTING: Retrospective study conducted at Kayseri City Education and Research Hospital, Kayseri, Turkey. METHODS: The case group consisted of adult patients (> 18 years) with ARDS due to COVID-19 who received CP in combination with antiviral and supportive treatment. These patients were compared with others who only received antiviral and supportive treatment. RESULTS: During the study period, a total of 30 patients with ARDS due to COVID-19 were included. Eleven patients (36%) received CP in combination with antiviral and supportive treatment, whereas nineteen patients (64%) in the control group only received antiviral and supportive treatment. On admission, the median age, demographic and clinical data and initial laboratory test results were similar between the groups (P > 0.05). On the 14th day of treatment, the laboratory values remained similar between the groups (P > 0.05). The mortality rates were not significantly different between the groups. CONCLUSION: CP treatment did not affect mortality or lead to clinical improvement for COVID-19 patients with ARDS.
  • Allergic rhinitis improvement after septorhinoplasty in a sample of allergic rhinitis patients with septal deviation: a quasi-experimental study Original Article

    García-Paz, Vanesa; Chamorro-Petronacci, Cintia Micaela; Painceira-Villar, Roi; Becerro-de-Bengoa-Vallejo, Ricardo; Losa-Iglesias, Marta Elena; Pérez-Sayáns, Mario; Sarandeses-Garcia, Adolfo; López-López, Daniel

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Allergic rhinitis (AR) is a chronic inflammatory disease that affects almost 30% of the adult population. OBJECTIVE: To describe and compare the evolution of symptoms in patients diagnosed with AR and septal deviation prior to and following septoplasty (STP). DESIGN AND SETTING: Quasi-experimental study developed in A Coruña University Hospital. METHODS: Patients aged 18-65 years who had been diagnosed with AR and septal deviation were recruited. Obstruction airflow was evaluated before and after surgery, by means of anterior rhinomanometry (RNM). Severity symptoms and quality of life were assessed using a visual analogue scale (VAS) and the ESPRINT questionnaire, respectively. RESULTS: A total of 50 subjects underwent STP and 42 were included in this study. Their mean age at the time of surgery was 34.16 ± 9.74 years (range 18-64). Significant reductions in mean VAS and ESPRINT were observed after surgery (P < 0.01). These outcomes were considered to represent an overall improvement in quality of life. The RNM results also improved significantly, from mean values of 478.07 ± 165.4 cm3/s before STP to 826.4 ± 175.5 cm3/s afterwards (P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The negative correlations of VAS and ESPRINT with RNM, from before and to after STP, demonstrate the efficacy of scales and questionnaires as objective methods for determining obstruction in the absence of rhinomanometry. Patients with allergic rhinitis and septal deviation showed improvements in obstruction severity and medication use after STP.
  • Multisite musculoskeletal pain in the general population: a cross-sectional survey Original Article

    de Vitta, Alberto; Machado Maciel, Nicoly; Bento, Thiago Paulo Frascareli; Genebra, Caio Vitor dos Santos; Simeão, Sandra Fiorelli Almeida Penteado

    Abstract in English:

    BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies focusing on multisite musculoskeletal pain have revealed that the prevalence of multisite pain is high in general populations. OBJECTIVE: To ascertain the prevalence of multisite musculoskeletal pain in the last 12 months and in the last seven days, in a population-based sample and investigate its association with demographic, socioeconomic, behavioral, reported morbidity and ergonomic variables. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional population-based survey in Bauru, São Paulo (Brazil). METHODS: 600 individuals were interviewed. The following data were collected: participants’ characteristics, through a precoded questionnaire; physical activity level, through the International Physical Activity Questionnaire; and musculoskeletal symptoms, through the Nordic questionnaire. Descriptive, bivariate and Poisson regression analyses were performed. RESULTS: The prevalence of multisite musculoskeletal pain was 46.5% (confidence interval, CI 42.5 to 50.5) in the last 12 months and 26.1% (CI 22.8 to 29.8) in the last seven days. The variables associated with multisite pain in the last 12 months were female sex, presence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus or depression, watching TV more than three times a week and working in a seated position. Formerly smoking was a protection factor. The variables associated with multisite pain in the last seven days were female sex, age group 60 years and over, low income, presence of comorbidities of hypertension, diabetes mellitus or depression and working in a seated position. CONCLUSION: There was high prevalence of multisite musculoskeletal pain, which was associated with demographic, socioeconomic, work-related, electronic device-related and reported morbidity variables.
  • Recent dengue virus infection: epidemiological survey on risk factors associated with infection in a medium-sized city in Mato Grosso Original Article

