Abstract in English:Abstract Introduction The Personality Inventory for the DSM-5 – Brief Form (PID-5-BF) – is an instrument for assessment of the five pathological personality traits from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition (DSM-5) alternative model of personality disorders. Objectives To determine the psychometric properties of the version of the PID-5-BF translated and adapted to Brazilian Portuguese. Methods The process of translating and cross-culturally adapting the text was carried out by independent translators and the resulting version was administered to 176 patients in two hospitals in Rio Grande do Sul. The internal structure was tested by means of confirmatory factor analysis. Evidence of reliability was tested by examining the internal consistency of the scales and their convergent and concurrent validity with other methods of psychopathology. Results The five factors were replicated in the present sample with adequate indicators of fit of the data to the model. Appropriate reliability coefficients for the scales and evidence of validity were observed, indicating the clinical usefulness of the PID-5-BF in the Brazilian context. Conclusion The psychometric properties of PID-5-BF proved satisfactory in an initial sample of Brazilians.
Abstract in English:Abstract Objective To evaluate the prevalence of Internet addiction (IA) and its associated factors among students at an Educational Institution in Southern Brazil. Method This is a cross-sectional study, targeting a sample of students aged from 14 to 20 years. They were selected by random sampling to be representative of the 4038 students enrolled at the institute at the time. IA was assessed using the Internet Addiction Test (IAT). Screening for anxiety and/or depressive disorders was performed using the Well-Being Index (WHO-5). Results The prevalence of IA was 50.8% and the rate was higher among individuals who had screened positive for depressive or anxiety disorders than among those who had not (p = 0.003). There was an association between IA and access to certain types of content, such as gaming (p = 0.010), work and study related content (p = 0.030), and using the internet to access sexual content (p < 0.001). Conclusion Further studies are needed to confirm the high prevalence of IA and explore factors associated with it in samples with similar characteristics to ours. The associations between this dependency and positive screening for anxiety and/or depressive disorders and the types of content accessed are an alert to the existence of these important relationships and illustrate the importance of studying them further. Knowledge about these associations provides an opportunity to implement measures for prevention, such as psychoeducation, and to offer adequate treatment.
Abstract in English:Abstract Objective To assess the prevalence of and factors associated with suicidal behavior in patients seen at the emergency department (ED) of a general hospital in southern Brazil. Method Descriptive, observational, cross-sectional study. The records of all patients who had an emergency psychiatric consultation at the ED conducted by the emergency psychiatric consultation service at Hospital São Lucas da Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul in 2016 and 2017 were analyzed and stratified by sex and by age groups (15-29 years, 30-49 years, 50-69 years, and 70 years and older). Suicidal behavior was characterized by factors such as thoughts of death, suicidal thoughts, and suicidal risk. Suicidal behavior was compared by sex and between age groups with chi-square tests. Multivariate analysis of suicidal behavior and gender, age, and specific diagnoses were compared with Poisson regression. Results A total of 1,172 records from January 2016 to December 2017 were examined. There were more ED visits by females (63.1%) than males. Younger patients (15-29 years) had a higher severe risk of suicide than elderly (≥ 70 years) patients (54.1 vs. 19%; p < 0.01). Indicators of suicide behavior stratified by sex and by age group revealed marked differences between age groups for all variables among female patients. Overall, age group patterns for males were very similar in terms of suicidal behavior variables. Conclusions A high prevalence of suicidal behavior was observed in this sample, particularly among young adults and especially associated with female gender and diagnoses of depression and personality disorders.
Abstract in English:Abstract Introduction The birth experience of adolescents is understudied even though they are a particularly vulnerable population to experience a negative birth event, given that they exhibit many known risk factors. Objective To ascertain whether a cesarean birth mediates the impact of infant complications on the birth experience of adolescent mothers. Methods Using a secondary analysis of data collected from 303 postpartum adolescents previously evaluated for depression and post-traumatic stress, we employed counterfactual causal analysis to determine if delivery type mediated the birth experience at different levels of depression. Noted limitations pertain to methodological assumptions and computational feasibility as well as potential sample bias. Results We found that the mediating effect of delivery mode depended on the adolescent’s depression level as well as on the specific operationalization of the birth experience. At low levels of depression, the odds of a negative birth appraisal were reduced by around 30% when operationalized as a single item subjective rating. In contrast, at high levels of depression, the odds of a negative birth experience increased by 80% when operationalized as an Impact of Event Scale (IES) subconstruct. Conclusion Depression level plays a pivotal role in moderating how delivery mode mediates the birth experience. The direction of impact also depends on how the birth experience is operationalized.
