Accessibility / Report Error

Psychoeducation for Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: What, How and Who Shall We Inform?

Abstract

The aim of this study was to review scientific publications about Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) psychoeducation. A systematic review of literature was performed in eight national and international databases (Scielo Brazil, Index Psi, Pepsic, Lilacs, ScienceDirect, PsycINFO, Medline, and Scopus) using the combination of ADHD and psychoeducation as keywords. In total, 504 studies were found, although only 29 met the inclusion criteria. Afterwards, the information was organized into categories: the concept of psychoeducation, target population, focus of ADHD psychoeducation, variables related to ADHD psychoeducation, and the characteristics of intervention on ADHD psychoeducation. Results show that not all studies present the concept of psychoeducation adopted by the authors. In general, psychoeducation has focused on the relatives of people with ADHD and carried out as group sessions, lectures, and manuals. ADHD psychoeducation contributes to a better understanding of the disorder, treatment adherence, quality of life, and decreased symptoms of ADHD.

Keywords:
Attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity; psychoeducation; literature review

Resumo

O objetivo deste estudo foi caracterizar as publicações científicas sobre psicoeducação do Transtorno do Déficit de Atenção/Hiperatividade (TDAH). Foi realizada uma revisão sistemática da literatura em oito bases de dados nacionais e internacionais. Utilizou-se a combinação das palavras-chave TDAH e psicoeducação. No total, foram encontrados 504 trabalhos completos, mas apenas 29 preencheram os critérios de inclusão para análise na íntegra. As informações foram organizadas nas categorias: conceito de psicoeducação, público-alvo, foco da psicoeducação do TDAH, variáveis relacionadas à psicoeducação do TDAH, e características das intervenções em psicoeducação do TDAH. Verificou-se que nem todas as publicações apresentam claramente o conceito de psicoeducação utilizado. Em geral, a psicoeducação tem sido destinada a familiares de pessoas com TDAH, e conduzida em formato de sessões grupais, palestras e manuais. A psicoeducação do TDAH contribui para maior conhecimento sobre o transtorno, adesão ao tratamento, qualidade de vida e menor intensidade dos sintomas do TDAH.

Palavras-chave:
Transtorno da falta de atenção com hiperatividade; psicoeducação; revisão de literatura

Resumen

El objetivo de este estudio fue caracterizar las publicaciones científicas sobre la psicoeducación del Trastorno por Déficit de Atención/Hiperactividad (TDAH). Se realizó una revisión sistemática de la literatura en ocho bases de datos nacionales e internacionales con la combinación de palabras clave psicoeducación y TDAH. En total, fueran encontrados 504 estudios, pero sólo 29 cumplieron los criterios de inclusión para el análisis en su totalidad. La información se organiza en categorías: concepto de la psicoeducación, la audiencia, el enfoque de la psicoeducación del TDAH, las variables relacionadas con la psicoeducación del TDAH, y características de las intervenciones en la psicoeducación del TDAH. Se ha encontrado que no todas las publicaciones muestran claramente el concepto de psicoeducación utilizado. En general, la psicoeducación se ha diseñado para familiares de personas con TDAH, y llevado a cabo en el formato de sesiones de grupo, conferencias y manuales. La psicoeducación del TDAH contribuye a un mayor conocimiento sobre el trastorno, la adherencia al tratamiento, calidad de vida y menor intensidad de los síntomas del TDAH.

Palabras clave:
Trastorno por Déficit de Atención/Hiperactividad; psicoeducación; revisión de literatura

Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is characterized by a persistent pattern of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity (American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2013). These symptoms are of neurobiological origin and are due to the inability to sustain attention, inhibit impulsive reactions and think before acting (Barkley, Fischer, Smallish, & Fletcher, 2002Barkley, R. A., Fischer, M., Smallish, L., & Fletcher, K. (2002). The persistence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder into young adulthood as a function of reporting source and definition of disorder. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 111(2),279-89. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021843X.111.2.279
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021843X.111.2...
). As a result, people diagnosed with this disorder tend to present academic, professional, family, and social impairments. Additionally, ADHD is considered a chronic disease. Symptoms begin before the age of 12 (APA, 2013), tend to remain throughout life in approximately 70% of cases (Lara et al., 2009Lara, C., Fayyad, J., De Graaf, R., Kessler, R. C., Aguilar-Gaxiola, S., Angermeyer, M., ...Karam, E. G. (2009). Childhood predictors of adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Results from the World Health Organization World Mental Health Survey Initiative. Biological Psychiatry, 65(1),46-54. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2008.10.005
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2008....
) and change according to the period of individual development. In adulthood, inattention can be manifested by avoiding activities that require attention maintenance, such as watching movies and reading; hyperactivity in the form of internal restlessness or discomfort; and impulsiveness may appear in decisions made without thinking about the consequences (Conners, 2009Conners, C. K. (2009). Diagnóstico e avaliação do TDAH. In C. K. Conners, Transtorno de déficit de Atenção/hiperatividade: As mais recentes estratégias de avaliação e tratamento. Porto Alegre, RS: Artmed.).

Regardless of the developmental stage, treatment for people with this disorder involves a combination of medication (to minimize the symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity) and the adoption of psychological interventions, such as those proposed by cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), which aim to develop strategies to deal with residual symptoms (Mongolia & Hechtman, 2016; Sprich, Safren, Finkelstein, Remmert, & Hammerness, 2016Sprich, S. E., Safren, S. A. , Finkelstein, D., Remmert, J. E., & Hammerness, P. (2016). A randomized controlled trial of cognitive behavioral therapy for ADHD in medication-treated adolescents. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. doi: 10.1111/jcpp.12549
https://doi.org/10.1111/jcpp.12549...
). However, nonadherence to treatment may range from 13.2% to 64.0% (McCarthy, 2014McCarthy, S. (2014). Pharmacological interventions for ADHD: How do adolescent and adult patient beliefs and attitudes impact treatment adherence? Patient Preference & Adherence, 8, 1317-1327.). Among the factors that concur to nonadherence are the lack of knowledge of ADHD, medication characteristics, and treatment goals (Charach & Fernandez, 2013Charach, A., & Fernandez, R. (2013). Enhancing ADHD medication adherence: Challenges and opportunities. Current Psychiatry Reports, 15(7),1-8. doi: 10.1007/s11920-013-0371-6
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11920-013-0371-...
). Therefore, providing information about these aspects to patients and their families is important for them to seek and maintain adequate treatment.

The use of the term psychoeducation began in the 1980s and referred to the transmission of information about mental disorders to family members and psychotic patients. In the 1990s, psychoeducation focused on other groups with different mental disorders (such as bipolar disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, etc.; Bon-sack, Rexhaj, & Favrod, 2015). Currently, this term refers both to the provision of relevant information to patients about the disorder (diagnosis, etiology, functioning), treatment and prognosis, as well as to the clarification of doubts and corrections of distorted information. Psychoeducation aims to broaden the knowledge of the patient/family member about their problem (Menezes & Souza, 2012Menezes, S. L., & Souza, M. C. B. (2012). Implicações de um grupo de psicoeducação no cotidiano de portadores de transtorno afetivo bipolar. Revista da Escola de Enfermagem da USP, 46(1),124-131. doi: 10.1590/S0080-62342012000100017
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0080-6234201200...
; Swadi, Bobier, Price, & Craig, 2010Swadi, H., Bobier, C., Price, L., & Craig, B. (2010). Lessons from an audit of psycho-education at an older adolescent inpatient unit. Australasian Psychiatry, 18(1),53-58. doi: 10.1080/10398560902721580
https://doi.org/10.1080/1039856090272158...
) in order to increase the understanding of their condition and help in decision making based on reliable information, as well as to promote treatment adherence (Bégin, Bluteau, Arseneault, & Pronovost, 2012Bégin, J. Y., Bluteau, J., Arseneault, C., & Pronovost, J. (2012). Psychoeducation in Quebec: Past to Present. Ricerche di Pedagogia e Didattica . Journal of Theories and Research in Education, 7(1),1-16. doi: 10.6092/issn.1970-2221/2681
https://doi.org/10.6092/issn.1970-2221/2...
; Bonsack et al., 2015Bonsack, C., Rexhaj, S., & Favrod, J. (2015). Psychoéducation: définition, historique, intérêt et limites. Annales Médico-psychologiques, 173(1),79-84. doi: 10.1016/j.amp.2014.12.001
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amp.2014.12.00...
, Swaminath, 2009Swaminath, G. (2009). Psychoeducation. Indian journal of psychiatry, 51(3),171-172. doi: 10.4103/0019-5545.55082
https://doi.org/10.4103/0019-5545.55082...
). Didactic manner and appropriate language should always be considered for the target population, which may consist of patients, family members, educators, and health professionals. The transmission of such knowledge can be done in different forms, individually or in groups, and include lectures, conversation wheels, manuals, videos or bibliotherapy (Bai, Wang, Yang, & Niu, 2015Bai, G. N., Wang, Y. F., Yang, L., & Niu, W. Y. (2015). Effectiveness of a focused, brief psycho-education program for parents of ADHD children: improvement of medication adherence and symptoms. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, 11,2721-2735. doi: 10.2147/NDT.S88625
https://doi.org/10.2147/NDT.S88625...
). Psychoeducation presents various benefits, such as increased knowledge about the disorder, motivation for change, participation in treatment, satisfaction with psychological treatment, greater adherence to it, and relapse reduction (Burlingame, Ridge, Matasuno, Hwang, & Ernshaw, 2006Burlingame, G., Ridge, N., Matasuno, J., Hwang, A., & Ernshaw, D. (2006). Educational needs of inpatients with severe and persistent mental illnesses. Journal of Psychosocial Nursing, 44(1),39-43.; Knapp, 2004Knapp, P. (2004). Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental na Prática Psiquiátrica. Porto Alegre, RS: Artmed.; Nussey, Pistrang, & Murphy, 2013Nussey, C., Pistrang, N., & Murphy, T. (2013). How does psychoeducation help? A review of the effects of providing information about Tourette syndrome and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Child: Care, Health and Development, 39(5),617-627. doi: 10.1111/cch.12039
https://doi.org/10.1111/cch.12039...
).

Psychoeducation programs are more effective in reducing the symptoms of ADHD when compared to isolated drug treatments, which indicates psychoeducation as a valid additional approach for treating ADHD (Ferrin et al., 2016Ferrin, M. , Perez-Ayala, V. , El-Abd, S., Lax-Pericall, T., Jacobs, B., Bilbow, A., & Taylor, E. (2016). A randomized controlled trial evaluating the efficacy of a psychoeducation program for families of children and adolescents with ADHD in the United Kingdom: Results after a 6-month follow-up. Journal of Attention Disorders, 1-12. doi: 10.1177/1087054715626509
https://doi.org/10.1177/1087054715626509...
). In addition, identifying information relevant to each case, tailoring the information transfer according to the characteristics of the target population, and verifying if the message was in fact understood may contribute to the patient's engagement in treatment (Burlingame et al., 2006Burlingame, G., Ridge, N., Matasuno, J., Hwang, A., & Ernshaw, D. (2006). Educational needs of inpatients with severe and persistent mental illnesses. Journal of Psychosocial Nursing, 44(1),39-43.; Knapp, 2004Knapp, P. (2004). Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental na Prática Psiquiátrica. Porto Alegre, RS: Artmed.). Therefore, the objective of this study was to characterize scientific publications on the psychoeducation of ADHD. In particular, the objective was to identify the concept of psychoeducation used by researchers, to whom psychoeducation is intended, as well as the focus of psychoeducation and the related variables and interventions in psychoeducation for ADHD.

Method

A systematic review of the literature on psychoeducation of ADHD was carried out. The search was performed on the Scielo Brazil, Index Psi, Pepsic, Lilacs, ScienceDirect, PsycINFO, Medline, and Scopus databases. These databases were chosen based on their access to the full texts of national (Scielo Brazil, Index Psi and Pepsic) and international publications (Lilacs, ScienceDirect, PsycINFO, Medline and Scopus) in the electronic medium. Combinations between the descriptors ADHD/TDAH or Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder/Transtorno do Déficit de Atenção/Hiperatividade with psychoeducation/psicoeducação, bibliotherapy/biblioterapia or psychoeducational intervention/intervenção psicoeducativa were used in the abstract field. These keywords were chosen based on the purpose of the study.

In total, 504 complete papers were found. Searches in the Brazilian databases identified only three papers using the combined descriptors. Of these, only one was incorporated into the final sample (Mesquita, Porto, Rangé, & Ventura, 2009Mesquita, C. M. D., Porto, P. R., Rangé, B. P., & Ventura, P. R. (2009). Terapia cognitivo-comportamental e o TDAH subtipo desatento: Uma área inexplorada. Revista Brasileira de Terapias Cognitivas, 5(1),35-45. doi: 10.5935/18085687.20090004
https://doi.org/10.5935/18085687.2009000...
), since the other two were duplicates or unavailable. The remaining 501 articles were retrieved from international databases, in which two judges read the abstracts in order to delimit the sample of papers. The inclusion criteria for article participation in the final sample of this study were: (a) to address psychoeducation of ADHD, (b) to be written in Portuguese, English or Spanish, and (c) to be published in scientific journals, meaning books, book chapters, dissertations and theses were not included. In this stage of analysis, 475 studies were excluded (figure 1). The concordance index among judges was 89.65%. Disagreements were solved by accessing the publications as a whole and re-evaluating them according to the first inclusion criterion.

figure 1
Screening procedures of retrieved articles

The final sample consisted of 29 international publications, which were evaluated in four stages: exploratory, selective, analytical and interpretive reading (Gil, 2006Gil, A. C. (2006). Métodos e técnicas de pesquisa social. São Paulo, SP: Atlas.). In the first stage, the papers were read entirely. In the second stage, an in-depth reading of the method, results and conclusion sections was done. The third stage consists of organizing the information in order to identify the main characteristics of psychoeducation (concept, target population, focus and related variables). The fourth and final step groups the information into categories defined a priori, based on the objective of the study:

1. Concept of psychoeducation,

2. Target population,

3. Focus of ADHD psychoeducation,

4. Variables related to psychoeducation of ADHD,

5. Characteristics of interventions in psycho-education of ADHD.

Results and Discussion

Overall, 29 international studies were analyzed, in which 14 had experimental designs (Aguiar et al., 2014Aguiar, A. P., Kieling, R. R., Costa, A. C., Chardosim, N., Dorneles, B. V., Almeida, M. R., ...Rohde, L. A. (2014). Increasing teachers' knowledge about ADHD and learning disorders: An investigation on the role of a psychoeducational intervention. Journal of Attention Disorders, 18(8),691-698. doi: 10.1177/1087054712453171
https://doi.org/10.1177/1087054712453171...
; Anderson & Guthery, 2015Anderson, S. B., & Guthery, A. M. (2015). Mindfulness- based psychoeducation for parents of children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: An applied clinical project. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing, 28(1),43-49. doi: 10.1111/jcap.12103
https://doi.org/10.1111/jcap.12103...
; Bai et al., 2015Bai, G. N., Wang, Y. F., Yang, L., & Niu, W. Y. (2015). Effectiveness of a focused, brief psycho-education program for parents of ADHD children: improvement of medication adherence and symptoms. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, 11,2721-2735. doi: 10.2147/NDT.S88625
https://doi.org/10.2147/NDT.S88625...
; Ferrin et al., 2014Ferrin, M., Moreno-Granados, J. M., Salcedo-Marin, M. D., Ruiz-Veguilla, M., Perez-Ayala, V., & Taylor, E. (2014). Evaluation of a psychoeducation programme for parents of children and adolescents with ADHD: Immediate and long-term effects using a blind randomized controlled trial. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 23(8),637-647. doi: 10.1007/s00787-013-0494-7
https://doi.org/10.1007/s00787-013-0494-...
; Hirvikoski, Waaler, Lindström, Bölte, & Jokinen, 2015Hirvikoski, T., Waaler, E., Lindström, T., Bölte, S., & Jokinen, J. (2015). Cognitive behavior therapy-based psychoeducational groups for adults with ADHD and their significant others (PEGASUS): An open clinical feasibility trial. ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders, 7(1),89-99. doi: 10.1007/s12402-014-0141-2
https://doi.org/10.1007/s12402-014-0141-...
; Janssen et al., 2014Janssen, M., Wensing, M., van der Gaag, R. J., Cornelissen, I., van Deurzen, P., & Buitelaar, J. (2014). Improving patient care for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children by organizational redesign (Tornado program) and enhanced collaboration between psychiatry and general practice: A controlled before and after study. Implementation Science, 9(1),155-162. doi: 10.1186/s13012-014-0155-3
https://doi.org/10.1186/s13012-014-0155-...
; Kądziela-Olech, 2012Kądziela-Olech, H. (2012). Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children - The role of psychoeducation in longitudinal study. Psychiatria i Psychologia Kliniczna, 12(3),149-156.; Korzeniowsk & Ison, 2008Korzeniowsk, C., & Ison, M. (2008). Estrategias psicoeducativas para padres y docentes de niños con TDAH. Revista Argentina de Clínica Psicológica, 18(1),65-71.; Long, Rickert, & Ashcraft, 1993Long, N., Rickert, V. I., & Ashcraft, E. W. (1993). Bibliotherapy as an adjunct to stimulant medication in the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Pediatric Health Care, 7(2),82-88. doi: 10.1016/08915245(93)90078-V
https://doi.org/10.1016/08915245(93)9007...
; McCarty, Vander Stoep, Violette, & Myers, 2015McCarty, C. A., Vander Stoep, A., Violette, H., & Myers, K. (2015). Interventions developed for psychiatric and behavioral treatment in the Children's ADHD Telemental Health Treatment Study. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 24(6),1735-1743. doi: 10.1007/s10826-014-9977-5
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-014-9977-...
; McCleary & Ridley, 1999McCleary, L., & Ridley, T. (1999). Parenting adolescents with ADHD: Evaluation of a psychoeducation group. Patient Education and Counseling, 38(1),3-10. doi: 10.1016/S07383991(98)00110-4
https://doi.org/10.1016/S07383991(98)001...
; Montoya et al., 2014Montoya, A. , Hervás, A., Fuentes, J., Cardo, E., Polavieja, P., Quintero, J., & Tannock, R. (2014). Cluster-randomized, controlled 12-month trial to evaluate the effect of a parental psychoeducation program on medication persistence in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, 10, 1081-1092. doi: 10.2147/NDT.S62487
https://doi.org/10.2147/NDT.S62487...
; Myers, Vander Stoep, Thompson, Zhou, & Unützer, 2010Myers, K. , Vander Stoep, A. , Thompson, K., Zhou, C., & Unützer, J. (2010). Collaborative care for the treatment of Hispanic children diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. General Hospital Psychiatry, 32(6),612-614. doi: 10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2010.08.004
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2...
; Vidal et al., 2013Vidal, R., Bosch, R., Nogueira, M., Gómez-Barros, N., Valero, S., Palomar, G., ...Ramos-Quiroga, J. A. (2013). Psychoeducation for adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder vs. cognitive behavioral group therapy: A randomized controlled pilot study. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 201(10),894-900. doi: 10.1097/NMD.0b013e3182a5c2c5
https://doi.org/10.1097/NMD.0b013e3182a5...
); eight were literature reviews (Asherson, 2012Asherson, P. (2012). ADHD across the lifespan. Medicine, 40(11),623-627. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mpmed.2012.08.007
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mpmed.2012.0...
; Hernández & Gutiérrez, 2014Hernández, P. R., & Gutiérrez, I. C. (2014). Plan de tratamiento multimodal del TDAH. Tratamiento psicoeducativo. Pediatría Integral, 18(9),624-633.; Hill, 2015Hill, P. (2015). Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents: Assessment and treatment. BJPsych Advances, 21(1),23-30. doi: 10.1192/apt.bp.114.013953
https://doi.org/10.1192/apt.bp.114.01395...
; Knouse, Cooper-Vince, Sprich, & Safren, 2008Knouse, L. E., Cooper-Vince, C., Sprich, S., & Safren, S. A. (2008). Recent developments in the psychosocial treatment of adult ADHD. Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics, 8(10),1537-1548. doi: 10.1586/14737175.8.10.1537
https://doi.org/10.1586/14737175.8.10.15...
; Montoya, Colom, & Ferrin, 2011Montoya, A., Colom, F., & Ferrin, M. (2011). Is psychoeducation for parents and teachers of children and adolescents with ADHD efficacious? A systematic literature review. European Psychiatry, 26(3),166-175. doi: 10.1016/j.eurpsy.2010.10.005
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eurpsy.2010.10...
; Murphy, 2005Murphy, K. (2005). Psychosocial treatments for ADHD in teens and adults: A practice-friendly review. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 61(5),607-619. doi: 10.1002/jclp.20123
https://doi.org/10.1002/jclp.20123...
; Nussey et al., 2013Nussey, C., Pistrang, N., & Murphy, T. (2013). How does psychoeducation help? A review of the effects of providing information about Tourette syndrome and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Child: Care, Health and Development, 39(5),617-627. doi: 10.1111/cch.12039
https://doi.org/10.1111/cch.12039...
; Young, 1999Young, S. (1999). Psychological therapy for adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Counselling Psychology Quarterly, 12(2),183-190. doi: 10.1080/09515079908254088
https://doi.org/10.1080/0951507990825408...
); four were surveys (Altin, Altin, & Semerci, 2016Altin, M., Altin, G. E., & Semerci, B. (2016). An online survey of Turkish psychiatrists' attitudes about and experiences of adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in clinical practice. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, 12,2455-2461. doi: 10.2147/NDT.S110720
https://doi.org/10.2147/NDT.S110720...
; Bussing et al., 2012Bussing, R., Zima, B. T., Mason, D. M., Meyer, J. M., White, K., & Garvan, C. W. (2012). ADHD knowledge, perceptions, and information sources: Perspectives from a community sample of adolescents and their parents. Journal of Adolescent Health, 51(6),593-600. doi: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2012.03.004
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.201...
; Coletti et al., 2012Coletti, D. J., Pappadopulos, E., Katsiotas, N. J., Berest, A., Jensen, P. S., & Kafantaris, V. (2012). Parent perspectives on the decision to initiate medication treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology, 22(3),226-237. doi: 10.1089/cap.2011.0090
https://doi.org/10.1089/cap.2011.0090...
; Palacios-Cruz et al., 2013Palacios-Cruz, L., de la Peña Olvera, F., Figueroa, G. V., Caballero, A. A., de la Rosa Muñoz, L., Pedroza, ...Flores, R. E. U. (2013). Knowledge and beliefs about attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in teachers from three Latin-American countries. Salud Mental, 36,257-262.); and three were case studies (Hogue, Bobek, & Evans, 2014Hogue, A., Bobek, M., & Evans, S. W. (2014). Changing Academic Support in the home for adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A family-based clinical protocol for improving school performance. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 23,14-30. doi: 10.1016/j.cbpra.2014.07.002
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpra.2014.07....
; Levine & Anshel, 2011Levine, E. S., & Anshel, D. J. (2011). "Nothing works!" A case study using cognitive-behavioral interventions to engage parents, educators, and children in the management of attentiondeficit/hyperactivity disorder. Psychology in the Schools, 48(3),297-306. doi: 10.1002/pits.20554
https://doi.org/10.1002/pits.20554...
; Mesquita et al., 2009Mesquita, C. M. D., Porto, P. R., Rangé, B. P., & Ventura, P. R. (2009). Terapia cognitivo-comportamental e o TDAH subtipo desatento: Uma área inexplorada. Revista Brasileira de Terapias Cognitivas, 5(1),35-45. doi: 10.5935/18085687.20090004
https://doi.org/10.5935/18085687.2009000...
). In general, studies with an experimental design and case studies consist of ADHD psychoeducational interventions for family members of children or adolescents with ADHD. Literature reviews presented ADHD psychoeducation for children, adolescents, adults, family, and school and health professionals. finally, the survey studies sought to assess the knowledge of adolescents, parents and teachers about ADHD. Information on the concept of psychoeducation adopted by the researchers, target population, psychoeducation focus, and related variables are described in Table 1.

Table 1
Characteristics of ADHD Psychoeducation in this Sample of Articles

Concept of Psychoeducation

Psychoeducation is a result of the integration of several theories and complementary clinical models, such as cognitive-behavioral theory, learning theory, group practice model, stress modeling and coping strategies, social support model, among others (Lukens & McFarlane, 2004Lukens, E. P., & McFarlane, W. R. (2004). Psycho-education as evidence-based practice: Considerations for practice, research, and policy. Brief Treatment and Crisis Intervention, 4(3),205. doi: 10.1093/brief-treatment/mhh019
https://doi.org/10.1093/brief-treatment/...
). For instance, professionals can apply psychoeducation as an isolated cognitive intervention (Bäuml, Froböse, Kraemer, Rentrop, & Pitschel-Walz, 2006Bäuml, J., Froböse, T., Kraemer, S., Rentrop, M., & Pitschel-Walz, G. (2006). Psychoeducation: A basic psychotherapeutic intervention for patients with schizophrenia and their families. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 32(1),51-59. doi: 10.1093/schbul/sbl017
https://doi.org/10.1093/schbul/sbl017...
) or as a strategy in CBT to increase the understanding of patient's symptoms and engage her or him in treatment (Knapp, 2004Knapp, P. (2004). Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental na Prática Psiquiátrica. Porto Alegre, RS: Artmed.). Therefore, the definition of what researchers understand by psychoeducation is relevant to facilitate the understanding of professionals interested in applying study results to their practice.

Some analyzed articles did not present the concept of psychoeducation adopted by the authors (Aguiar et al., 2014Aguiar, A. P., Kieling, R. R., Costa, A. C., Chardosim, N., Dorneles, B. V., Almeida, M. R., ...Rohde, L. A. (2014). Increasing teachers' knowledge about ADHD and learning disorders: An investigation on the role of a psychoeducational intervention. Journal of Attention Disorders, 18(8),691-698. doi: 10.1177/1087054712453171
https://doi.org/10.1177/1087054712453171...
; Anderson & Guthery, 2015Anderson, S. B., & Guthery, A. M. (2015). Mindfulness- based psychoeducation for parents of children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: An applied clinical project. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing, 28(1),43-49. doi: 10.1111/jcap.12103
https://doi.org/10.1111/jcap.12103...
; Asherson, 2012Asherson, P. (2012). ADHD across the lifespan. Medicine, 40(11),623-627. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mpmed.2012.08.007
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mpmed.2012.0...
; Coletti et al., 2012Coletti, D. J., Pappadopulos, E., Katsiotas, N. J., Berest, A., Jensen, P. S., & Kafantaris, V. (2012). Parent perspectives on the decision to initiate medication treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology, 22(3),226-237. doi: 10.1089/cap.2011.0090
https://doi.org/10.1089/cap.2011.0090...
; Hill, 2015Hill, P. (2015). Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents: Assessment and treatment. BJPsych Advances, 21(1),23-30. doi: 10.1192/apt.bp.114.013953
https://doi.org/10.1192/apt.bp.114.01395...
; Janssen et al., 2014Janssen, M., Wensing, M., van der Gaag, R. J., Cornelissen, I., van Deurzen, P., & Buitelaar, J. (2014). Improving patient care for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children by organizational redesign (Tornado program) and enhanced collaboration between psychiatry and general practice: A controlled before and after study. Implementation Science, 9(1),155-162. doi: 10.1186/s13012-014-0155-3
https://doi.org/10.1186/s13012-014-0155-...
; Knouse et al., 2008Knouse, L. E., Cooper-Vince, C., Sprich, S., & Safren, S. A. (2008). Recent developments in the psychosocial treatment of adult ADHD. Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics, 8(10),1537-1548. doi: 10.1586/14737175.8.10.1537
https://doi.org/10.1586/14737175.8.10.15...
; Korzeniowsk & Ison, 2008Korzeniowsk, C., & Ison, M. (2008). Estrategias psicoeducativas para padres y docentes de niños con TDAH. Revista Argentina de Clínica Psicológica, 18(1),65-71.; Montoya et al., 2014Montoya, A. , Hervás, A., Fuentes, J., Cardo, E., Polavieja, P., Quintero, J., & Tannock, R. (2014). Cluster-randomized, controlled 12-month trial to evaluate the effect of a parental psychoeducation program on medication persistence in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, 10, 1081-1092. doi: 10.2147/NDT.S62487
https://doi.org/10.2147/NDT.S62487...
; Myers et al., 2010Myers, K. , Vander Stoep, A. , Thompson, K., Zhou, C., & Unützer, J. (2010). Collaborative care for the treatment of Hispanic children diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. General Hospital Psychiatry, 32(6),612-614. doi: 10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2010.08.004
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2...
; Nussey et al., 2013Nussey, C., Pistrang, N., & Murphy, T. (2013). How does psychoeducation help? A review of the effects of providing information about Tourette syndrome and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Child: Care, Health and Development, 39(5),617-627. doi: 10.1111/cch.12039
https://doi.org/10.1111/cch.12039...
; Palacios-Cruz et al., 2013Palacios-Cruz, L., de la Peña Olvera, F., Figueroa, G. V., Caballero, A. A., de la Rosa Muñoz, L., Pedroza, ...Flores, R. E. U. (2013). Knowledge and beliefs about attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in teachers from three Latin-American countries. Salud Mental, 36,257-262.). One study (Murphy, 2005Murphy, K. (2005). Psychosocial treatments for ADHD in teens and adults: A practice-friendly review. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 61(5),607-619. doi: 10.1002/jclp.20123
https://doi.org/10.1002/jclp.20123...
) described the benefits of patients and families in acquiring knowledge about ADHD, how to identify what harms them, and how to develop realistic treatment goals. However, this study did not present a clear definition of psychoeducation.

