Abstract in English:Abstract Introduction The treatment of schizophrenia aims to reduce symptoms, improve quality of life and promote recovery from debilitating effects. Nonadherence to treatment is related to several factors and may lead to persistence of symptoms and relapse. Worldwide, the rate of nonadherence to treatment in individuals with schizophrenia is around 50%. Objectives To compare the clinical profile of nonadherent and adherent patients among individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia receiving treatment at psychosocial care centers in a city in southern Brazil. Method The clinical-epidemiological profile of patients with schizophrenia was retrospectively analyzed based on medical records entered into the system between January and December 2016, evaluating data at one-year follow-up. Results 112 patients were included. The disease was more prevalent in men; mean age was 40.5 years, being lower among men. Most of the sample had a low level of education, was unemployed/retired, did not have children and resided with relatives. The highest rate of diagnosis was among young adults. Psychotic symptoms were most frequently described, and the most commonly prescribed antipsychotic was haloperidol. The nonadherence rate was 15.2%; only one patient required admission to a psychiatric hospital. Among nonadherent patients, the mean time of attendance was 6 months; there were more nonadherent women than men. The most prevalent age range of nonadherence was 41-64 years. Psychosocial and clinical data were similar across the whole sample. Conclusion A nonadherence rate of 15.2% was found among individuals receiving treatment for schizophrenia, suggesting that psychosocial care centers were effective in treating and monitoring these patients.
Abstract in English:Abstract Introduction Brazil is one of the countries with the highest rates of alcohol-related traffic infractions, but little is known about the profile of the drivers who commit them. Identifying the characteristics of impaired drivers is essential for planning preventive actions. Objective To compare drug use and driving behavior profiles of drivers with and without alcohol-related infractions. Methods 178 drivers stopped at routine roadblocks were assessed by traffic agents who conducted standard roadblock procedures (document verification; request of a breathalyzer test [BT]). Drug use and driving behavior data were collected through semi-structured interviews. Subjects were divided into three groups: drivers who refused the BT (RDs, n = 72), drivers who tested positive on the BT (PDs, n = 34), and drivers who had committed other infractions (ODs, n = 72). Results The proportion of alcohol use in the last year was higher among RDs (100%) than in the PD and OD groups (97.1% and 72.2% respectively, p < 0.001). Lifetime prevalence of cannabis and cocaine use for the overall sample was 44.3% and 18.2%, respectively. Fewer individuals in the OD group (31.5%) reported having been stopped at roadblocks in the previous year compared to the PDs (55.9%) and RDs (48.6%, p = 0.03). However, a higher proportion of RDs reported drunk driving in the same period (87.5%; PD 69.7%; OD 26.9%; p < 0.001). Conclusion Essential differences among groups were observed. RDs had a higher proportion of alcohol use and drunk driving in the previous year; drivers who fit into this particular group may be unresponsive or less responsive to social deterrence and enforcement actions.
Abstract in English:Abstract Introduction Research suggests that religiosity domains are associated with mental health constructs. Some studies have focused on the relationship between religiosity and personality disorders. Objective To investigate the relationship between religiosity domains and pathological traits of the borderline (BPD) and schizotypal (SZPD) personality disorders. Methods Participants were 751 adults from the general population who answered the Multidimensional Inventory for Religious/Spiritual Well-Being (MI-RSWB-E), the Attachment to God Inventory (AGI), and factors of the Dimensional Clinical Personality Inventory 2 (IDCP-2). Pearson’s correlation and regression analysis were conducted with pathological traits as independent variables and religiosity domains as dependent variables. Results Correlation and regression analyses indicated slightly higher associations between religiosity domain and BPD traits in comparison to SZPD traits. BPD traits showed higher associations with the hope immanent, forgiveness and hope transcendent domains, while SZPD presented higher associations with connectedness. The SZPD-related paranormality factor presented the highest correlation observed in the study and was the best SZPD predictor of religiosity domains. The BPD-related hopelessness factor was the predictor with significant contribution to most regression models. BPD traits presented slightly higher average association with religiosity domains, whereas spiritual-related domains (e.g., connectedness) tended to show higher associations with SZPD traits. Conclusions Our findings help explain the relationship between specific pathological traits and religiosity domains.