Abstract in English:Abstract Introduction Specialized psychosocial care centers (Centros de Atenção Psicossocial [CAPS]) are mental health services focused on social rehabilitation and reducing hospitalization of patients with severe and persistent mental illness. Collective multiprofessional activities (CMPA) are the main therapeutic tools used at CAPS. This study aimed to determine rates of adherence to CMPA and identify factors associated with adherence. Methods This is a cross-sectional study in which 111 CAPS users were evaluated using questionnaires covering patient characteristics, clinical status, and treatment and incorporating the Functioning Assessment Short Test (FAST), the Clinical Global Impression – Severity scale (CGI-S), and the Clinical Global Impression – Improvement scale (CGI-I). Adherence was defined as attendance at 50% or more CMPA during the previous 3 months. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, bivariate analysis, and Poisson logistic regression with robust variance to estimate prevalence ratios. Results CPMA adherence was 43%. Having children aged 14 years or younger was significantly associated with non-adherence (71%, p = 0.001). Poor or partial adherence to psychotropic drugs tended to be associated (p = 0.066) with poor adherence (33% higher risk), as was the number of psychiatric hospitalizations during CAPS (p = 0.076), with a cumulative association of 5% non-adherence per hospitalization. Conclusions CMPA adherence was low in the study. It is necessary to consider the environment in which the individual lives and invest in support networks, providing patients and family members with explanations about the importance of CMPA to rehabilitation and attempting to tailor the care provided to each patient’s needs. There was an association between greater number of psychiatric hospitalizations and non-adherence, suggesting that CAPS are fulfilling a preventive role.
Abstract in English:Abstract Introduction Deficits in executive functioning, especially in inhibitory control, are present in children born very premature and/or with very low birth weight (VP/VLBW) and in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Objective To evaluate whether ADHD imposes additional inhibitory control (IC) deficits in preschoolers born VP/VLBW. Methods 79 VP/VLBW (4 to 7 years) children were assessed for ADHD using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Aged Children – Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL). IC was measured with Conners’ Kiddie Continuous Performance Test (K-CPT 2) and the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function – Preschool Version (BRIEF-P).Results: No significant differences were found between ADHD (n = 24) and non-ADHD children (n = 55) for any of the measures (p = 0.062 to p = 0.903). Both groups had deficits in most K-CPT 2 scores compared to normative samples, indicating poor IC and inconsistent reaction times. Conclusions ADHD does not aggravate IC deficits in VP/VLBW children. Either neuropsychological tasks and parent reports of executive functions (EFs) may not be sensitive enough to differentiate VP/VLBW preschoolers with and without ADHD, or these children’s EFs are already so impaired that there is not much room for additional impairments imposed by ADHD.
Abstract in English:Abstract Introduction The Oxford-Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experiences (O-LIFE) is a widely-used scale, and the first to include a dimensional approach to understanding schizotypy. Objective To adapt the short version of the O-LIFE (O-LIFE-S) into Brazilian Portuguese. Method a) Two independent bilingual professionals translated the original instrument into Brazilian Portuguese; b) a third bilingual professional summarized the two translations; c) a fourth bilingual expert translated the Portuguese version back into English; d) this back-translation was adjusted by a committee of psychology experts; e) a pilot study was conducted with 10 participants from the general population. Results O-LIFE-S was considered ready to be used in a formal validation study in Brazil. Conclusion The scale appears to cover the dimensional approach to schizotypy. However, a future validation study needs to be conducted to determine the internal consistency and reliability of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the O-LIFE-S .