Other studies defined psychoeducation as a form of interactive intervention between professionals and the patient(s)/family (Bai et al., 2015Bai, G. N., Wang, Y. F., Yang, L., & Niu, W. Y. (2015). Effectiveness of a focused, brief psycho-education program for parents of ADHD children: improvement of medication adherence and symptoms. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, 11,2721-2735. doi: 10.2147/NDT.S88625
https://doi.org/10.2147/NDT.S88625...
; Hirvikoski et al., 2015Hirvikoski, T., Waaler, E., Lindström, T., Bölte, S., & Jokinen, J. (2015). Cognitive behavior therapy-based psychoeducational groups for adults with ADHD and their significant others (PEGASUS): An open clinical feasibility trial. ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders, 7(1),89-99. doi: 10.1007/s12402-014-0141-2
https://doi.org/10.1007/s12402-014-0141-...
; Hogue et al., 2014Hogue, A., Bobek, M., & Evans, S. W. (2014). Changing Academic Support in the home for adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A family-based clinical protocol for improving school performance. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 23,14-30. doi: 10.1016/j.cbpra.2014.07.002
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpra.2014.07....
; Montoya et al., 2011Montoya, A., Colom, F., & Ferrin, M. (2011). Is psychoeducation for parents and teachers of children and adolescents with ADHD efficacious? A systematic literature review. European Psychiatry, 26(3),166-175. doi: 10.1016/j.eurpsy.2010.10.005
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eurpsy.2010.10...
). Psychoeducational intervention assesses perceptions of the disorder and treatment (Bussing et al., 2012Bussing, R., Zima, B. T., Mason, D. M., Meyer, J. M., White, K., & Garvan, C. W. (2012). ADHD knowledge, perceptions, and information sources: Perspectives from a community sample of adolescents and their parents. Journal of Adolescent Health, 51(6),593-600. doi: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2012.03.004
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.201...
; Young, 1999Young, S. (1999). Psychological therapy for adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Counselling Psychology Quarterly, 12(2),183-190. doi: 10.1080/09515079908254088
https://doi.org/10.1080/0951507990825408...
), and then provides information about ADHD and coping strategies in a systematic and didactic way (Bai et al., 2015Bai, G. N., Wang, Y. F., Yang, L., & Niu, W. Y. (2015). Effectiveness of a focused, brief psycho-education program for parents of ADHD children: improvement of medication adherence and symptoms. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, 11,2721-2735. doi: 10.2147/NDT.S88625
https://doi.org/10.2147/NDT.S88625...
; Ferrin, et al., 2014Ferrin, M., Moreno-Granados, J. M., Salcedo-Marin, M. D., Ruiz-Veguilla, M., Perez-Ayala, V., & Taylor, E. (2014). Evaluation of a psychoeducation programme for parents of children and adolescents with ADHD: Immediate and long-term effects using a blind randomized controlled trial. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 23(8),637-647. doi: 10.1007/s00787-013-0494-7
https://doi.org/10.1007/s00787-013-0494-...
; Hogue et al., 2014Hogue, A., Bobek, M., & Evans, S. W. (2014). Changing Academic Support in the home for adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A family-based clinical protocol for improving school performance. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 23,14-30. doi: 10.1016/j.cbpra.2014.07.002
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpra.2014.07....
; Montoya et al., 2011Montoya, A., Colom, F., & Ferrin, M. (2011). Is psychoeducation for parents and teachers of children and adolescents with ADHD efficacious? A systematic literature review. European Psychiatry, 26(3),166-175. doi: 10.1016/j.eurpsy.2010.10.005
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eurpsy.2010.10...
). Its goal is to help patients and others involved to understand the disorder, its consequences and treatment goals (Altin et al., 2016Altin, M., Altin, G. E., & Semerci, B. (2016). An online survey of Turkish psychiatrists' attitudes about and experiences of adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in clinical practice. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, 12,2455-2461. doi: 10.2147/NDT.S110720
https://doi.org/10.2147/NDT.S110720...
; Hernández & Gutiérrez 2014Hernández, P. R., & Gutiérrez, I. C. (2014). Plan de tratamiento multimodal del TDAH. Tratamiento psicoeducativo. Pediatría Integral, 18(9),624-633.; Kądziela-Olech, 2012Kądziela-Olech, H. (2012). Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children - The role of psychoeducation in longitudinal study. Psychiatria i Psychologia Kliniczna, 12(3),149-156.; Levine & Anshel, 2011Levine, E. S., & Anshel, D. J. (2011). "Nothing works!" A case study using cognitive-behavioral interventions to engage parents, educators, and children in the management of attentiondeficit/hyperactivity disorder. Psychology in the Schools, 48(3),297-306. doi: 10.1002/pits.20554
https://doi.org/10.1002/pits.20554...
; McCarty et al., 2015McCarty, C. A., Vander Stoep, A., Violette, H., & Myers, K. (2015). Interventions developed for psychiatric and behavioral treatment in the Children's ADHD Telemental Health Treatment Study. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 24(6),1735-1743. doi: 10.1007/s10826-014-9977-5
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-014-9977-...
; Mesquita et al., 2009Mesquita, C. M. D., Porto, P. R., Rangé, B. P., & Ventura, P. R. (2009). Terapia cognitivo-comportamental e o TDAH subtipo desatento: Uma área inexplorada. Revista Brasileira de Terapias Cognitivas, 5(1),35-45. doi: 10.5935/18085687.20090004
https://doi.org/10.5935/18085687.2009000...
; Vidal et al., 2013Vidal, R., Bosch, R., Nogueira, M., Gómez-Barros, N., Valero, S., Palomar, G., ...Ramos-Quiroga, J. A. (2013). Psychoeducation for adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder vs. cognitive behavioral group therapy: A randomized controlled pilot study. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 201(10),894-900. doi: 10.1097/NMD.0b013e3182a5c2c5
https://doi.org/10.1097/NMD.0b013e3182a5...
; Young, 1999Young, S. (1999). Psychological therapy for adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Counselling Psychology Quarterly, 12(2),183-190. doi: 10.1080/09515079908254088
https://doi.org/10.1080/0951507990825408...
) as well as empower patients (Hirvikoski et al., 2015Hirvikoski, T., Waaler, E., Lindström, T., Bölte, S., & Jokinen, J. (2015). Cognitive behavior therapy-based psychoeducational groups for adults with ADHD and their significant others (PEGASUS): An open clinical feasibility trial. ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders, 7(1),89-99. doi: 10.1007/s12402-014-0141-2
https://doi.org/10.1007/s12402-014-0141-...
) and their relatives in dealing with problems associated with the disorder (Levine & Anshel, 2011Levine, E. S., & Anshel, D. J. (2011). "Nothing works!" A case study using cognitive-behavioral interventions to engage parents, educators, and children in the management of attentiondeficit/hyperactivity disorder. Psychology in the Schools, 48(3),297-306. doi: 10.1002/pits.20554
https://doi.org/10.1002/pits.20554...
; McCleary & Ridley, 1999McCleary, L., & Ridley, T. (1999). Parenting adolescents with ADHD: Evaluation of a psychoeducation group. Patient Education and Counseling, 38(1),3-10. doi: 10.1016/S07383991(98)00110-4
https://doi.org/10.1016/S07383991(98)001...
; Mesquita et al., 2009Mesquita, C. M. D., Porto, P. R., Rangé, B. P., & Ventura, P. R. (2009). Terapia cognitivo-comportamental e o TDAH subtipo desatento: Uma área inexplorada. Revista Brasileira de Terapias Cognitivas, 5(1),35-45. doi: 10.5935/18085687.20090004
https://doi.org/10.5935/18085687.2009000...
). Furthermore, bibliotherapy is an alternative that consists of reading as a therapeutic technique, since self-help manuals can be an effective tool for a variety of problems (Long et al., 1993Long, N., Rickert, V. I., & Ashcraft, E. W. (1993). Bibliotherapy as an adjunct to stimulant medication in the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Pediatric Health Care, 7(2),82-88. doi: 10.1016/08915245(93)90078-V
https://doi.org/10.1016/08915245(93)9007...
).

These results reveal the need of clearly defining what the authors understand by psychoeducation and its application as the main intervention or as part of a more comprehensive treatment strategy. Specifying its application in clinical and community settings for various target populations may also be useful for clinicians and researchers (Lukens & McFarlane, 2004Lukens, E. P., & McFarlane, W. R. (2004). Psycho-education as evidence-based practice: Considerations for practice, research, and policy. Brief Treatment and Crisis Intervention, 4(3),205. doi: 10.1093/brief-treatment/mhh019
https://doi.org/10.1093/brief-treatment/...
).