    Ferreira, Dandára Thaís de Oliveira; Atanaka, Marina; Espinosa, Mariano Martinez; Schuler-Faccini, Lavinia; Caldeira, Aline da Silva; Silva, Juliana Herrero da; Vivi-Oliveira, Viviane Karolina; Paz, Rayana de Castro da; Nascimento, Vagner Ferreira do; Terças-Trettel, Ana Cláudia Pereira

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Dengue is considered to be the most important arbovirus worldwide, with important complications that increase its lethality. In Brazil, an endemic country, the disease reaches significant incidence levels, with occurrences of serious cases and high costs of hospitalizations for its treatment. OBJECTIVE: To analyze risk factors among individuals with recent histories of dengue infection in a medium-sized city in Mato Grosso. DESIGN AND SETTING: Descriptive cross-sectional study, of epidemiological-survey type, conducted among the urban population of a city located in mid-northern Mato Grosso. METHODS: A seroepidemiological survey using questionnaires and collection of biological material was conducted among 596 adults aged ≥ 18 years who had been selected through a cluster sampling process. Positive dengue cases were those with positive results from anti-dengue immunoassays (ELISA). Statistical analyses with descriptive and inferential techniques were used, with 95% confidence intervals and a 5% significance level. RESULTS: The seroepidemiological profile of the study participants was predominantly female, with ages between 18 and 39 years, self-declared non-white race/color, not more than eight years of education and not living with a companion. Among the sanitary factors analyzed, the following were risk factors for dengue virus infection: no running water at home; no water supply from the public piped network; no waste from drains or toilets sent to the sewage network; endemic disease combat agents visiting the home; and presence of mosquito breeding sites at home. CONCLUSION: Low schooling levels and previous dengue virus infection were associated with current dengue virus infection.
  • Could polyhexanide and chlorine dioxide be used as an alternative to chlorhexidine? A systematic review Original Article

    Santos, Dayanne Simões Ferreira; Peralta-Mamani, Mariela; Brandão, Felipe Suaki; Andrade, Flaviana Bombarda; Cruvinel, Thiago; Santos, Paulo Sérgio da Silva

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Maintenance of oral microbiota balance is the simplest way to prevent infectious oral diseases, through controlling dental biofilm. Combined use of mouthwash and mechanical removal has been shown to be a very effective way for this. OBJECTIVES: To identify clinical studies comparing the antimicrobial effect and possible adverse effects and/or side effects of chlorhexidine-based mouthwashes with those of mouthwashes containing chlorine dioxide and/or polyhexanide, for controlling oral microbiota. DESIGN AND SETTING: Systematic review designed by the stomatology sector of postgraduation in applied dental sciences of Bauru Dentistry School, University of São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted using online databases (PubMed, Embase, Web of Science and Science Direct) up to April 8, 2020. The search was conducted using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. RESULTS: The studies included comprised eight articles published between 2001 and 2017. A total of 295 young adults, adults and elderly people were evaluated (males 44.75% and females 55.25%). Three articles compared polyhexanide with chlorhexidine and five articles compared chlorine dioxide with chlorhexidine. No studies comparing all three mouthwashes were found. The concentrations of the study solutions were quite varied, and all rinses had an antimicrobial effect. In four studies, it was stated that no side effects or adverse effects had been found. Three studies did not address these results and only one study addressed side effects and/or adverse effects. CONCLUSION: Mouthwashes containing chlorine dioxide and polyhexanide are viable alternatives to chlorhexidine, since they reduce oral biofilm and have little or no reported side or adverse effects.
  • Indications for accurate and appropriate use of personal protective equipment for healthcare professionals. A systematic review Original Article

    Peccin, Maria Stella; Duarte, Márcio Luís; Imoto, Aline Mizusaki; Taminato, Mônica; Saconato, Humberto; Puga, Maria Eduarda; Franco, Eduardo Signorini Bicas; Camargo, Erika Barbosa; Gottems, Leila Bernarda Donato; Atallah, Álvaro Nagib