Abstract in English:Abstract Introduction Depression is possibly not a single syndrome but rather comprises several subtypes. DSM-5 proposes a melancholia specifier with phenotypic characteristics that could be associated with clinical progression, biological markers or therapeutic response. The Sydney Melancholia Prototype Index (SMPI) is a prototypic scale aimed to improve the diagnosis of melancholia. So far, there is only an English version of the instrument available. The aim of this study is to describe the translation and adaptation of the English version of the SMPI into Brazilian Portuguese. Methods Translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the self-report (SMPI-SR) and clinician-rated (SMPI-CR) versions into Brazilian Portuguese were done following recommendations of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). This guideline includes the following steps: preparation, forward translation, reconciliation, back translation, back translation review, harmonization, cognitive debriefing, debriefing results review, proofreading and final report. Results The Brazilian Portuguese versions of the SMPI were well-accepted by respondents. Changes in about two-thirds of the items were considered necessary to obtain the final Brazilian Portuguese version of the SMPI. Conclusions Both versions of the SMPI are now available in Brazilian Portuguese. The instrument could become an important option to enhance studies on melancholia in Portuguese-speaking samples.
Abstract in English:Abstract Introduction Alliance is an essential component of all psychotherapies and a consistent predictor of its outcomes. The Working Alliance Inventory (WAI) is a widely used and psychometrically sound measure of alliance. It assesses three key aspects of the construct: a) agreement on the tasks of therapy; b) agreement on the therapeutic goals; and c) development of an affective bond. Objective To preliminarily analyze the psychometric properties of the Brazilian version of both the original, 36-item WAI, and of the short form revised, 16-item version (WAI-SR). Methods The sample comprised 201 psychodynamic psychotherapy patients. Alliance assessments were made after the 4th treatment session. Results The inventory adapted to Brazilian Portuguese, in both the original and short forms, appears to be reliable and valid to measure alliance and its dimensions by clients in psychotherapy. Further studies are needed to replicate and expand the findings.
Abstract in English:Abstract Introduction The Internet Gaming Disorder Scale – Short Form (IGDS9-SF) assesses the severity, harmful effects and/or consequences of excessive online and offline gaming. Its conciseness and theoretical foundations on current diagnostic criteria of gaming disorders make it a useful resource for clinical and screening settings. Objective To describe the process of cross-cultural adaptation of the IGDS9-SF to the Brazilian context. Methods The cross-cultural adaptation involved the steps of independent translation of the instrument, synthesis version, back-translation, pre-test and elaboration of the final version. Content validity assessment was conducted by a multidisciplinary committee of experts and consisted of both a quantitative analysis (calculation of content validity coefficients – CVC) and a qualitative analysis (assessment of the experts’ comments and suggestions). The pre-test sample consisted of 30 gamers with variable sociodemographic characteristics. Results The cross-cultural adaptation of the scale followed the proposed protocol, and the CVC was satisfactory (≥ 0.83) for all the structures and equivalences assessed. Most of the suggestions made by the experts were accepted (mainly adjustments and language standardization). The gamers who participated in the pre-test judged the scale easy to understand and did not suggest changes. Discussion The Brazilian version of the IGDS9-SF showed adequate content validity and is available for researchers and clinicians, as well as for the investigation of additional psychometric characteristics.
Abstract in English:Abstract Introduction Eating disorders (EDs) affect up to 13% of young people and are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Nevertheless, important, internationally recognized instruments for brief ED screening (Sick Control One Stone Fat Food Questionnaire [SCOFF]), symptom severity assessment and diagnosis (Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire [EDE-Q]) and assessment of ED-associated psychosocial impairment (Clinical Impairment Assessment Questionnaire [CIA]) were not yet available in Brazilian Portuguese. Our objective was to perform the cross-cultural adaptation and translation into Brazilian Portuguese of the instruments SCOFF, EDE-Q and CIA. Method The process involved a series of standardized steps, as well as discussions with experts. First, the relevance and adequacy of the scales’ items to our culture and population were extensively discussed. Then, two independent groups translated the original documents, creating versions that were compared. With the participation of external ED experts (i.e., who did not take part in the translation process), synthesized versions were produced. The syntheses were then applied to a focal group of patients with ED (n = 8). After that step, a preliminary version of the three scales in Brazilian Portuguese was produced and sent for back-translation by two English native speakers, who worked independently. A synthesis of the back-translations, along with the preliminary versions in Brazilian Portuguese, were sent to the original authors. Results The Brazilian Portuguese versions of SCOFF, EDE-Q and CIA were approved by the original authors and are now available for use. Conclusion This study provides important tools for the ED research field in Brazil.