Focus of ADHD Psychoeducation

The objective of psychoeducation is to provide relevant information to the patient or other people interested in a particular subject (Menezes & Souza, 2012Menezes, S. L., & Souza, M. C. B. (2012). Implicações de um grupo de psicoeducação no cotidiano de portadores de transtorno afetivo bipolar. Revista da Escola de Enfermagem da USP, 46(1),124-131. doi: 10.1590/S0080-62342012000100017
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0080-6234201200...
; Swadi et al., 2010Swadi, H., Bobier, C., Price, L., & Craig, B. (2010). Lessons from an audit of psycho-education at an older adolescent inpatient unit. Australasian Psychiatry, 18(1),53-58. doi: 10.1080/10398560902721580
https://doi.org/10.1080/1039856090272158...
). In the sample analyzed, the focus of psychoeducation addressed the disorder itself and treatment options. In particular, the psychoeducation about the disorder itself involved the following aspects: (a) symptoms of the disorder (Aguiar et al., 2014Aguiar, A. P., Kieling, R. R., Costa, A. C., Chardosim, N., Dorneles, B. V., Almeida, M. R., ...Rohde, L. A. (2014). Increasing teachers' knowledge about ADHD and learning disorders: An investigation on the role of a psychoeducational intervention. Journal of Attention Disorders, 18(8),691-698. doi: 10.1177/1087054712453171
https://doi.org/10.1177/1087054712453171...
; Bai et al., 2015Bai, G. N., Wang, Y. F., Yang, L., & Niu, W. Y. (2015). Effectiveness of a focused, brief psycho-education program for parents of ADHD children: improvement of medication adherence and symptoms. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, 11,2721-2735. doi: 10.2147/NDT.S88625
https://doi.org/10.2147/NDT.S88625...
; Coletti et al., 2012Coletti, D. J., Pappadopulos, E., Katsiotas, N. J., Berest, A., Jensen, P. S., & Kafantaris, V. (2012). Parent perspectives on the decision to initiate medication treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology, 22(3),226-237. doi: 10.1089/cap.2011.0090
https://doi.org/10.1089/cap.2011.0090...
; Hernández & Gutiérrez 2014Hernández, P. R., & Gutiérrez, I. C. (2014). Plan de tratamiento multimodal del TDAH. Tratamiento psicoeducativo. Pediatría Integral, 18(9),624-633.; Hirvikoski et al., 2015Hirvikoski, T., Waaler, E., Lindström, T., Bölte, S., & Jokinen, J. (2015). Cognitive behavior therapy-based psychoeducational groups for adults with ADHD and their significant others (PEGASUS): An open clinical feasibility trial. ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders, 7(1),89-99. doi: 10.1007/s12402-014-0141-2
https://doi.org/10.1007/s12402-014-0141-...
; Hogue et al., 2014Hogue, A., Bobek, M., & Evans, S. W. (2014). Changing Academic Support in the home for adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A family-based clinical protocol for improving school performance. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 23,14-30. doi: 10.1016/j.cbpra.2014.07.002
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpra.2014.07....
; Kądziela-Olech, 2012Kądziela-Olech, H. (2012). Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children - The role of psychoeducation in longitudinal study. Psychiatria i Psychologia Kliniczna, 12(3),149-156.; Levine & Anshel, 2011Levine, E. S., & Anshel, D. J. (2011). "Nothing works!" A case study using cognitive-behavioral interventions to engage parents, educators, and children in the management of attentiondeficit/hyperactivity disorder. Psychology in the Schools, 48(3),297-306. doi: 10.1002/pits.20554
https://doi.org/10.1002/pits.20554...
; Mesquita et al., 2009Mesquita, C. M. D., Porto, P. R., Rangé, B. P., & Ventura, P. R. (2009). Terapia cognitivo-comportamental e o TDAH subtipo desatento: Uma área inexplorada. Revista Brasileira de Terapias Cognitivas, 5(1),35-45. doi: 10.5935/18085687.20090004
https://doi.org/10.5935/18085687.2009000...
; Montoya et al., 2014Montoya, A. , Hervás, A., Fuentes, J., Cardo, E., Polavieja, P., Quintero, J., & Tannock, R. (2014). Cluster-randomized, controlled 12-month trial to evaluate the effect of a parental psychoeducation program on medication persistence in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, 10, 1081-1092. doi: 10.2147/NDT.S62487
https://doi.org/10.2147/NDT.S62487...
; Murphy, 2005Murphy, K. (2005). Psychosocial treatments for ADHD in teens and adults: A practice-friendly review. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 61(5),607-619. doi: 10.1002/jclp.20123
https://doi.org/10.1002/jclp.20123...
; Nussey et al., 2013Nussey, C., Pistrang, N., & Murphy, T. (2013). How does psychoeducation help? A review of the effects of providing information about Tourette syndrome and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Child: Care, Health and Development, 39(5),617-627. doi: 10.1111/cch.12039
https://doi.org/10.1111/cch.12039...
; Vidal et al., 2013Vidal, R., Bosch, R., Nogueira, M., Gómez-Barros, N., Valero, S., Palomar, G., ...Ramos-Quiroga, J. A. (2013). Psychoeducation for adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder vs. cognitive behavioral group therapy: A randomized controlled pilot study. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 201(10),894-900. doi: 10.1097/NMD.0b013e3182a5c2c5
https://doi.org/10.1097/NMD.0b013e3182a5...
), (b) causes (Aguiar et al., 2014Aguiar, A. P., Kieling, R. R., Costa, A. C., Chardosim, N., Dorneles, B. V., Almeida, M. R., ...Rohde, L. A. (2014). Increasing teachers' knowledge about ADHD and learning disorders: An investigation on the role of a psychoeducational intervention. Journal of Attention Disorders, 18(8),691-698. doi: 10.1177/1087054712453171
https://doi.org/10.1177/1087054712453171...
; Bai et al., 2015Bai, G. N., Wang, Y. F., Yang, L., & Niu, W. Y. (2015). Effectiveness of a focused, brief psycho-education program for parents of ADHD children: improvement of medication adherence and symptoms. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, 11,2721-2735. doi: 10.2147/NDT.S88625
https://doi.org/10.2147/NDT.S88625...
; Hernández & Gutiérrez 2014Hernández, P. R., & Gutiérrez, I. C. (2014). Plan de tratamiento multimodal del TDAH. Tratamiento psicoeducativo. Pediatría Integral, 18(9),624-633.; Hill, 2015Hill, P. (2015). Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents: Assessment and treatment. BJPsych Advances, 21(1),23-30. doi: 10.1192/apt.bp.114.013953
https://doi.org/10.1192/apt.bp.114.01395...
; McCarty et al., 2015McCarty, C. A., Vander Stoep, A., Violette, H., & Myers, K. (2015). Interventions developed for psychiatric and behavioral treatment in the Children's ADHD Telemental Health Treatment Study. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 24(6),1735-1743. doi: 10.1007/s10826-014-9977-5
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-014-9977-...
; Montoya et al., 2014Montoya, A. , Hervás, A., Fuentes, J., Cardo, E., Polavieja, P., Quintero, J., & Tannock, R. (2014). Cluster-randomized, controlled 12-month trial to evaluate the effect of a parental psychoeducation program on medication persistence in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, 10, 1081-1092. doi: 10.2147/NDT.S62487
https://doi.org/10.2147/NDT.S62487...
; Myers et al., 2010Myers, K. , Vander Stoep, A. , Thompson, K., Zhou, C., & Unützer, J. (2010). Collaborative care for the treatment of Hispanic children diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. General Hospital Psychiatry, 32(6),612-614. doi: 10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2010.08.004
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2...
; Vidal et al., 2013Vidal, R., Bosch, R., Nogueira, M., Gómez-Barros, N., Valero, S., Palomar, G., ...Ramos-Quiroga, J. A. (2013). Psychoeducation for adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder vs. cognitive behavioral group therapy: A randomized controlled pilot study. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 201(10),894-900. doi: 10.1097/NMD.0b013e3182a5c2c5
https://doi.org/10.1097/NMD.0b013e3182a5...
; Young, 1999Young, S. (1999). Psychological therapy for adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Counselling Psychology Quarterly, 12(2),183-190. doi: 10.1080/09515079908254088
https://doi.org/10.1080/0951507990825408...
), (c) impairments due to the disorder (Bai et al., 2015Bai, G. N., Wang, Y. F., Yang, L., & Niu, W. Y. (2015). Effectiveness of a focused, brief psycho-education program for parents of ADHD children: improvement of medication adherence and symptoms. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, 11,2721-2735. doi: 10.2147/NDT.S88625
https://doi.org/10.2147/NDT.S88625...
; Hill, 2015Hill, P. (2015). Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents: Assessment and treatment. BJPsych Advances, 21(1),23-30. doi: 10.1192/apt.bp.114.013953
https://doi.org/10.1192/apt.bp.114.01395...
; Hirvikoski et al., 2015Hirvikoski, T., Waaler, E., Lindström, T., Bölte, S., & Jokinen, J. (2015). Cognitive behavior therapy-based psychoeducational groups for adults with ADHD and their significant others (PEGASUS): An open clinical feasibility trial. ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders, 7(1),89-99. doi: 10.1007/s12402-014-0141-2
https://doi.org/10.1007/s12402-014-0141-...
; Hogue et al., 2014Hogue, A., Bobek, M., & Evans, S. W. (2014). Changing Academic Support in the home for adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A family-based clinical protocol for improving school performance. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 23,14-30. doi: 10.1016/j.cbpra.2014.07.002
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpra.2014.07....
; Kądziela-Olech, 2012Kądziela-Olech, H. (2012). Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children - The role of psychoeducation in longitudinal study. Psychiatria i Psychologia Kliniczna, 12(3),149-156.; McCarty et al., 2015McCarty, C. A., Vander Stoep, A., Violette, H., & Myers, K. (2015). Interventions developed for psychiatric and behavioral treatment in the Children's ADHD Telemental Health Treatment Study. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 24(6),1735-1743. doi: 10.1007/s10826-014-9977-5
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-014-9977-...
; McCleary & Ridley, 1999McCleary, L., & Ridley, T. (1999). Parenting adolescents with ADHD: Evaluation of a psychoeducation group. Patient Education and Counseling, 38(1),3-10. doi: 10.1016/S07383991(98)00110-4
https://doi.org/10.1016/S07383991(98)001...
; Murphy, 2005Murphy, K. (2005). Psychosocial treatments for ADHD in teens and adults: A practice-friendly review. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 61(5),607-619. doi: 10.1002/jclp.20123
https://doi.org/10.1002/jclp.20123...
; Vidal et al., 2013Vidal, R., Bosch, R., Nogueira, M., Gómez-Barros, N., Valero, S., Palomar, G., ...Ramos-Quiroga, J. A. (2013). Psychoeducation for adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder vs. cognitive behavioral group therapy: A randomized controlled pilot study. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 201(10),894-900. doi: 10.1097/NMD.0b013e3182a5c2c5
https://doi.org/10.1097/NMD.0b013e3182a5...
), and (d) existing comorbidities (Hill, 2015Hill, P. (2015). Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents: Assessment and treatment. BJPsych Advances, 21(1),23-30. doi: 10.1192/apt.bp.114.013953
https://doi.org/10.1192/apt.bp.114.01395...
; McCarty et al., 2015McCarty, C. A., Vander Stoep, A., Violette, H., & Myers, K. (2015). Interventions developed for psychiatric and behavioral treatment in the Children's ADHD Telemental Health Treatment Study. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 24(6),1735-1743. doi: 10.1007/s10826-014-9977-5
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-014-9977-...
; Mesquita et al., 2009Mesquita, C. M. D., Porto, P. R., Rangé, B. P., & Ventura, P. R. (2009). Terapia cognitivo-comportamental e o TDAH subtipo desatento: Uma área inexplorada. Revista Brasileira de Terapias Cognitivas, 5(1),35-45. doi: 10.5935/18085687.20090004
https://doi.org/10.5935/18085687.2009000...
; Montoya et al., 2011Montoya, A., Colom, F., & Ferrin, M. (2011). Is psychoeducation for parents and teachers of children and adolescents with ADHD efficacious? A systematic literature review. European Psychiatry, 26(3),166-175. doi: 10.1016/j.eurpsy.2010.10.005
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eurpsy.2010.10...
; Montoya et al., 2014Montoya, A. , Hervás, A., Fuentes, J., Cardo, E., Polavieja, P., Quintero, J., & Tannock, R. (2014). Cluster-randomized, controlled 12-month trial to evaluate the effect of a parental psychoeducation program on medication persistence in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, 10, 1081-1092. doi: 10.2147/NDT.S62487
https://doi.org/10.2147/NDT.S62487...
).

Psychoeducation regarding ADHD addressed topics such as medication (Asherson, 2012Asherson, P. (2012). ADHD across the lifespan. Medicine, 40(11),623-627. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mpmed.2012.08.007
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mpmed.2012.0...
; Bai et al., 2015Bai, G. N., Wang, Y. F., Yang, L., & Niu, W. Y. (2015). Effectiveness of a focused, brief psycho-education program for parents of ADHD children: improvement of medication adherence and symptoms. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, 11,2721-2735. doi: 10.2147/NDT.S88625
https://doi.org/10.2147/NDT.S88625...
; Coletti et al., 2012Coletti, D. J., Pappadopulos, E., Katsiotas, N. J., Berest, A., Jensen, P. S., & Kafantaris, V. (2012). Parent perspectives on the decision to initiate medication treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology, 22(3),226-237. doi: 10.1089/cap.2011.0090
https://doi.org/10.1089/cap.2011.0090...
; Hill, 2015Hill, P. (2015). Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents: Assessment and treatment. BJPsych Advances, 21(1),23-30. doi: 10.1192/apt.bp.114.013953
https://doi.org/10.1192/apt.bp.114.01395...
; Hirvikoski et al., 2015Hirvikoski, T., Waaler, E., Lindström, T., Bölte, S., & Jokinen, J. (2015). Cognitive behavior therapy-based psychoeducational groups for adults with ADHD and their significant others (PEGASUS): An open clinical feasibility trial. ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders, 7(1),89-99. doi: 10.1007/s12402-014-0141-2
https://doi.org/10.1007/s12402-014-0141-...
; Mesquita et al., 2009Mesquita, C. M. D., Porto, P. R., Rangé, B. P., & Ventura, P. R. (2009). Terapia cognitivo-comportamental e o TDAH subtipo desatento: Uma área inexplorada. Revista Brasileira de Terapias Cognitivas, 5(1),35-45. doi: 10.5935/18085687.20090004
https://doi.org/10.5935/18085687.2009000...
; Vidal et al., 2013Vidal, R., Bosch, R., Nogueira, M., Gómez-Barros, N., Valero, S., Palomar, G., ...Ramos-Quiroga, J. A. (2013). Psychoeducation for adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder vs. cognitive behavioral group therapy: A randomized controlled pilot study. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 201(10),894-900. doi: 10.1097/NMD.0b013e3182a5c2c5
https://doi.org/10.1097/NMD.0b013e3182a5...
) and strategies for symptom management (Ferrin et al., 2014Ferrin, M., Moreno-Granados, J. M., Salcedo-Marin, M. D., Ruiz-Veguilla, M., Perez-Ayala, V., & Taylor, E. (2014). Evaluation of a psychoeducation programme for parents of children and adolescents with ADHD: Immediate and long-term effects using a blind randomized controlled trial. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 23(8),637-647. doi: 10.1007/s00787-013-0494-7
https://doi.org/10.1007/s00787-013-0494-...
; Hernández & Gutiérrez 2014Hernández, P. R., & Gutiérrez, I. C. (2014). Plan de tratamiento multimodal del TDAH. Tratamiento psicoeducativo. Pediatría Integral, 18(9),624-633.; Hirvikoski et al., 2015Hirvikoski, T., Waaler, E., Lindström, T., Bölte, S., & Jokinen, J. (2015). Cognitive behavior therapy-based psychoeducational groups for adults with ADHD and their significant others (PEGASUS): An open clinical feasibility trial. ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders, 7(1),89-99. doi: 10.1007/s12402-014-0141-2
https://doi.org/10.1007/s12402-014-0141-...
; McCarty et al., 2015McCarty, C. A., Vander Stoep, A., Violette, H., & Myers, K. (2015). Interventions developed for psychiatric and behavioral treatment in the Children's ADHD Telemental Health Treatment Study. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 24(6),1735-1743. doi: 10.1007/s10826-014-9977-5
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-014-9977-...
; McCleary & Ridley, 1999McCleary, L., & Ridley, T. (1999). Parenting adolescents with ADHD: Evaluation of a psychoeducation group. Patient Education and Counseling, 38(1),3-10. doi: 10.1016/S07383991(98)00110-4
https://doi.org/10.1016/S07383991(98)001...
; Montoya et al. 2014Montoya, A. , Hervás, A., Fuentes, J., Cardo, E., Polavieja, P., Quintero, J., & Tannock, R. (2014). Cluster-randomized, controlled 12-month trial to evaluate the effect of a parental psychoeducation program on medication persistence in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, 10, 1081-1092. doi: 10.2147/NDT.S62487
https://doi.org/10.2147/NDT.S62487...
; Myers et al., 2010Myers, K. , Vander Stoep, A. , Thompson, K., Zhou, C., & Unützer, J. (2010). Collaborative care for the treatment of Hispanic children diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. General Hospital Psychiatry, 32(6),612-614. doi: 10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2010.08.004
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2...
). In cases of psychoeducation of relatives of children or adolescents with ADHD, intervention also addressed necessary parenting skills for caregivers to improve their relationship with the child and better manage the symptoms of the disorder (Kądziela-Olech, 2012Kądziela-Olech, H. (2012). Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children - The role of psychoeducation in longitudinal study. Psychiatria i Psychologia Kliniczna, 12(3),149-156.; Levine & Anshel, 2011Levine, E. S., & Anshel, D. J. (2011). "Nothing works!" A case study using cognitive-behavioral interventions to engage parents, educators, and children in the management of attentiondeficit/hyperactivity disorder. Psychology in the Schools, 48(3),297-306. doi: 10.1002/pits.20554
https://doi.org/10.1002/pits.20554...
; Long et al. 1993Long, N., Rickert, V. I., & Ashcraft, E. W. (1993). Bibliotherapy as an adjunct to stimulant medication in the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Pediatric Health Care, 7(2),82-88. doi: 10.1016/08915245(93)90078-V
https://doi.org/10.1016/08915245(93)9007...
, Montoya et al., 2011Montoya, A., Colom, F., & Ferrin, M. (2011). Is psychoeducation for parents and teachers of children and adolescents with ADHD efficacious? A systematic literature review. European Psychiatry, 26(3),166-175. doi: 10.1016/j.eurpsy.2010.10.005
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eurpsy.2010.10...
, Montoya et al., 2014).

One of the studies analyzed did not address psychoeducation itself, although it investigated the level of knowledge adolescents (with high and low risk for ADHD) and their parents had about the disorder. Participants reported incorrect information about ADHD (such as believing that elevated sugar consumption or misuse of medication could cause it) although they thought they were familiar with it. This highlights the need to increase access to information about ADHD. In addition, it is also possible to observe in the paper that adolescents and parents often seek information on the internet, social networks, and television, although only parents search for printed material and health professionals' opinions (Bussing et al., 2012Bussing, R., Zima, B. T., Mason, D. M., Meyer, J. M., White, K., & Garvan, C. W. (2012). ADHD knowledge, perceptions, and information sources: Perspectives from a community sample of adolescents and their parents. Journal of Adolescent Health, 51(6),593-600. doi: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2012.03.004
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.201...
). Another study showed that parents value the attempts of professionals to explain the disorder and use of medication. However, parents varied in their preference concerning the amount of information received and the way information was made available. Some parents preferred detailed information in the form of a pamphlet and/or the internet, while others preferred brief information transmitted orally by health professionals (Coletti et al., 2012Coletti, D. J., Pappadopulos, E., Katsiotas, N. J., Berest, A., Jensen, P. S., & Kafantaris, V. (2012). Parent perspectives on the decision to initiate medication treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology, 22(3),226-237. doi: 10.1089/cap.2011.0090
https://doi.org/10.1089/cap.2011.0090...
). These results indicate sources to access the target population at the time of ADHD psychoeducation.

Another study assessed the knowledge and beliefs of public and private school teachers about ADHD. Most teachers considered ADHD a mental disorder (79.3%) and reported the psychologist as the competent professional to perform its diagnosis and treatment. On the other hand, less than half (44.1%) believed that combined therapy is the ideal option and just 14.7% thought medication was the main component of treatment. Nevertheless, they recognized the effects of treatment on the social and academic functioning of students with ADHD (Palacios-Cruz et al., 2013Palacios-Cruz, L., de la Peña Olvera, F., Figueroa, G. V., Caballero, A. A., de la Rosa Muñoz, L., Pedroza, ...Flores, R. E. U. (2013). Knowledge and beliefs about attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in teachers from three Latin-American countries. Salud Mental, 36,257-262.). These results indicate the need to psychoeducate teachers about the etiology of ADHD as well as treatment options and efficacy. After all, teachers interact with students on a daily basis and can assist in the identification and referral of those who may be affected by the disorder.

