Brazilian norms and effects of age and education on the Hayling and Trail Making Tests

Normas brasileiras e efeitos de idade e escolaridade no Teste Hayling e no Teste de Trilhas

Nicolle Zimmermann Caroline de Oliveira Cardoso Christian Haag Kristensen Rochele Paz Fonseca About the authors



To describe normative data for the Hayling Test and the Trail Making Test (TMT) in a sample of Brazilian adults, and to investigate the effects of age and education on test performance.


A total of 313 (TMT) and 364 (Hayling) individuals with age ranges of 19-39, 40-59, and 60-75 years, and with at least 5 years of formal education, participated in this study. The tests were administered as part of a large battery of a normative project. Individuals were evaluated individually in silent, ventilated rooms at a university clinic. Instrument protocols were scored by trained research assistants and double-checked to ensure data reliability.


There were major effects of age on the TMT (Time B, Errors B, B-A) and on the Hayling Test (Errors B/15, B/45), and major effects of education on the TMT (Time B, Errors B, B-A) and on the Hayling Test (Time A, Errors B/15, B/45). Interaction effects were found in Time B and B-A for the Hayling Test and in Time A for the TMT.


Age and education were critical for performance on both verbal and non-verbal executive functions.

Executive functions; age; education; Trail Making Test; Hayling Test

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