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: The speed of the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has put enormous pressure on hospitals and other healthcare facilities. This, together with blockages in several countries, has hindered the availability and accessibility of the necessary personal protective equipment (PPE). OBJECTIVE: To identify, systematically evaluate and summarize the available scientific evidence on the efficacy, safety, safe use and reuse of PPE for healthcare professionals, for preventing severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. DESIGN AND SETTING: Systematic review of studies analyzing products for disinfecting and enabling reuse of PPE for coronavirus within the evidence-based health program of a federal university in São Paulo (SP), Brazil. METHODS: A systematic search of the relevant literature was conducted in the PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, SCOPUS, Web of Science and LILACS databases, for articles published up to November 30, 2020. RESULTS: Ten studies were selected. These analyzed the use of N95, surgical and cotton masks, face shields, flexible enclosures with plastic covers or polycarbonate intubation boxes and plastic curtains; and also PPE disinfection using several substances. CONCLUSION: Combined use of a face shield with a N95 mask proved to be superior to other associations for protecting healthcare workers. Some products are useful for disinfecting PPE, such as 70% ethanol, 0.1% sodium hypochlorite and a mixture of quaternary ammonium and H2O2, and hydrogen peroxide. Ultraviolet light and dry heat at 70 °C can be used to decontaminate N95 masks. REGISTRATION NUMBER: DOI: 10.17605/OSF.IO/4V5FD at the OPENSCIENCE Framework.
  • Autonomic dysfunction is common in liver cirrhosis and is associated with cardiac dysfunction and mortality: prospective observational study Original Article

    Pimentel, Carolina Frade Magalhães Girardin; Salvadori, Ricardo; Feldner, Ana Cristina de Castro Amaral; Aguiar, Miguel Osman de; Gonzalez, Adriano Miziara; Branco, Gabriel Ribas; Superbia, Marcel; Lai, Michelle; Mota, Daniel de Oliveira; Ferraz, Maria Lucia Cardoso Gomes; Mathias, Wilson; Kondo, Mario

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Although autonomic dysfunction has been shown to be associated with liver cirrhosis, the prevalence and prognostic implications are unclear. Abnormal heart rate variability (HRV), a measure of autonomic function, has not been well investigated in cirrhosis. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of high-risk HRV parameters in a cohort of cirrhotic patients and their association with cardiac dysfunction and mortality. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective observational study conducted in the Federal University of São Paulo. METHOD: A cohort of 120 patients, comprising 17 healthy controls and 103 cirrhotic outpatients, was evaluated and followed for 10 months. HRV analysis was based on 24-hour Holter monitoring and defined using time-domain and frequency-domain parameters. RESULTS: The HRV parameters were statistically lower in cirrhotic patients than in healthy subjects. High-risk HRV parameters were prevalent, such that 64% had at least one high-risk parameter. Time-domain parameters correlated with Child scores (P < 0.0001). In regression models, HRV parameters were independent predictors of diastolic dysfunction and mortality. During 10 months of follow-up, there were 11 deaths, all of patients with at least one high-risk HRV parameter. Kaplan-Meier analysis estimated low survival rates among patients with standard deviation of normal-to-normal RR intervals (SDNN) < 100. CONCLUSION: Reduced HRV is prevalent in liver cirrhosis and is related to cardiac dysfunction, severity of liver disease and mortality. Abnormal high-risk HRV parameters are prevalent among cirrhotic patients and are also predictors of mortality. Our findings highlight the need for a more careful cardiac evaluation of cirrhotic patients.
  • Usefulness of the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio in predicting the severity of COVID-19 patients: a retrospective cohort study Original Article