Target Population

One of the factors that determine the format of psychoeducation is the target population for which it is intended. In the analyzed sample, psychoeducation was performed for one or more populations. Most studies have developed psychoeducation aimed at family members of children and adolescents with ADHD (Anderson & Guthery, 2015Anderson, S. B., & Guthery, A. M. (2015). Mindfulness- based psychoeducation for parents of children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: An applied clinical project. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing, 28(1),43-49. doi: 10.1111/jcap.12103
https://doi.org/10.1111/jcap.12103...
; Bai et al., 2015Bai, G. N., Wang, Y. F., Yang, L., & Niu, W. Y. (2015). Effectiveness of a focused, brief psycho-education program for parents of ADHD children: improvement of medication adherence and symptoms. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, 11,2721-2735. doi: 10.2147/NDT.S88625
https://doi.org/10.2147/NDT.S88625...
; Coletti et al., 2012Coletti, D. J., Pappadopulos, E., Katsiotas, N. J., Berest, A., Jensen, P. S., & Kafantaris, V. (2012). Parent perspectives on the decision to initiate medication treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology, 22(3),226-237. doi: 10.1089/cap.2011.0090
https://doi.org/10.1089/cap.2011.0090...
; Ferrin et al., 2014Ferrin, M., Moreno-Granados, J. M., Salcedo-Marin, M. D., Ruiz-Veguilla, M., Perez-Ayala, V., & Taylor, E. (2014). Evaluation of a psychoeducation programme for parents of children and adolescents with ADHD: Immediate and long-term effects using a blind randomized controlled trial. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 23(8),637-647. doi: 10.1007/s00787-013-0494-7
https://doi.org/10.1007/s00787-013-0494-...
; Hernández & Gutiérrez 2014Hernández, P. R., & Gutiérrez, I. C. (2014). Plan de tratamiento multimodal del TDAH. Tratamiento psicoeducativo. Pediatría Integral, 18(9),624-633.; Hill, 2015Hill, P. (2015). Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents: Assessment and treatment. BJPsych Advances, 21(1),23-30. doi: 10.1192/apt.bp.114.013953
https://doi.org/10.1192/apt.bp.114.01395...
; Hogue et al., 2014Hogue, A., Bobek, M., & Evans, S. W. (2014). Changing Academic Support in the home for adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A family-based clinical protocol for improving school performance. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 23,14-30. doi: 10.1016/j.cbpra.2014.07.002
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpra.2014.07....
; Janssen et al., 2014Janssen, M., Wensing, M., van der Gaag, R. J., Cornelissen, I., van Deurzen, P., & Buitelaar, J. (2014). Improving patient care for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children by organizational redesign (Tornado program) and enhanced collaboration between psychiatry and general practice: A controlled before and after study. Implementation Science, 9(1),155-162. doi: 10.1186/s13012-014-0155-3
https://doi.org/10.1186/s13012-014-0155-...
; Kądziela-Olech, 2012Kądziela-Olech, H. (2012). Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children - The role of psychoeducation in longitudinal study. Psychiatria i Psychologia Kliniczna, 12(3),149-156.; Korzeniowsk & Ison, 2008Korzeniowsk, C., & Ison, M. (2008). Estrategias psicoeducativas para padres y docentes de niños con TDAH. Revista Argentina de Clínica Psicológica, 18(1),65-71.; Levine & Anshel, 2011Levine, E. S., & Anshel, D. J. (2011). "Nothing works!" A case study using cognitive-behavioral interventions to engage parents, educators, and children in the management of attentiondeficit/hyperactivity disorder. Psychology in the Schools, 48(3),297-306. doi: 10.1002/pits.20554
https://doi.org/10.1002/pits.20554...
; Long et al., 1993Long, N., Rickert, V. I., & Ashcraft, E. W. (1993). Bibliotherapy as an adjunct to stimulant medication in the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Pediatric Health Care, 7(2),82-88. doi: 10.1016/08915245(93)90078-V
https://doi.org/10.1016/08915245(93)9007...
; McCarty et al., 2015McCarty, C. A., Vander Stoep, A., Violette, H., & Myers, K. (2015). Interventions developed for psychiatric and behavioral treatment in the Children's ADHD Telemental Health Treatment Study. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 24(6),1735-1743. doi: 10.1007/s10826-014-9977-5
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-014-9977-...
; McCleary & Ridley, 1999McCleary, L., & Ridley, T. (1999). Parenting adolescents with ADHD: Evaluation of a psychoeducation group. Patient Education and Counseling, 38(1),3-10. doi: 10.1016/S07383991(98)00110-4
https://doi.org/10.1016/S07383991(98)001...
; Montoya et al., 2011Montoya, A., Colom, F., & Ferrin, M. (2011). Is psychoeducation for parents and teachers of children and adolescents with ADHD efficacious? A systematic literature review. European Psychiatry, 26(3),166-175. doi: 10.1016/j.eurpsy.2010.10.005
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eurpsy.2010.10...
; Montoya et al., 2014Montoya, A. , Hervás, A., Fuentes, J., Cardo, E., Polavieja, P., Quintero, J., & Tannock, R. (2014). Cluster-randomized, controlled 12-month trial to evaluate the effect of a parental psychoeducation program on medication persistence in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, 10, 1081-1092. doi: 10.2147/NDT.S62487
https://doi.org/10.2147/NDT.S62487...
; Myers et al., 2010Myers, K. , Vander Stoep, A. , Thompson, K., Zhou, C., & Unützer, J. (2010). Collaborative care for the treatment of Hispanic children diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. General Hospital Psychiatry, 32(6),612-614. doi: 10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2010.08.004
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2...
; Nussey et al., 2013Nussey, C., Pistrang, N., & Murphy, T. (2013). How does psychoeducation help? A review of the effects of providing information about Tourette syndrome and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Child: Care, Health and Development, 39(5),617-627. doi: 10.1111/cch.12039
https://doi.org/10.1111/cch.12039...
), or of adults with ADHD (Hirvikoski et al., 2015Hirvikoski, T., Waaler, E., Lindström, T., Bölte, S., & Jokinen, J. (2015). Cognitive behavior therapy-based psychoeducational groups for adults with ADHD and their significant others (PEGASUS): An open clinical feasibility trial. ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders, 7(1),89-99. doi: 10.1007/s12402-014-0141-2
https://doi.org/10.1007/s12402-014-0141-...
). One study was conducted with children with ADHD (Levine & Anshel, 2011Levine, E. S., & Anshel, D. J. (2011). "Nothing works!" A case study using cognitive-behavioral interventions to engage parents, educators, and children in the management of attentiondeficit/hyperactivity disorder. Psychology in the Schools, 48(3),297-306. doi: 10.1002/pits.20554
https://doi.org/10.1002/pits.20554...
), four with adolescents with ADHD (Asherson, 2012Asherson, P. (2012). ADHD across the lifespan. Medicine, 40(11),623-627. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mpmed.2012.08.007
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mpmed.2012.0...
; Bussing et al., 2012Bussing, R., Zima, B. T., Mason, D. M., Meyer, J. M., White, K., & Garvan, C. W. (2012). ADHD knowledge, perceptions, and information sources: Perspectives from a community sample of adolescents and their parents. Journal of Adolescent Health, 51(6),593-600. doi: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2012.03.004
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.201...
; Hogue et al., 2014Hogue, A., Bobek, M., & Evans, S. W. (2014). Changing Academic Support in the home for adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A family-based clinical protocol for improving school performance. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 23,14-30. doi: 10.1016/j.cbpra.2014.07.002
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpra.2014.07....
; Murphy, 2005Murphy, K. (2005). Psychosocial treatments for ADHD in teens and adults: A practice-friendly review. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 61(5),607-619. doi: 10.1002/jclp.20123
https://doi.org/10.1002/jclp.20123...
), and eight with adults with ADHD (Altin et al., 2016Altin, M., Altin, G. E., & Semerci, B. (2016). An online survey of Turkish psychiatrists' attitudes about and experiences of adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in clinical practice. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, 12,2455-2461. doi: 10.2147/NDT.S110720
https://doi.org/10.2147/NDT.S110720...
; Asherson, 2012Asherson, P. (2012). ADHD across the lifespan. Medicine, 40(11),623-627. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mpmed.2012.08.007
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mpmed.2012.0...
; Hirvikoski et al., 2015Hirvikoski, T., Waaler, E., Lindström, T., Bölte, S., & Jokinen, J. (2015). Cognitive behavior therapy-based psychoeducational groups for adults with ADHD and their significant others (PEGASUS): An open clinical feasibility trial. ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders, 7(1),89-99. doi: 10.1007/s12402-014-0141-2
https://doi.org/10.1007/s12402-014-0141-...
; Knouse et al., 2008Knouse, L. E., Cooper-Vince, C., Sprich, S., & Safren, S. A. (2008). Recent developments in the psychosocial treatment of adult ADHD. Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics, 8(10),1537-1548. doi: 10.1586/14737175.8.10.1537
https://doi.org/10.1586/14737175.8.10.15...
; Mesquita et al., 2009Mesquita, C. M. D., Porto, P. R., Rangé, B. P., & Ventura, P. R. (2009). Terapia cognitivo-comportamental e o TDAH subtipo desatento: Uma área inexplorada. Revista Brasileira de Terapias Cognitivas, 5(1),35-45. doi: 10.5935/18085687.20090004
https://doi.org/10.5935/18085687.2009000...
; Murphy, 2005Murphy, K. (2005). Psychosocial treatments for ADHD in teens and adults: A practice-friendly review. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 61(5),607-619. doi: 10.1002/jclp.20123
https://doi.org/10.1002/jclp.20123...
; Vidal et al., 2013Vidal, R., Bosch, R., Nogueira, M., Gómez-Barros, N., Valero, S., Palomar, G., ...Ramos-Quiroga, J. A. (2013). Psychoeducation for adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder vs. cognitive behavioral group therapy: A randomized controlled pilot study. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 201(10),894-900. doi: 10.1097/NMD.0b013e3182a5c2c5
https://doi.org/10.1097/NMD.0b013e3182a5...
; Young, 1999Young, S. (1999). Psychological therapy for adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Counselling Psychology Quarterly, 12(2),183-190. doi: 10.1080/09515079908254088
https://doi.org/10.1080/0951507990825408...
). The other studies addressed psycho-education of ADHD for teachers (Aguiar et al., 2014Aguiar, A. P., Kieling, R. R., Costa, A. C., Chardosim, N., Dorneles, B. V., Almeida, M. R., ...Rohde, L. A. (2014). Increasing teachers' knowledge about ADHD and learning disorders: An investigation on the role of a psychoeducational intervention. Journal of Attention Disorders, 18(8),691-698. doi: 10.1177/1087054712453171
https://doi.org/10.1177/1087054712453171...
; Hernández & Gutiérrez 2014Hernández, P. R., & Gutiérrez, I. C. (2014). Plan de tratamiento multimodal del TDAH. Tratamiento psicoeducativo. Pediatría Integral, 18(9),624-633.; Hill, 2015Hill, P. (2015). Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents: Assessment and treatment. BJPsych Advances, 21(1),23-30. doi: 10.1192/apt.bp.114.013953
https://doi.org/10.1192/apt.bp.114.01395...
; Kądziela-Olech, 2012Kądziela-Olech, H. (2012). Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children - The role of psychoeducation in longitudinal study. Psychiatria i Psychologia Kliniczna, 12(3),149-156.; Korzeniowsk & Ison, 2008Korzeniowsk, C., & Ison, M. (2008). Estrategias psicoeducativas para padres y docentes de niños con TDAH. Revista Argentina de Clínica Psicológica, 18(1),65-71.; Montoya et al., 2011Montoya, A., Colom, F., & Ferrin, M. (2011). Is psychoeducation for parents and teachers of children and adolescents with ADHD efficacious? A systematic literature review. European Psychiatry, 26(3),166-175. doi: 10.1016/j.eurpsy.2010.10.005
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eurpsy.2010.10...
; Nussey et al., 2013Nussey, C., Pistrang, N., & Murphy, T. (2013). How does psychoeducation help? A review of the effects of providing information about Tourette syndrome and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Child: Care, Health and Development, 39(5),617-627. doi: 10.1111/cch.12039
https://doi.org/10.1111/cch.12039...
; Palacios-Cruz et al., 2013Palacios-Cruz, L., de la Peña Olvera, F., Figueroa, G. V., Caballero, A. A., de la Rosa Muñoz, L., Pedroza, ...Flores, R. E. U. (2013). Knowledge and beliefs about attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in teachers from three Latin-American countries. Salud Mental, 36,257-262.) and basic health professionals (Hill, 2015Hill, P. (2015). Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents: Assessment and treatment. BJPsych Advances, 21(1),23-30. doi: 10.1192/apt.bp.114.013953
https://doi.org/10.1192/apt.bp.114.01395...
).

Notably, researchers have a growing concern of whether psychoeducation should be directly delivered to the family members rather than the patients themselves. There are two possible explanations for this point in question. The first justification is that, historically, ADHD has been considered an exclusive disorder of childhood. Thus, the treatment of the child with ADHD depended on the engagement of the parents, which justifies the need to psychoeducate the relatives of children and adolescents with the disorder. Evidence that ADHD interferes with patients' self-esteem (APA, 2013) highlights the need to also adapt psychoeducation for children, adolescents and adults in 2004 (Lukens & McFarlane, 2004Lukens, E. P., & McFarlane, W. R. (2004). Psycho-education as evidence-based practice: Considerations for practice, research, and policy. Brief Treatment and Crisis Intervention, 4(3),205. doi: 10.1093/brief-treatment/mhh019
https://doi.org/10.1093/brief-treatment/...
). However, despite being over a decade later, the number of published studies about ADHD psychoeducation targeted at patients is still lower than those intended for their family members. The second possible explanation is that ADHD in adults only began to be studied of late and was just recently been inserted in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5; APA, 2013), which may also justify the modest number of studies on psychoeducation for this population. Despite the gaps identified in the reports of psychoeducation for different publics, it is recommended that the general population receive especial attention regarding ADHD psychoeducation, since it can contribute not only to the identification of untreated cases but also increase positive attitudes towards people with ADHD (Nussey et al., 2013Nussey, C., Pistrang, N., & Murphy, T. (2013). How does psychoeducation help? A review of the effects of providing information about Tourette syndrome and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Child: Care, Health and Development, 39(5),617-627. doi: 10.1111/cch.12039
https://doi.org/10.1111/cch.12039...
).