Abstract in English:Abstract Objective To assess psychometric properties of the Benzodiazepine Dependence Self-Report Questionnaire – Portuguese Version (BENDEP-SRQ-PV) in a sample of Brazilian chronic hypnotic users. Methods One hundred and seventy-nine chronic hypnotic users (benzodiazepines and Z-drugs) were recruited, attended a psychiatric evaluation, and answered the BENDEP-SRQ-PV. Factor structure, reliability, and influence of covariates (dependence diagnosis and type of drug consumed) were assessed in a structural equation modelling environment. Discrimination was assessed with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) plots and stability with the test-retest method. Results Participants, mostly women (91.6%), aged 51 to 64 years old, had been using hypnotics for an average of 34.8 months, with a mean defined daily dose of 0.72. Psychometric analysis demonstrated construct and criterion validity, reliability, and response stability. The factor structure was maintained as originally proposed: problematic use (ω = 0.73), preoccupation (ω = 0.74), lack of compliance (ω = 0.74), and withdrawal (ω = 0.93). Conclusion The BENDEP-SRQ-PV is an adequate measure of hypnotic dependence in the Brazilian population of chronic users. Our results support using the scale for follow-up in clinical and research applications and in correlational studies.
Abstract in English:Abstract Objective: This study investigated stress and performance levels in candidates for the Brazilian Bar Association examination (Exame da Ordem dos Advogados do Brasil) in Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil. Methods: The following instruments were used: A sociodemographic data sheet, Lipp's Stress Symptom Inventory for Adults, the Ways of Coping Scale, the Adult Self-Report Scale, and the Self-Report Questionnaire. The final sample comprised 117 candidates, aged from 18 to 59 years (mean = 29.7, standard deviation = 7.8), 76 women (65%) and 41 men (35%). Results: In the first phase of the examination, 67 candidates were approved (57.3%), but there was no significant difference in terms of stress: stress symptoms were present in 76.1% of the successful candidates and 62% of the unsuccessful candidates; (χ2 (1) = 2.09; p = 0.148). In terms of stress phases, 70.6% of the successful candidates (n = 36) were in the resistance phase and 78.4% of these had psychological symptoms. The mean age of successful candidates (28.2 years) was lower than that of unsuccessful candidates (31.7 years); (t (115) = −2.48; p = 0.015). Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms were detected in 18 successful candidates (26.9%) and 6 unsuccessful candidates (12.2%); (χ2 (1) = 2.85; p = 0.091). Conclusions: Candidates who were successful in the first phase of the Brazilian Bar Association examination tended to be younger and scored higher for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms, but their stress levels did not differ from those of unsuccessful candidates.
Abstract in English:Abstract Introduction Irritability has both mood and behavioral manifestations. These frequently co-occur, and it is unclear to what extent they are dissociable domains. We used confirmatory factor analysis and external validators to investigate the independence of mood and behavioral components of irritability. Methods The sample comprised 246 patients (mean age 45 years; 63% female) from four outpatient programs (depression, anxiety, bipolar, and schizophrenia) at a tertiary hospital. A clinical instrument rated by trained clinicians was specifically designed to capture irritable mood and disruptive behavior dimensionally, as well as current categorical diagnoses i.e., intermittent explosive disorder (IED); oppositional defiant disorder (ODD); and an adaptation to diagnose disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD) in adults. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to test the best fitting irritability models and regression analyses were used to investigate associations with external validators. Results Irritable mood and disruptive behavior were both frequent, but diagnoses of disruptive syndromes were rare (IED, 8%; ODD, 2%; DMDD, 2%). A correlated model with two dimensions, and a bifactor model with one general dimension and two specific dimensions (mood and behavior) both had good fit indices. The correlated model had root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) = 0.077, with 90% confidence interval (90%CI) = 0.071-0.083; comparative fit index (CFI) = 0.99; and Tucker-Lewis index (TLI) = 0.99, while the bifactor model had RMSEA = 0.041; CFI = 0.99; and TLI = 0.99 respectively). In the bifactor model, external validity for differentiation of the mood and behavioral components of irritability was also supported by associations between irritable mood and impairment and clinical measures of depression and mania, which were not associated with disruptive behavior. Conclusions Psychometric and external validity data suggest both overlapping and specific features of the mood vs. disruptive behavior dimensions of irritability.