    Yılmaz, Erdal; Ak, Rohat; Doğanay, Fatih

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Quick and accurate identification of critically ill patients ensures appropriate and correct use of medical resources. In situations that threaten public health, like pandemics, rapid and effective methods are needed for early disease detection among critically ill patients. OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship between the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) of coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) patients upon admission to the emergency department (ED) and these patients’ prognosis. DESIGN AND SETTING: Retrospective cohort study among COVID-19 patients in the ED of a tertiary-level hospital. METHODS: Data on patients’ age, gender, vital signs, chronic diseases, laboratory tests and clinical outcomes were collected from electronic medical records. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed. The area under the curve (AUC) was used to assess the accuracy of NLR for predicting in-hospital mortality risk and intensive care unit (ICU) requirement. The Youden J index (YJI) was used to determine optimal threshold values. RESULTS: 1,175 patients were included. Their median age was 63 years (IQR, 48-75). With an NLR cutoff value of 5.14, the sensitivity, specificity, PPV, AUC and YJI for ICU requirement were calculated as 77.87%, 74.08%, 92.4%, 0.811 and 0.5194, respectively. With the same cutoff value, the sensitivity, specificity, AUC and YJI for in-hospital mortality were 77.27%, 75.82%, 0.815 and 0.5309, respectively. In addition, advanced age, leukocytosis, anemia and lymphopenia were found to be associated with poor prognosis. CONCLUSION: The NLR, which is a widely available simple parameter, can provide rapid insights regarding early recognition of critical illness and prognosis among COVID-19 patients.
  • Mental disorders among pregnant women during the COVID-19 pandemic. A cross-sectional study Original Article

    Keskin, Deha Denizhan; Keskin, Seda; Bostan, Sedat

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Pregnancy is the most important event in women’s lives and can lead to psychological lability. Several risk factors (such as disasters, events and pandemics) have been correlated with greater prevalence of mental disorders during pregnancy. OBJECTIVES: To research how pregnant women have been affected by the coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic process, in order to contribute to the limited literature. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional survey study conducted at the Training and Research Hospital of the Faculty of Medicine, University of Ordu, Ordu, Turkey, from February 1 to March 1, 2021. METHODS: In total, 356 pregnant women were enrolled and completed the survey. Intention of going to hospital and the Beck anxiety, Beck depression, Beck hopelessness and Epworth sleepiness scales were applied to detect mental disorders. RESULTS: Among the participants, the anxiety, depression, hopelessness and sleepiness scores were 29.2%, 36.2%, 58.1% and 11.8%, respectively. The pregnant women stated that they avoided going to hospital in unnecessary situations by obeying the ‘stay at home’ calls, but also stated that they were afraid of the potential harmful effects of inadequate physician control. However, most of them stated that they would go to the hospital in emergencies. CONCLUSIONS: This paper illustrated the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on the mental health of pregnant women and emphasized their high rates of anxiety, depression, hopelessness and sleepiness. Since presence of mental disorders is indirectly related to poor pregnancy outcomes, preventive strategies should be developed, especially during this pandemic process.
  • What anthropometric indicators are associated with insulin resistance? Cross-sectional study on children and adolescents with diagnosed human immunodeficiency virus Original Article

    Alves Junior, Carlos Alencar Souza; Martins, Priscila Custódio; Lima, Luiz Rodrigo Augustemak de; Silva, Diego Augusto Santos

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Studies that test associations between anthropometric indicators and insulin resistance (IR) need to provide better evidence in the context of the pediatric population (children and adolescents) with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), as anthropometric indicators present a better explanation of the distribution of body fat. OBJECTIVE: To test the associations between anthropometric indicators and insulin resistance (IR) among children and adolescents diagnosed with HIV. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study on 65 children and adolescents (8-15 years) infected with HIV through vertical transmission conducted at the Joana de Gusmão Children's Hospital, Florianópolis, Brazil. METHODS: The anthropometric indicators measured were the abdominal (ASF), triceps (TSF), subscapular (SSF) and calf (CSF) skinfolds. The relaxed arm (RAC), waist (WC) and neck (NC) circumferences were also measured. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated from the relationship between body mass and height. IR was calculated through the Homeostasis Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR). Simple and multiple linear regression analyses were used. RESULTS: After adjustment for covariates (sex, bone age, CD4+ T lymphocytes, CD8+ T lymphocytes, viral load, and physical activity), associations between IR and models with SSF and CSF remained. Each of these explained 20% of IR variability. For females, in the adjusted analyses, direct associations between IR and models with ASF (R² = 0.26) and TSF (R² = 0.31) were observed. CONCLUSIONS: SSF and CSF in males and ASF and TSF in females were associated with IR in HIV-infected children and adolescents.
  • Burnout syndrome and workplace violence among nursing staff: a cross-sectional study Original Article