Variables Related to the ADHD Psychoeducation

The studies analyzed found that ADHD psychoeducation was related to greater adherence to treatment by patients and relatives, higher levels of stress (Anderson & Guthery, 2015Anderson, S. B., & Guthery, A. M. (2015). Mindfulness- based psychoeducation for parents of children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: An applied clinical project. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing, 28(1),43-49. doi: 10.1111/jcap.12103
https://doi.org/10.1111/jcap.12103...
; Ferrin et al., 2014Ferrin, M., Moreno-Granados, J. M., Salcedo-Marin, M. D., Ruiz-Veguilla, M., Perez-Ayala, V., & Taylor, E. (2014). Evaluation of a psychoeducation programme for parents of children and adolescents with ADHD: Immediate and long-term effects using a blind randomized controlled trial. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 23(8),637-647. doi: 10.1007/s00787-013-0494-7
https://doi.org/10.1007/s00787-013-0494-...
; Hirvikoski et al., 2015Hirvikoski, T., Waaler, E., Lindström, T., Bölte, S., & Jokinen, J. (2015). Cognitive behavior therapy-based psychoeducational groups for adults with ADHD and their significant others (PEGASUS): An open clinical feasibility trial. ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders, 7(1),89-99. doi: 10.1007/s12402-014-0141-2
https://doi.org/10.1007/s12402-014-0141-...
), improved self-esteem (Young, 1999Young, S. (1999). Psychological therapy for adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Counselling Psychology Quarterly, 12(2),183-190. doi: 10.1080/09515079908254088
https://doi.org/10.1080/0951507990825408...
), greater knowledge about the disorder (Aguiar et al., 2014Aguiar, A. P., Kieling, R. R., Costa, A. C., Chardosim, N., Dorneles, B. V., Almeida, M. R., ...Rohde, L. A. (2014). Increasing teachers' knowledge about ADHD and learning disorders: An investigation on the role of a psychoeducational intervention. Journal of Attention Disorders, 18(8),691-698. doi: 10.1177/1087054712453171
https://doi.org/10.1177/1087054712453171...
; Bai et al., 2015Bai, G. N., Wang, Y. F., Yang, L., & Niu, W. Y. (2015). Effectiveness of a focused, brief psycho-education program for parents of ADHD children: improvement of medication adherence and symptoms. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, 11,2721-2735. doi: 10.2147/NDT.S88625
https://doi.org/10.2147/NDT.S88625...
; Hirvikoski et al., 2015Hirvikoski, T., Waaler, E., Lindström, T., Bölte, S., & Jokinen, J. (2015). Cognitive behavior therapy-based psychoeducational groups for adults with ADHD and their significant others (PEGASUS): An open clinical feasibility trial. ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders, 7(1),89-99. doi: 10.1007/s12402-014-0141-2
https://doi.org/10.1007/s12402-014-0141-...
), better quality of life (Ferrin et al., 2014Ferrin, M., Moreno-Granados, J. M., Salcedo-Marin, M. D., Ruiz-Veguilla, M., Perez-Ayala, V., & Taylor, E. (2014). Evaluation of a psychoeducation programme for parents of children and adolescents with ADHD: Immediate and long-term effects using a blind randomized controlled trial. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 23(8),637-647. doi: 10.1007/s00787-013-0494-7
https://doi.org/10.1007/s00787-013-0494-...
; Hirvikoski et al., 2015Hirvikoski, T., Waaler, E., Lindström, T., Bölte, S., & Jokinen, J. (2015). Cognitive behavior therapy-based psychoeducational groups for adults with ADHD and their significant others (PEGASUS): An open clinical feasibility trial. ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders, 7(1),89-99. doi: 10.1007/s12402-014-0141-2
https://doi.org/10.1007/s12402-014-0141-...
; Janssen et al., 2014Janssen, M., Wensing, M., van der Gaag, R. J., Cornelissen, I., van Deurzen, P., & Buitelaar, J. (2014). Improving patient care for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children by organizational redesign (Tornado program) and enhanced collaboration between psychiatry and general practice: A controlled before and after study. Implementation Science, 9(1),155-162. doi: 10.1186/s13012-014-0155-3
https://doi.org/10.1186/s13012-014-0155-...
; Vidal et al., 2013Vidal, R., Bosch, R., Nogueira, M., Gómez-Barros, N., Valero, S., Palomar, G., ...Ramos-Quiroga, J. A. (2013). Psychoeducation for adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder vs. cognitive behavioral group therapy: A randomized controlled pilot study. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 201(10),894-900. doi: 10.1097/NMD.0b013e3182a5c2c5
https://doi.org/10.1097/NMD.0b013e3182a5...
), decreased symptoms of ADHD and other psychopathologies (Ferrin et al., 2014Ferrin, M., Moreno-Granados, J. M., Salcedo-Marin, M. D., Ruiz-Veguilla, M., Perez-Ayala, V., & Taylor, E. (2014). Evaluation of a psychoeducation programme for parents of children and adolescents with ADHD: Immediate and long-term effects using a blind randomized controlled trial. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 23(8),637-647. doi: 10.1007/s00787-013-0494-7
https://doi.org/10.1007/s00787-013-0494-...
; Janssen et al., 2014Janssen, M., Wensing, M., van der Gaag, R. J., Cornelissen, I., van Deurzen, P., & Buitelaar, J. (2014). Improving patient care for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children by organizational redesign (Tornado program) and enhanced collaboration between psychiatry and general practice: A controlled before and after study. Implementation Science, 9(1),155-162. doi: 10.1186/s13012-014-0155-3
https://doi.org/10.1186/s13012-014-0155-...
; Kądziela-Olech, 2012Kądziela-Olech, H. (2012). Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children - The role of psychoeducation in longitudinal study. Psychiatria i Psychologia Kliniczna, 12(3),149-156.; Korzeniowsk & Ison, 2008Korzeniowsk, C., & Ison, M. (2008). Estrategias psicoeducativas para padres y docentes de niños con TDAH. Revista Argentina de Clínica Psicológica, 18(1),65-71.; Levine & Anshel, 2011Levine, E. S., & Anshel, D. J. (2011). "Nothing works!" A case study using cognitive-behavioral interventions to engage parents, educators, and children in the management of attentiondeficit/hyperactivity disorder. Psychology in the Schools, 48(3),297-306. doi: 10.1002/pits.20554
https://doi.org/10.1002/pits.20554...
; Long et al., 1993Long, N., Rickert, V. I., & Ashcraft, E. W. (1993). Bibliotherapy as an adjunct to stimulant medication in the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Pediatric Health Care, 7(2),82-88. doi: 10.1016/08915245(93)90078-V
https://doi.org/10.1016/08915245(93)9007...
; Mesquita et al., 2009Mesquita, C. M. D., Porto, P. R., Rangé, B. P., & Ventura, P. R. (2009). Terapia cognitivo-comportamental e o TDAH subtipo desatento: Uma área inexplorada. Revista Brasileira de Terapias Cognitivas, 5(1),35-45. doi: 10.5935/18085687.20090004
https://doi.org/10.5935/18085687.2009000...
; Myers et al., 2010Myers, K. , Vander Stoep, A. , Thompson, K., Zhou, C., & Unützer, J. (2010). Collaborative care for the treatment of Hispanic children diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. General Hospital Psychiatry, 32(6),612-614. doi: 10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2010.08.004
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2...
; Vidal et al., 2013Vidal, R., Bosch, R., Nogueira, M., Gómez-Barros, N., Valero, S., Palomar, G., ...Ramos-Quiroga, J. A. (2013). Psychoeducation for adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder vs. cognitive behavioral group therapy: A randomized controlled pilot study. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 201(10),894-900. doi: 10.1097/NMD.0b013e3182a5c2c5
https://doi.org/10.1097/NMD.0b013e3182a5...
), greater collaboration between caregivers and schools, and higher levels of academic achievement (Hogue et al., 2014Hogue, A., Bobek, M., & Evans, S. W. (2014). Changing Academic Support in the home for adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A family-based clinical protocol for improving school performance. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 23,14-30. doi: 10.1016/j.cbpra.2014.07.002
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpra.2014.07....
).

The variables associated with ADHD psychoeducation in the studies analyzed are in line with the variables used to measure the impact on psychoeducational interventions in general. Evidence on psychoeducation programs in general shows that it seems to be associated with the reduction of symptoms linked to ADHD, anxiety, and depression (regardless of the focus of psychoeducation), in addition to greater adherence and satisfaction with the treatment, greater knowledge, improved self-esteem, coping strategies and quality of life (Lukens & McFarlane, 2004Lukens, E. P., & McFarlane, W. R. (2004). Psycho-education as evidence-based practice: Considerations for practice, research, and policy. Brief Treatment and Crisis Intervention, 4(3),205. doi: 10.1093/brief-treatment/mhh019
https://doi.org/10.1093/brief-treatment/...
).

Characteristics of Interventions in ADHD Psychoeducation

In the analyzed sample, 17 studies presented psychoeducational interventions for people with diagnosis or signs of ADHD. The diagnosis was made by triangulation of data in five surveys (Bai et al., 2015Bai, G. N., Wang, Y. F., Yang, L., & Niu, W. Y. (2015). Effectiveness of a focused, brief psycho-education program for parents of ADHD children: improvement of medication adherence and symptoms. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, 11,2721-2735. doi: 10.2147/NDT.S88625
https://doi.org/10.2147/NDT.S88625...
; Ferrin et al., 2014Ferrin, M., Moreno-Granados, J. M., Salcedo-Marin, M. D., Ruiz-Veguilla, M., Perez-Ayala, V., & Taylor, E. (2014). Evaluation of a psychoeducation programme for parents of children and adolescents with ADHD: Immediate and long-term effects using a blind randomized controlled trial. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 23(8),637-647. doi: 10.1007/s00787-013-0494-7
https://doi.org/10.1007/s00787-013-0494-...
; Hirvikoski et al., 2015Hirvikoski, T., Waaler, E., Lindström, T., Bölte, S., & Jokinen, J. (2015). Cognitive behavior therapy-based psychoeducational groups for adults with ADHD and their significant others (PEGASUS): An open clinical feasibility trial. ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders, 7(1),89-99. doi: 10.1007/s12402-014-0141-2
https://doi.org/10.1007/s12402-014-0141-...
; Levine & Anshel 2011Levine, E. S., & Anshel, D. J. (2011). "Nothing works!" A case study using cognitive-behavioral interventions to engage parents, educators, and children in the management of attentiondeficit/hyperactivity disorder. Psychology in the Schools, 48(3),297-306. doi: 10.1002/pits.20554
https://doi.org/10.1002/pits.20554...
; Montoya et al., 2014Montoya, A. , Hervás, A., Fuentes, J., Cardo, E., Polavieja, P., Quintero, J., & Tannock, R. (2014). Cluster-randomized, controlled 12-month trial to evaluate the effect of a parental psychoeducation program on medication persistence in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, 10, 1081-1092. doi: 10.2147/NDT.S62487
https://doi.org/10.2147/NDT.S62487...
). In fact, the diagnosis of ADHD is clinical and requires the collection of information from different sources, such as scales and semi-structured interviews based on the DSM-5 criteria with the patient, collection of information with the individual's relatives, identification of the contexts in which nuclear symptoms are present, as well as the functional impairment associated with them (Mattos et al., 2006Mattos, P., Palmini, A., Salgado, C. A., Segenreich, D., Grevet, E., Oliveira, I. R., ...Lima, P. P. (2006). Painel brasileiro de especialistas sobre o diagnóstico do Transtorno do Déficit de Atenção/Hiperatividade (TDAH) em adultos. Revista de Psiquiatria, 28(1),50-60.). The other studies analyzed based the diagnosis only on diagnostic criteria (Hogue et al., 2014Hogue, A., Bobek, M., & Evans, S. W. (2014). Changing Academic Support in the home for adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A family-based clinical protocol for improving school performance. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 23,14-30. doi: 10.1016/j.cbpra.2014.07.002
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpra.2014.07....
; Kądziela-Olech, 2012Kądziela-Olech, H. (2012). Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children - The role of psychoeducation in longitudinal study. Psychiatria i Psychologia Kliniczna, 12(3),149-156.; Vidal et al., 2013Vidal, R., Bosch, R., Nogueira, M., Gómez-Barros, N., Valero, S., Palomar, G., ...Ramos-Quiroga, J. A. (2013). Psychoeducation for adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder vs. cognitive behavioral group therapy: A randomized controlled pilot study. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 201(10),894-900. doi: 10.1097/NMD.0b013e3182a5c2c5
https://doi.org/10.1097/NMD.0b013e3182a5...
), scales (McCarty et al., 2015McCarty, C. A., Vander Stoep, A., Violette, H., & Myers, K. (2015). Interventions developed for psychiatric and behavioral treatment in the Children's ADHD Telemental Health Treatment Study. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 24(6),1735-1743. doi: 10.1007/s10826-014-9977-5
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-014-9977-...
; Mesquita et al., 2009Mesquita, C. M. D., Porto, P. R., Rangé, B. P., & Ventura, P. R. (2009). Terapia cognitivo-comportamental e o TDAH subtipo desatento: Uma área inexplorada. Revista Brasileira de Terapias Cognitivas, 5(1),35-45. doi: 10.5935/18085687.20090004
https://doi.org/10.5935/18085687.2009000...
; Vidal et al., 2013Vidal, R., Bosch, R., Nogueira, M., Gómez-Barros, N., Valero, S., Palomar, G., ...Ramos-Quiroga, J. A. (2013). Psychoeducation for adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder vs. cognitive behavioral group therapy: A randomized controlled pilot study. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 201(10),894-900. doi: 10.1097/NMD.0b013e3182a5c2c5
https://doi.org/10.1097/NMD.0b013e3182a5...
), clinical interviews (Janssen et al., 2014Janssen, M., Wensing, M., van der Gaag, R. J., Cornelissen, I., van Deurzen, P., & Buitelaar, J. (2014). Improving patient care for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children by organizational redesign (Tornado program) and enhanced collaboration between psychiatry and general practice: A controlled before and after study. Implementation Science, 9(1),155-162. doi: 10.1186/s13012-014-0155-3
https://doi.org/10.1186/s13012-014-0155-...
; Long et al., 1993Long, N., Rickert, V. I., & Ashcraft, E. W. (1993). Bibliotherapy as an adjunct to stimulant medication in the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Pediatric Health Care, 7(2),82-88. doi: 10.1016/08915245(93)90078-V
https://doi.org/10.1016/08915245(93)9007...
; McCleary & Rid-ley, 1999McCleary, L., & Ridley, T. (1999). Parenting adolescents with ADHD: Evaluation of a psychoeducation group. Patient Education and Counseling, 38(1),3-10. doi: 10.1016/S07383991(98)00110-4
https://doi.org/10.1016/S07383991(98)001...
; Myers et al., 2010Myers, K. , Vander Stoep, A. , Thompson, K., Zhou, C., & Unützer, J. (2010). Collaborative care for the treatment of Hispanic children diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. General Hospital Psychiatry, 32(6),612-614. doi: 10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2010.08.004
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2...
) or trust in prior clinical diagnosis (Korzeniowsk & Ison, 2008Korzeniowsk, C., & Ison, M. (2008). Estrategias psicoeducativas para padres y docentes de niños con TDAH. Revista Argentina de Clínica Psicológica, 18(1),65-71.), which can lead to misdiagnosis since ADHD and other disorders share similar symptoms such as mood and anxiety disorders (Searight, Burke, & Rootnek, 2000Searight, H. R., Burke, J. M., & Rootnek, K. F. (2000). Adult ADHD: Evaluation and treatment in family medicine. American Family Physician, 62(9),2077-2086.).