Abstract in English:Abstract Objective To describe the characteristics and rates of child psychiatric hospitalizations in the Brazilian public health system, as well as their variation according to the country’s macro-regions. Methods This was a descriptive study focusing on year 2017, having as main source the Brazilian Ministry of Health’s hospital information system. Child hospitalizations were considered to encompass those of individuals under 13 years of age whose main diagnosis was included in Chapter V of the International Classification of Diseases, 10th edition (ICD-10). Results The most prevalent diagnostic group was F10-F19, with 24.1% (21.8-26.3), followed by groups F30-39, F80-F89, F90-F99, F20-F29, with no statistical difference among them. Hospitalizations occurred more frequently in non-psychiatric hospitals, with 93.1% (91.7-94.4); most hospitalizations lasted for up to one week – 75.5% (73.2-77.8). The national hospitalization rate was 4.3 (4.1-4.5)/100,000, showing variations according to macro-regions. The highest rate was found in the South macro-region and the lowest in the Northeast, with values of 10.9 (9.9-12.0)/100,000 and 1.9 (1.6-2.2)/100,000, respectively. Intermediate values were found in the other macro-regions. Conclusion Some specificities of the characteristics of hospitalizations for psychiatric reasons in this age group could be attested, as well as important variations in their occurrence among the different macro-regions of the country.
Abstract in English:Abstract Introduction Suicide is an issue of great severity in public health worldwide. This study aimed to investigate which instruments are most frequently used by healthcare professionals to assess suicide risk and how accessible such instruments are, as well as to determine the scope of suicide phenomena. Method A systematic review was performed using the following Boolean searches: “scale AND suicide,” “evaluation AND suicide,” “questionnaire AND suicide.” The articles retrieved were read and selected by two independent researchers – any discrepancies were addressed by a third researcher. Results From a total number of 206 articles, 20 instruments were identified as being currently used to assess suicide risk. The two most common were the Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation (BSI) and The Columbia – Suicide Severity Rating Scale (C-SSRS). Conclusion Even though the two scales (BSI and C-SSRS) are the most frequently mentioned and used by healthcare professionals to assess suicide risk, both instruments present breaches in their structure and there is not yet a single instrument considered to be the gold standard. As a future perspective, there is the urgency of developing a new tool that can widely and completely assess all psychopathological aspects of suicidality.
Abstract in English:Abstract Introduction The experience of stressful events can alter brain structures involved in memory encoding, storage and retrieval. Here we review experimental research assessing the impact of the stress-related hormone cortisol on long-term memory retrieval. Method A comprehensive literature search was conducted on PubMed, Web of Science and PsycNet databases with the following terms: “stress,” “long-term memory,” and “retrieval.” Studies were included in the review if they tested samples of healthy human participants, with at least one control group, and with the onset of the stress intervention occurring after the encoding phase and shortly (up to one hour) before the final memory test. Results Thirteen studies were included in the qualitative synthesis (N = 962) and were classified according to the time elapsed between stress induction and memory retrieval (stress-retrieval delay), the stress-inducing protocol (stressor), the time of day in which stress induction took place, sex, and age of participants. Most studies induced stress with the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) between 15 and 25 minutes before the final memory (mostly recall) test and showed significant increases in cortisol levels and memory impairment. Discussion The reviewed studies indicate that stress does impair retrieval, particularly when induced with the TSST, in the afternoon, up to 45 minutes before the onset of the final memory test, in healthy young men. These results may inform future research on the impact of stress-induced cortisol surges on memory retrieval.