    Tsukamoto, Sirlene Aparecida Scarpin; Galdino, Maria José Quina; Barreto, Maynara Fernanda Carvalho; Martins, Júlia Trevisan

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Among healthcare professionals, nursing workers are the most prone to becoming victims of workplace violence and present the highest burnout levels. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association between burnout syndrome and workplace violence among nursing workers. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study carried out at a teaching hospital in southern Brazil. METHODS: This study involved 242 nursing workers. We collected data over a six-month period using a sociodemographic and occupational survey, the Survey Questionnaire Workplace Violence in the Health Sector and the Maslach Burnout Inventory - General Survey. For occupational violence, we selected the Survey Questionnaire Workplace Violence in the Health Sector. Burnout syndrome was evaluated using the Maslach Burnout Inventory - General Survey. The data were analyzed in the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). Categorical variables were described as absolute and relative frequencies and numerical variables in terms of central trend and dispersion measurements. For data analysis, we applied descriptive statistics and multiple logistic regression. RESULTS: The multiple models indicated that the workers who had experienced verbal abuse, physical violence and concern about workplace violence over the past 12 months had significantly higher chances of presenting high emotional exhaustion (P < 0.05) and depersonalization (P < 0.05) and low professional accomplishment (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Occurrence of violence significantly increased the chances of great emotional exhaustion and depersonalization and low professional achievement, within burnout syndrome. Therefore, workplace violence prevention strategies need to be put in place to provide workers with a safe workplace in which to conduct their activities.
  • Publicly versus privately funded cardiac rehabilitation: access and adherence barriers. A cross-sectional study Original Article

    Borges, Giovanna Lombardi Bonini; Cruz, Mayara Moura Alves da; Ricci-Vitor, Ana Laura; Silva, Paula Fernanda da; Grace, Sherry Lynn; Vanderlei, Luiz Carlos Marques

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) barriers are well-understood in high-resource settings. However, they are under-studied in low-resource settings, where access is even poorer and the context is significantly different, including two-tiered healthcare systems and greater socioeconomic challenges. OBJECTIVE: To investigate differences in characteristics of patients attending publicly versus privately funded CR and their barriers to adherence. DESIGN AND SETTING: Observational, cross-sectional study in public and private CR programs offered in Brazil. METHODS: Patients who had been attending CR for ≥ 3 months were recruited from one publicly and one privately funded CR program. They completed assessments regarding sociodemographic and clinical characteristics and the CR Barriers Scale. RESULTS: From the public program, 74 patients were recruited, and from the private, 100. Participants in the public program had significantly lower educational attainment (P < 0.001) and lower socioeconomic status (P < 0.001). Participants in the private program had more cognitive impairment (P = 0.015), and in the public program more anxiety (P = 0.001) and depressive symptoms (P = 0.008) than their counterparts. Total barriers among public CR participants were significantly higher than those among private CR participants (1.34 ± 0.26 versus 1.23 ± 0.15/5]; P = 0.003), as were scores on 3 out of 5 subscales, namely: comorbidities/functional status (P = 0.027), perceived need (P < 0.001) and access (P = 0.012). CONCLUSION: Publicly funded programs need to be tailored to meet their patients’ requirements, through consideration of educational and psychosocial matters, and be amenable to mitigation of patient barriers relating to presence of comorbidities and poorer health status.
  • Sociodemographic determinants of multimorbidity in Brazilian adults and older adults: a cross-sectional study Original Article

    Christofoletti, Marina; Duca, Giovani Firpo Del; Benedetti, Tânia Rosane Bertoldo; Malta, Deborah Carvalho