Most interventions consisted of a set of interactive group sessions (Ferrin et al., 2014Ferrin, M., Moreno-Granados, J. M., Salcedo-Marin, M. D., Ruiz-Veguilla, M., Perez-Ayala, V., & Taylor, E. (2014). Evaluation of a psychoeducation programme for parents of children and adolescents with ADHD: Immediate and long-term effects using a blind randomized controlled trial. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 23(8),637-647. doi: 10.1007/s00787-013-0494-7
https://doi.org/10.1007/s00787-013-0494-...
; Hirvikoski et al., 2015Hirvikoski, T., Waaler, E., Lindström, T., Bölte, S., & Jokinen, J. (2015). Cognitive behavior therapy-based psychoeducational groups for adults with ADHD and their significant others (PEGASUS): An open clinical feasibility trial. ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders, 7(1),89-99. doi: 10.1007/s12402-014-0141-2
https://doi.org/10.1007/s12402-014-0141-...
; Hogue et al., 2014Hogue, A., Bobek, M., & Evans, S. W. (2014). Changing Academic Support in the home for adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A family-based clinical protocol for improving school performance. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 23,14-30. doi: 10.1016/j.cbpra.2014.07.002
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpra.2014.07....
; Korzeniowsk & Ison, 2008Korzeniowsk, C., & Ison, M. (2008). Estrategias psicoeducativas para padres y docentes de niños con TDAH. Revista Argentina de Clínica Psicológica, 18(1),65-71.; McCarty et al., 2015McCarty, C. A., Vander Stoep, A., Violette, H., & Myers, K. (2015). Interventions developed for psychiatric and behavioral treatment in the Children's ADHD Telemental Health Treatment Study. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 24(6),1735-1743. doi: 10.1007/s10826-014-9977-5
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-014-9977-...
; McCleary & Ridley, 1999McCleary, L., & Ridley, T. (1999). Parenting adolescents with ADHD: Evaluation of a psychoeducation group. Patient Education and Counseling, 38(1),3-10. doi: 10.1016/S07383991(98)00110-4
https://doi.org/10.1016/S07383991(98)001...
; Montoya et al., 2014Montoya, A. , Hervás, A., Fuentes, J., Cardo, E., Polavieja, P., Quintero, J., & Tannock, R. (2014). Cluster-randomized, controlled 12-month trial to evaluate the effect of a parental psychoeducation program on medication persistence in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, 10, 1081-1092. doi: 10.2147/NDT.S62487
https://doi.org/10.2147/NDT.S62487...
; Vidal et al., 2013Vidal, R., Bosch, R., Nogueira, M., Gómez-Barros, N., Valero, S., Palomar, G., ...Ramos-Quiroga, J. A. (2013). Psychoeducation for adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder vs. cognitive behavioral group therapy: A randomized controlled pilot study. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 201(10),894-900. doi: 10.1097/NMD.0b013e3182a5c2c5
https://doi.org/10.1097/NMD.0b013e3182a5...
), while others occurred in the form of lectures associated with dealing with the disorder (Aguiar et al., 2014Aguiar, A. P., Kieling, R. R., Costa, A. C., Chardosim, N., Dorneles, B. V., Almeida, M. R., ...Rohde, L. A. (2014). Increasing teachers' knowledge about ADHD and learning disorders: An investigation on the role of a psychoeducational intervention. Journal of Attention Disorders, 18(8),691-698. doi: 10.1177/1087054712453171
https://doi.org/10.1177/1087054712453171...
; Bai et al., 2015Bai, G. N., Wang, Y. F., Yang, L., & Niu, W. Y. (2015). Effectiveness of a focused, brief psycho-education program for parents of ADHD children: improvement of medication adherence and symptoms. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, 11,2721-2735. doi: 10.2147/NDT.S88625
https://doi.org/10.2147/NDT.S88625...
), bibliotherapy (Anderson & Guthery, 2015Anderson, S. B., & Guthery, A. M. (2015). Mindfulness- based psychoeducation for parents of children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: An applied clinical project. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing, 28(1),43-49. doi: 10.1111/jcap.12103
https://doi.org/10.1111/jcap.12103...
; Long et al., 1993Long, N., Rickert, V. I., & Ashcraft, E. W. (1993). Bibliotherapy as an adjunct to stimulant medication in the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Pediatric Health Care, 7(2),82-88. doi: 10.1016/08915245(93)90078-V
https://doi.org/10.1016/08915245(93)9007...
), and individual encounters (Levine & Anshel, 2011Levine, E. S., & Anshel, D. J. (2011). "Nothing works!" A case study using cognitive-behavioral interventions to engage parents, educators, and children in the management of attentiondeficit/hyperactivity disorder. Psychology in the Schools, 48(3),297-306. doi: 10.1002/pits.20554
https://doi.org/10.1002/pits.20554...
; Mesquita et al., 2009Mesquita, C. M. D., Porto, P. R., Rangé, B. P., & Ventura, P. R. (2009). Terapia cognitivo-comportamental e o TDAH subtipo desatento: Uma área inexplorada. Revista Brasileira de Terapias Cognitivas, 5(1),35-45. doi: 10.5935/18085687.20090004
https://doi.org/10.5935/18085687.2009000...
). Only two studies reported who received psychoeducation without describing how it was performed (Janssen et al., 2014Janssen, M., Wensing, M., van der Gaag, R. J., Cornelissen, I., van Deurzen, P., & Buitelaar, J. (2014). Improving patient care for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children by organizational redesign (Tornado program) and enhanced collaboration between psychiatry and general practice: A controlled before and after study. Implementation Science, 9(1),155-162. doi: 10.1186/s13012-014-0155-3
https://doi.org/10.1186/s13012-014-0155-...
; Myers et al., 2010Myers, K. , Vander Stoep, A. , Thompson, K., Zhou, C., & Unützer, J. (2010). Collaborative care for the treatment of Hispanic children diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. General Hospital Psychiatry, 32(6),612-614. doi: 10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2010.08.004
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2...
). Another study reported the follow-up of a monthly psychoeducational intervention for parents and teachers of children with ADHD after one and 10 years, although it did not describe how psychoeducation was performed (duration, individual or group, place, team; Kądziela-Olech, 2012Kądziela-Olech, H. (2012). Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children - The role of psychoeducation in longitudinal study. Psychiatria i Psychologia Kliniczna, 12(3),149-156.).

In all studies, questionnaires and scales were used to assess the outcome variables at least twice (pre and post intervention), except for three studies that performed qualitative assessments (Hogue et al., 2014Hogue, A., Bobek, M., & Evans, S. W. (2014). Changing Academic Support in the home for adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A family-based clinical protocol for improving school performance. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 23,14-30. doi: 10.1016/j.cbpra.2014.07.002
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpra.2014.07....
; Korzeniowsk & Ison, 2008Korzeniowsk, C., & Ison, M. (2008). Estrategias psicoeducativas para padres y docentes de niños con TDAH. Revista Argentina de Clínica Psicológica, 18(1),65-71.; Levine & Anshel, 2011Levine, E. S., & Anshel, D. J. (2011). "Nothing works!" A case study using cognitive-behavioral interventions to engage parents, educators, and children in the management of attentiondeficit/hyperactivity disorder. Psychology in the Schools, 48(3),297-306. doi: 10.1002/pits.20554
https://doi.org/10.1002/pits.20554...
). Process measures, such as presence in sessions, dropout rate, and training of facilitators were rarely assessed. The study of Aguiar et al. (2014)Aguiar, A. P., Kieling, R. R., Costa, A. C., Chardosim, N., Dorneles, B. V., Almeida, M. R., ...Rohde, L. A. (2014). Increasing teachers' knowledge about ADHD and learning disorders: An investigation on the role of a psychoeducational intervention. Journal of Attention Disorders, 18(8),691-698. doi: 10.1177/1087054712453171
https://doi.org/10.1177/1087054712453171...
described the training offered to the professional team that conducted the intervention, and the one by Myers et al. (2010)Myers, K. , Vander Stoep, A. , Thompson, K., Zhou, C., & Unützer, J. (2010). Collaborative care for the treatment of Hispanic children diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. General Hospital Psychiatry, 32(6),612-614. doi: 10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2010.08.004
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2...
evaluated the presence of the parents in the intervention sessions.

Table 2
Characteristics of ADHD Psychoeducation Interventions

Patients usually retain only 50% of the relevant information transmitted by the professional (Swaminath, 2009Swaminath, G. (2009). Psychoeducation. Indian journal of psychiatry, 51(3),171-172. doi: 10.4103/0019-5545.55082
https://doi.org/10.4103/0019-5545.55082...
), which suggests the need to assess the information acquired by the patients. Only three studies verified whether patients, family members, and teachers in fact understood the information provided in the psychoeducation of ADHD. Bai et al. (2015)Bai, G. N., Wang, Y. F., Yang, L., & Niu, W. Y. (2015). Effectiveness of a focused, brief psycho-education program for parents of ADHD children: improvement of medication adherence and symptoms. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, 11,2721-2735. doi: 10.2147/NDT.S88625
https://doi.org/10.2147/NDT.S88625...
used a questionnaire composed of 16 items to assess the knowledge of the parents of children with ADHD. five items referred to ADHD (nuclear symptoms, causes, losses, if chronic) and 11 to medication (combined treatment, decreased ADHD symptoms, possibility of dependence, side effects). After intervention, participants in the experimental group demonstrated significantly greater knowledge than the control group and increased tendency to adhere to treatments (Bai et al., 2015Bai, G. N., Wang, Y. F., Yang, L., & Niu, W. Y. (2015). Effectiveness of a focused, brief psycho-education program for parents of ADHD children: improvement of medication adherence and symptoms. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, 11,2721-2735. doi: 10.2147/NDT.S88625
https://doi.org/10.2147/NDT.S88625...
). Hirvikoski et al. (2015)Hirvikoski, T., Waaler, E., Lindström, T., Bölte, S., & Jokinen, J. (2015). Cognitive behavior therapy-based psychoeducational groups for adults with ADHD and their significant others (PEGASUS): An open clinical feasibility trial. ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders, 7(1),89-99. doi: 10.1007/s12402-014-0141-2
https://doi.org/10.1007/s12402-014-0141-...
also assessed the knowledge of participants through a questionnaire. The ADHD 20 Questions consists of 20 items about the beginning of ADHD, possibility of contagion, symptoms, possible impairments, comorbidities, etc. (Bramham et al., 2009Bramham, J., Young, S., Bickerdike, A., Spain, D., McCartan, D., & Xenitidis, K. (2009). Evaluation of group cognitive behavioral therapy for adults with ADHD. Journal of Attention Disorders, 12(5),434-441. doi: 10.1177/1087054708314596
https://doi.org/10.1177/1087054708314596...
). The intervention resulted in greater knowledge of the disorder, psychological wellbeing and quality of the relationship between the adults with ADHD and family members (Hirvikoski et al., 2015Hirvikoski, T., Waaler, E., Lindström, T., Bölte, S., & Jokinen, J. (2015). Cognitive behavior therapy-based psychoeducational groups for adults with ADHD and their significant others (PEGASUS): An open clinical feasibility trial. ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders, 7(1),89-99. doi: 10.1007/s12402-014-0141-2
https://doi.org/10.1007/s12402-014-0141-...
). Aguiar et al. (2014)Aguiar, A. P., Kieling, R. R., Costa, A. C., Chardosim, N., Dorneles, B. V., Almeida, M. R., ...Rohde, L. A. (2014). Increasing teachers' knowledge about ADHD and learning disorders: An investigation on the role of a psychoeducational intervention. Journal of Attention Disorders, 18(8),691-698. doi: 10.1177/1087054712453171
https://doi.org/10.1177/1087054712453171...
assessed the knowledge of primary school teachers about ADHD through an instrument built by the researchers themselves based on items in the literature. As a result, they found a reduction in the level of incorrect beliefs about ADHD (Aguiar et al., 2014Aguiar, A. P., Kieling, R. R., Costa, A. C., Chardosim, N., Dorneles, B. V., Almeida, M. R., ...Rohde, L. A. (2014). Increasing teachers' knowledge about ADHD and learning disorders: An investigation on the role of a psychoeducational intervention. Journal of Attention Disorders, 18(8),691-698. doi: 10.1177/1087054712453171
https://doi.org/10.1177/1087054712453171...
). The use of instruments such as these can help identify distorted information to be addressed during psychoeducation, as well as serve as a way to assess the effectiveness of psychoeducation for the target population.

Final Considerations

This study described the characteristics of psychoeducation for ADHD reported in national and international publications. Upon analyzing 29 studies that met inclusion criteria, it is possible to conclude that not all publications clearly present the concept of psychoeducation used, which may confuse readers given the theoretically diverse nature of the construct. The target public of psychoeducational interventions, in most studies, were relatives of people with ADHD. In general, psychoeducation about ADHD seems to contribute to greater knowledge of the disorder, greater adherence to treatment, lower intensity of symptoms, and higher quality of life. However, few studies have assessed how much information provided in psychoeducation was in fact retained by the target population.

However, several limitations that may interfere in the interpretation of the presented results should be considered. The literature review was performed with a combination of only five descriptors and in just two languages, thus other articles on the same subject may not have been identified and analyzed. Therefore, results refer only to the sample of articles selected for analysis in this study.

The main contribution of this systematic review was to provide an overview of national and international production on psychoeducation about ADHD available in eight databases, which enabled the identification of aspects that increased the attention of researchers. Notably, no reports of psychoeducation targeted at higher education teachers and health professionals were identified, which points to an exciting field of study aimed at developing psychoeducational interventions about the disorder and its treatment for this public. Additionally, it was possible to observe that the content that must be transmitted in psychoeducation about ADHD is already known, and professionals can invest in further means of contribution (internet, social networks, manuals) in order to reach teenagers and parents.

  • Agradecemos ao Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq) e Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul (FAPERGS) pelo financiamento e à Karen Rech Braun pela colaboração como juíza.

