Brain tumors are the most common solid tumors and the second largest group of neoplasms diagnosed in childhood. Treatment includes surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. However, radiotherapy can cause complications, e.g., cognitive deficits.
We describe the case of a child diagnosed with a brain tumor evaluated before and after radiotherapy to investigate cognitive decline after treatment. The results showed a decline in Intelligence Quotient (IQ) scores and reversal of the predominance of verbal and nonverbal skills. After radiotherapy, the subject showed slowness, academic deficits, and difficulties learning new information.
Even though the post-treatment evaluation showed scores compatible with the average, comparison between pre- and post-treatment evaluations demonstrated the impact of radiotherapy on the subject's cognitive profile. These results highlight the importance of evaluating patients who undergo radiotherapy before and after treatment and understanding neuropsychological scores associated with the subjects' complaints.
Radiotherapy; neuropsychology; case study; medulloblastoma