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Multimorbidity due to non-communicable chronic diseases (NCDs) constitutes a significant challenge for healthcare systems. To attenuate its impacts, it is essential to identify the sociodemographic determinants of this condition, which can discriminate against population segments that are more exposed. OBJECTIVE: To identify associations between multimorbidity conditions and sociodemographic indicators among Brazilian adults and older adults. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional telephone-based survey in 26 Brazilian state capitals and the federal district. METHODS: The Vigitel 2013 survey was used, with data collected via a questionnaire. The outcome was multimorbidity (2, 3 or 4 NCDs), and the exposures were sociodemographic indicators (age, sex, skin color, marital status and education). The analysis consisted of multinomial logistic regression (odds ratio), stratified by age. RESULTS: Among adults, multimorbidity comprising two, three or four diseases was associated with advancing age (P < 0.001); two and three diseases, with having a partner (P = 0.004 and P < 0.001, respectively); and two, three or four diseases, with lower education (P < 0.001). Among older adults, two, three or four diseases were associated with female sex (P < 0.001); three diseases, with living with a partner (P = 0.018); two diseases, with black skin color (P = 0.016); and two or three diseases, with lower education (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: To control and prevent multimorbidity, strategies for individuals with existing chronic diseases, with partners and with lower education levels are needed. Particularly for adults, advancing age should be considered; and for older adults, being a woman and having black skin color.
  • Low molecular weight heparin is useful in adult COVID-19 inpatients. Experience during the first Spanish wave: observational study Original Article

    Gonzalez-Porras, Jose Ramon; Belhassen-Garcia, Moncef; Lopez-Bernus, Amparo; Vaquero-Roncero, Luis Mario; Rodriguez, Beatriz; Carbonell, Cristina; Azibeiro, Raul; Hernandez-Sanchez, Alberto; Martin-Gonzalez, Jose Ignacio; Manrique, Juan Miguel; Alonso-Claudio, Gloria; Alvarez-Navia, Felipe; Madruga-Martin, Jose Ignacio; Macias-Casanova, Ronald Paul; García-Criado, Jorge; Lozano, Francisco; Moyano, Jose Carlos; Sanchez-Hernandez, Miguel Vicente; Sagredo-Meneses, Víctor; Borras, Rafael; Bastida, Jose María; Hernández-Pérez, Guillermo; Chamorro, Antonio Javier; Marcos, Miguel; Martin-Oterino, Jose Angel

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: The intensity of the thromboprophylaxis needed as a potential factor for preventing inpatient mortality due to coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: To explore the association between anticoagulation intensity and COVID-19 survival. DESIGN AND SETTING: Retrospective observational study in a tertiary-level hospital in Spain. METHODS: Low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) status was ascertained based on prescription at admission. To control for immortal time bias, anticoagulant use was analyzed as a time-dependent variable. RESULTS: 690 patients were included (median age, 72 years). LMWH was administered to 615 patients, starting from hospital admission (89.1%). 410 (66.7%) received prophylactic-dose LMWH; 120 (19.5%), therapeutic-dose LMWH; and another 85 (13.8%) who presented respiratory failure, high D-dimer levels (> 3 mg/l) and non-worsening of inflammation markers received prophylaxis of intermediate-dose LMWH. The overall inpatient-mortality rate was 38.5%. The anticoagulant nonuser group presented higher mortality risk than each of the following groups: any LMWH users (HR 2.1; 95% CI: 1.40-3.15); the prophylactic-dose heparin group (HR 2.39; 95% CI, 1.57-3.64); and the users of heparin dose according to biomarkers (HR 6.52; 95% CI, 2.95-14.41). 3.4% of the patients experienced major hemorrhage. 2.8% of the patients developed an episode of thromboembolism. CONCLUSIONS: This observational study showed that LMWH administered at the time of admission was associated with lower mortality among unselected adult COVID-19 inpatients. The magnitude of the benefit may have been greatest for the intermediate-dose subgroup. Randomized controlled trials to assess the benefit of heparin within different therapeutic regimes for COVID-19 patients are required.
  • Patients’ preferences regarding physicians’ gender: a clinical center cross-sectional study Original Article

    Dagostini, Carolina Matté; Bicca, Yan De Assunção; Ramos, Miguel Bertelli; Busnello, Sabrina; Gionedis, Murillo Cesar; Contini, Natália; Falavigna, Asdrubal