Referências

  • Aguiar, A. P., Kieling, R. R., Costa, A. C., Chardosim, N., Dorneles, B. V., Almeida, M. R., ...Rohde, L. A. (2014). Increasing teachers' knowledge about ADHD and learning disorders: An investigation on the role of a psychoeducational intervention. Journal of Attention Disorders, 18(8),691-698. doi: 10.1177/1087054712453171
    » https://doi.org/10.1177/1087054712453171
  • Altin, M., Altin, G. E., & Semerci, B. (2016). An online survey of Turkish psychiatrists' attitudes about and experiences of adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in clinical practice. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, 12,2455-2461. doi: 10.2147/NDT.S110720
    » https://doi.org/10.2147/NDT.S110720
  • Anderson, S. B., & Guthery, A. M. (2015). Mindfulness- based psychoeducation for parents of children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: An applied clinical project. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing, 28(1),43-49. doi: 10.1111/jcap.12103
    » https://doi.org/10.1111/jcap.12103
  • American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5 ed.). Arlington, VA: Author.
  • Asherson, P. (2012). ADHD across the lifespan. Medicine, 40(11),623-627. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mpmed.2012.08.007
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mpmed.2012.08.007
  • Bai, G. N., Wang, Y. F., Yang, L., & Niu, W. Y. (2015). Effectiveness of a focused, brief psycho-education program for parents of ADHD children: improvement of medication adherence and symptoms. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, 11,2721-2735. doi: 10.2147/NDT.S88625
    » https://doi.org/10.2147/NDT.S88625
  • Barkley, R. A., Fischer, M., Smallish, L., & Fletcher, K. (2002). The persistence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder into young adulthood as a function of reporting source and definition of disorder. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 111(2),279-89. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021843X.111.2.279
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021843X.111.2.279
  • Bäuml, J., Froböse, T., Kraemer, S., Rentrop, M., & Pitschel-Walz, G. (2006). Psychoeducation: A basic psychotherapeutic intervention for patients with schizophrenia and their families. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 32(1),51-59. doi: 10.1093/schbul/sbl017
    » https://doi.org/10.1093/schbul/sbl017
  • Bégin, J. Y., Bluteau, J., Arseneault, C., & Pronovost, J. (2012). Psychoeducation in Quebec: Past to Present. Ricerche di Pedagogia e Didattica . Journal of Theories and Research in Education, 7(1),1-16. doi: 10.6092/issn.1970-2221/2681
    » https://doi.org/10.6092/issn.1970-2221/2681
  • Bonsack, C., Rexhaj, S., & Favrod, J. (2015). Psychoéducation: définition, historique, intérêt et limites. Annales Médico-psychologiques, 173(1),79-84. doi: 10.1016/j.amp.2014.12.001
    » https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amp.2014.12.001
  • Bramham, J., Young, S., Bickerdike, A., Spain, D., McCartan, D., & Xenitidis, K. (2009). Evaluation of group cognitive behavioral therapy for adults with ADHD. Journal of Attention Disorders, 12(5),434-441. doi: 10.1177/1087054708314596
    » https://doi.org/10.1177/1087054708314596
  • Burlingame, G., Ridge, N., Matasuno, J., Hwang, A., & Ernshaw, D. (2006). Educational needs of inpatients with severe and persistent mental illnesses. Journal of Psychosocial Nursing, 44(1),39-43.
  • Bussing, R., Zima, B. T., Mason, D. M., Meyer, J. M., White, K., & Garvan, C. W. (2012). ADHD knowledge, perceptions, and information sources: Perspectives from a community sample of adolescents and their parents. Journal of Adolescent Health, 51(6),593-600. doi: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2012.03.004
    » https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2012.03.004
  • Charach, A., & Fernandez, R. (2013). Enhancing ADHD medication adherence: Challenges and opportunities. Current Psychiatry Reports, 15(7),1-8. doi: 10.1007/s11920-013-0371-6
    » https://doi.org/10.1007/s11920-013-0371-6
  • Coletti, D. J., Pappadopulos, E., Katsiotas, N. J., Berest, A., Jensen, P. S., & Kafantaris, V. (2012). Parent perspectives on the decision to initiate medication treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology, 22(3),226-237. doi: 10.1089/cap.2011.0090
    » https://doi.org/10.1089/cap.2011.0090
  • Conners, C. K. (2009). Diagnóstico e avaliação do TDAH. In C. K. Conners, Transtorno de déficit de Atenção/hiperatividade: As mais recentes estratégias de avaliação e tratamento Porto Alegre, RS: Artmed.
  • Ferrin, M., Moreno-Granados, J. M., Salcedo-Marin, M. D., Ruiz-Veguilla, M., Perez-Ayala, V., & Taylor, E. (2014). Evaluation of a psychoeducation programme for parents of children and adolescents with ADHD: Immediate and long-term effects using a blind randomized controlled trial. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 23(8),637-647. doi: 10.1007/s00787-013-0494-7
    » https://doi.org/10.1007/s00787-013-0494-7
  • Ferrin, M. , Perez-Ayala, V. , El-Abd, S., Lax-Pericall, T., Jacobs, B., Bilbow, A., & Taylor, E. (2016). A randomized controlled trial evaluating the efficacy of a psychoeducation program for families of children and adolescents with ADHD in the United Kingdom: Results after a 6-month follow-up. Journal of Attention Disorders, 1-12. doi: 10.1177/1087054715626509
    » https://doi.org/10.1177/1087054715626509
  • Gil, A. C. (2006). Métodos e técnicas de pesquisa social São Paulo, SP: Atlas.
  • Hernández, P. R., & Gutiérrez, I. C. (2014). Plan de tratamiento multimodal del TDAH. Tratamiento psicoeducativo. Pediatría Integral, 18(9),624-633.
  • Hill, P. (2015). Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents: Assessment and treatment. BJPsych Advances, 21(1),23-30. doi: 10.1192/apt.bp.114.013953
    » https://doi.org/10.1192/apt.bp.114.013953
  • Hirvikoski, T., Waaler, E., Lindström, T., Bölte, S., & Jokinen, J. (2015). Cognitive behavior therapy-based psychoeducational groups for adults with ADHD and their significant others (PEGASUS): An open clinical feasibility trial. ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders, 7(1),89-99. doi: 10.1007/s12402-014-0141-2
    » https://doi.org/10.1007/s12402-014-0141-2
  • Hogue, A., Bobek, M., & Evans, S. W. (2014). Changing Academic Support in the home for adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A family-based clinical protocol for improving school performance. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 23,14-30. doi: 10.1016/j.cbpra.2014.07.002
    » https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpra.2014.07.002
  • Janssen, M., Wensing, M., van der Gaag, R. J., Cornelissen, I., van Deurzen, P., & Buitelaar, J. (2014). Improving patient care for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children by organizational redesign (Tornado program) and enhanced collaboration between psychiatry and general practice: A controlled before and after study. Implementation Science, 9(1),155-162. doi: 10.1186/s13012-014-0155-3
    » https://doi.org/10.1186/s13012-014-0155-3
  • Kądziela-Olech, H. (2012). Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children - The role of psychoeducation in longitudinal study. Psychiatria i Psychologia Kliniczna, 12(3),149-156.
  • Knapp, P. (2004). Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental na Prática Psiquiátrica Porto Alegre, RS: Artmed.
  • Knouse, L. E., Cooper-Vince, C., Sprich, S., & Safren, S. A. (2008). Recent developments in the psychosocial treatment of adult ADHD. Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics, 8(10),1537-1548. doi: 10.1586/14737175.8.10.1537
    » https://doi.org/10.1586/14737175.8.10.1537
  • Korzeniowsk, C., & Ison, M. (2008). Estrategias psicoeducativas para padres y docentes de niños con TDAH. Revista Argentina de Clínica Psicológica, 18(1),65-71.
  • Lara, C., Fayyad, J., De Graaf, R., Kessler, R. C., Aguilar-Gaxiola, S., Angermeyer, M., ...Karam, E. G. (2009). Childhood predictors of adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Results from the World Health Organization World Mental Health Survey Initiative. Biological Psychiatry, 65(1),46-54. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2008.10.005
    » https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2008.10.005
  • Levine, E. S., & Anshel, D. J. (2011). "Nothing works!" A case study using cognitive-behavioral interventions to engage parents, educators, and children in the management of attentiondeficit/hyperactivity disorder. Psychology in the Schools, 48(3),297-306. doi: 10.1002/pits.20554
    » https://doi.org/10.1002/pits.20554
  • Long, N., Rickert, V. I., & Ashcraft, E. W. (1993). Bibliotherapy as an adjunct to stimulant medication in the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Pediatric Health Care, 7(2),82-88. doi: 10.1016/08915245(93)90078-V
    » https://doi.org/10.1016/08915245(93)90078-V
  • Lukens, E. P., & McFarlane, W. R. (2004). Psycho-education as evidence-based practice: Considerations for practice, research, and policy. Brief Treatment and Crisis Intervention, 4(3),205. doi: 10.1093/brief-treatment/mhh019
    » https://doi.org/10.1093/brief-treatment/mhh019
  • Mattos, P., Palmini, A., Salgado, C. A., Segenreich, D., Grevet, E., Oliveira, I. R., ...Lima, P. P. (2006). Painel brasileiro de especialistas sobre o diagnóstico do Transtorno do Déficit de Atenção/Hiperatividade (TDAH) em adultos. Revista de Psiquiatria, 28(1),50-60.
  • McCarthy, S. (2014). Pharmacological interventions for ADHD: How do adolescent and adult patient beliefs and attitudes impact treatment adherence? Patient Preference & Adherence, 8, 1317-1327.
  • McCarty, C. A., Vander Stoep, A., Violette, H., & Myers, K. (2015). Interventions developed for psychiatric and behavioral treatment in the Children's ADHD Telemental Health Treatment Study. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 24(6),1735-1743. doi: 10.1007/s10826-014-9977-5
    » https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-014-9977-5
  • McCleary, L., & Ridley, T. (1999). Parenting adolescents with ADHD: Evaluation of a psychoeducation group. Patient Education and Counseling, 38(1),3-10. doi: 10.1016/S07383991(98)00110-4
    » https://doi.org/10.1016/S07383991(98)00110-4
  • Menezes, S. L., & Souza, M. C. B. (2012). Implicações de um grupo de psicoeducação no cotidiano de portadores de transtorno afetivo bipolar. Revista da Escola de Enfermagem da USP, 46(1),124-131. doi: 10.1590/S0080-62342012000100017
    » https://doi.org/10.1590/S0080-62342012000100017
  • Mesquita, C. M. D., Porto, P. R., Rangé, B. P., & Ventura, P. R. (2009). Terapia cognitivo-comportamental e o TDAH subtipo desatento: Uma área inexplorada. Revista Brasileira de Terapias Cognitivas, 5(1),35-45. doi: 10.5935/18085687.20090004
    » https://doi.org/10.5935/18085687.20090004
  • Mongia, M., & Hechtman, L. (2016). Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder across the lifespan: Review of literature on Cognitive Behavior Therapy. Current Developmental Disorders Reports, 3(1),7-14. doi: 10.1007/s40474-0160072-z
    » https://doi.org/10.1007/s40474-0160072-z
  • Montoya, A., Colom, F., & Ferrin, M. (2011). Is psychoeducation for parents and teachers of children and adolescents with ADHD efficacious? A systematic literature review. European Psychiatry, 26(3),166-175. doi: 10.1016/j.eurpsy.2010.10.005
    » https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eurpsy.2010.10.005
  • Montoya, A. , Hervás, A., Fuentes, J., Cardo, E., Polavieja, P., Quintero, J., & Tannock, R. (2014). Cluster-randomized, controlled 12-month trial to evaluate the effect of a parental psychoeducation program on medication persistence in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, 10, 1081-1092. doi: 10.2147/NDT.S62487
    » https://doi.org/10.2147/NDT.S62487
  • Murphy, K. (2005). Psychosocial treatments for ADHD in teens and adults: A practice-friendly review. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 61(5),607-619. doi: 10.1002/jclp.20123
    » https://doi.org/10.1002/jclp.20123
  • Myers, K. , Vander Stoep, A. , Thompson, K., Zhou, C., & Unützer, J. (2010). Collaborative care for the treatment of Hispanic children diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. General Hospital Psychiatry, 32(6),612-614. doi: 10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2010.08.004
    » https://doi.org/10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2010.08.004
  • Nussey, C., Pistrang, N., & Murphy, T. (2013). How does psychoeducation help? A review of the effects of providing information about Tourette syndrome and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Child: Care, Health and Development, 39(5),617-627. doi: 10.1111/cch.12039
    » https://doi.org/10.1111/cch.12039
  • Palacios-Cruz, L., de la Peña Olvera, F., Figueroa, G. V., Caballero, A. A., de la Rosa Muñoz, L., Pedroza, ...Flores, R. E. U. (2013). Knowledge and beliefs about attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in teachers from three Latin-American countries. Salud Mental, 36,257-262.
  • Searight, H. R., Burke, J. M., & Rootnek, K. F. (2000). Adult ADHD: Evaluation and treatment in family medicine. American Family Physician, 62(9),2077-2086.
  • Sprich, S. E., Safren, S. A. , Finkelstein, D., Remmert, J. E., & Hammerness, P. (2016). A randomized controlled trial of cognitive behavioral therapy for ADHD in medication-treated adolescents. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry doi: 10.1111/jcpp.12549
    » https://doi.org/10.1111/jcpp.12549
  • Swadi, H., Bobier, C., Price, L., & Craig, B. (2010). Lessons from an audit of psycho-education at an older adolescent inpatient unit. Australasian Psychiatry, 18(1),53-58. doi: 10.1080/10398560902721580
    » https://doi.org/10.1080/10398560902721580
  • Swaminath, G. (2009). Psychoeducation. Indian journal of psychiatry, 51(3),171-172. doi: 10.4103/0019-5545.55082
    » https://doi.org/10.4103/0019-5545.55082
  • Vidal, R., Bosch, R., Nogueira, M., Gómez-Barros, N., Valero, S., Palomar, G., ...Ramos-Quiroga, J. A. (2013). Psychoeducation for adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder vs. cognitive behavioral group therapy: A randomized controlled pilot study. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 201(10),894-900. doi: 10.1097/NMD.0b013e3182a5c2c5
    » https://doi.org/10.1097/NMD.0b013e3182a5c2c5
  • Young, S. (1999). Psychological therapy for adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Counselling Psychology Quarterly, 12(2),183-190. doi: 10.1080/09515079908254088
    » https://doi.org/10.1080/09515079908254088

Publication Dates

  • Publication in this collection
    Jan-Mar 2018

History

  • Received
    23 Sept 2016
  • Reviewed
    23 Feb 2017
  • Accepted
    28 Feb 2017
Sociedade Brasileira de Psicologia R. Florêncio de Abreu, 681/1005 - CEP 14015-060 / Ribeirão Preto - SP, Brasil - Ribeirão Preto - SP - Brazil
E-mail: comissaoeditorial@sbponline.org.br