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Even with the significant growth of female representation within medicine, inequality and prejudice against this group persist. OBJECTIVE: To analyze patients’ preferences regarding the gender of physicians in general and according to different specialties, and the possible reasons behind their choice. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study at the Clinical Center of the University of Caxias do Sul, Brazil. METHODS: Over a three-month period in 2020, 1,016 patients were asked to complete a paper-based 11-item questionnaire. RESULTS: The majority (81.7%; n = 830) of the patients did not have a preference regarding the gender of physicians in general. The preference rate for same-gender physicians was 14.0% (n = 142/1,016), and this preference was more common among female than among male patients (17.6% versus 7.0%; odds ratio, OR = 2.85; 95% confidence interval, CI = 1.80-4.52; P < 0.001). When asked about their preference for the gender of the specialist who they were waiting to see, the overall preference rate for a same-gender professional was 17.2% (n = 175). Preference for same-gender specialists was higher for specialties essentially based on pelvic or breast examination (i.e. gynecology, urology, proctology and mastology), compared with others (33.4% versus 9.7%; OR = 4.69; 95% CI = 3.33-6.61; P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The patients’ model for choice of their physician does not seem to involve physicians’ gender in general or in the majority of medical specialties. The data presented in this study may make it easier to understand patients’ preferences and concerns.
  • Investigation of the effect of ultrasonography-guided bilateral erector spinae plane block on postoperative opioid consumption and pain scores in patients undergoing hepatectomy: a prospective, randomized, controlled study Original Article

    Hacıbeyoğlu, Gülçin; Topal, Ahmet; Küçükkartallar, Tevfik; Yılmaz, Resul; Arıcan, Şule; Uzun, Sema Tuncer

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: There is still a debate about what constitutes effective and safe postoperative analgesia in hepatectomy surgery. Erector spinae plane (ESP) block may be an important part of multimodal analgesia application in hepatectomy surgery. OBJECTIVES: To compare the effects of ultrasound-guided bilateral erector spinae plane block combined with intravenous (iv) patient-controlled analgesia (iv PCA), in comparison with iv PCA alone, in hepatectomy surgery. DESIGN AND SETTINGS: Randomized prospective single-blinded study in a tertiary university hospital. METHODS: Fifty patients scheduled for elective hepatectomy surgery were included in the study. Patients were randomized into the ESP group or the control group. In the ESP group, bilateral ESP block was performed preoperatively and iv PCA was used. In the control group, only iv PCA was used. Numerical rating scale (NRS) scores at rest and coughing, analgesic requirements and occurrences of nausea and vomiting were recorded. RESULTS: Intraoperative and postoperative opioid consumption, rescue analgesia requirement and resting and dynamic NRS scores were significantly lower in the ESP group (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference between two groups in terms of the presence of dynamic pain after the first postoperative hour. While all patients in the control group had nausea and vomiting, 24% of the patients in the ESP group did not have nausea and vomiting. CONCLUSION: This study showed that ESP block can be used as a part of multimodal analgesia, with the benefit of reducing opioid consumption and postoperative nausea and vomiting in hepatectomy surgery. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ACTRN12620000466943.
  • Brazilian initial experience with lung transplantation due to irreversible lung fibrosis post-COVID-19 in a national reference center: a cohort study Original Article

    Reis, Flavio Pola dos; Fernandes, Lucas Matos; Abdalla, Luis Gustavo; Campos, Silvia Vidal; Camargo, Priscila Cilene Leon Bueno de; Santos, Samuel Lucas dos; Aguiar, Ivana Teixeira de; Pires, Juliana Patricia; Costa, Andre Nathan; Carraro, Rafael Medeiros; Teixeira, Ricardo Henrique de Oliveira Braga; Pêgo-Fernandes, Paulo Manuel

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Lung transplantation (LTx) has been discussed as an option for treating irreversible lung fibrosis post-coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), in selected cases. OBJECTIVES: To report on the initial experience and management of end-stage lung disease due to COVID-19 at a national center reference in Brazil. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cohort study conducted at a national reference center for lung transplantation. METHODS: Medical charts were reviewed regarding patients’ demographics and pre-COVID-19 characteristics, post-LTx due to COVID-19. RESULTS: Between March 2020 and September 2021, there were 33 cases of LTx. During this period, we evaluated 11 cases of severe COVID-19-related acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) that were potentially candidates for LTx. Among these, LTx was only indicated for three patients (9.1%). All of these patients were on venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), and the procedure that they underwent was central venoarterial ECMO. All three patients were still alive after the first 30 postoperative days. However, patient #1 and patient #2 subsequently died due to fungal sepsis on the 47th and 52nd postoperative days, respectively. Patient #3 was discharged on the 30th postoperative day. CONCLUSIONS: LTx is feasible among these complex patients. Survival over the first 30 days was 100%, and this favors surgical feasibility. Nonetheless, these were critically ill patients.
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