Abstract in English:Abstract Despite major advances in the study of the brain, investigations on neurochemistry in vivo still lack the solid ground of more established methods, such as structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is a technique that might potentially fill in this gap. Nevertheless, studies using this approach feature great methodological heterogeneity, such as varying voxel of choice, differences on emphasized metabolites, and absence of a standardized unit. In this study, we present a methodology for creating a systematic review and meta-analysis for this kind of scientific evidence using the prototypical case of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Systematic review registration: International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO), CRD42018112418.
Abstract in English:Abstract Introduction Compared to other types of caregiver, spouse-caregivers tend to be closer to people with Alzheimer’s disease (PwAD) because of their different position in the relationship. We designed this study to compare the differences in caregivers’ quality of life (QoL) and domains of QoL according to the kinship relationship between the members of caregiving dyads. Methods We assessed QoL of 98 PwAD and their family caregivers (spouse-caregivers, n = 49; adult children, n = 43; and others, n = 6). The PwAD and their caregivers completed questionnaires about their QoL, awareness of disease, cognition, severity of dementia, depression, and burden of caring. Results The comparison between caregiver types showed that spouse-caregivers were older, with higher levels of burden and lower scores for cognition. Caregivers’ total QoL scores were not significantly different according to type of kinship. However, there were significant differences in the domains physical health (p = 0.04, Cohen’s d [d] = -0.42), marriage (p = 0.01, d = 1.31), and friends (p = 0.04, d = -0.41), and life as a whole showed a trend to difference (p = 0.08, d = -0.33). When QoL domains were analyzed within dyads, there were significant differences between members of spouse dyads in the domains energy (p = 0.01, d = -0.49), ability to do things for fun (p = 0.01, d = -0.48), and memory (p = 0.000, d = -1.07). For non-spouse dyads, there were significant differences between caregivers and PwAD for the QoL domains memory (p = 0.004, d = -0.63), marriage (p = 0.001, d = -0.72), friends (p = 0.001, d = -0.65), and ability to do chores (p = 0.000, d = -0.76). Conclusions Differences were only detected between spouse/non-spouse-caregivers when QoL was analyzed by domains. We speculate that spouse and non-spouse caregivers have distinct assessments and perceptions of what is important to their QoL.
Abstract in English:Abstract Introduction The university period is often characterized as a critical period of vulnerability for smoking habit initiation. Objective The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to assess the relationship between religiosity and smoking among undergraduate students on health sciences courses. Methods A total of 336 students on four health sciences courses (occupational therapy, speech therapy, nutrition, and physiotherapy) completed a cigarette smoking questionnaire along with the Duke University Religion Index. Results Smoking prevalence was 8.3% among females and 12.7% among males. Prevalence among students who do not have a religion, but do believe in God, was higher than among those who do have a religion (16.3 and 6.3%, respectively). Organizational religious activity has a significant effect on smoking status. Conclusion The students have health habits that are not only motivated by the technical knowledge acquired on their undergraduate courses, since there was a possible influence of social norms stimulated by religious institutions on their attitudes, knowledge and practices in health.
Abstract in English:Abstract Introduction Anhedonia is defined as the reduced ability to feel pleasure and is a core symptom of various psychiatric disorders such as depression and schizophrenia. The Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale (SHAPS) was developed to assess the presence of anhedonia. The objective of this study was to assess the psychometric properties of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the SHAPS. Methods In this study, the SHAPS (14 items) was translated into Brazilian Portuguese and validated using data obtained from 228 subjects within a clinical sample. Psychometric properties were assessed using item response theory (logistic models) and classical test theory (Cronbach’s alpha). We checked for external validity using a non-parametric correlation with an independent scale: Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale – Depression subscale (HAD-D). Results The SHAPS presented good internal consistency, with a Cronbach’s α coefficient of 0.759 and adequacy to an IRT 1 parameter logistic (Rasch) model. The SHAPS presented significant correlation with the external measure HAD-D, with Spearman’s ρ = 0.249 (S = 1368914; p < 0.001). Conclusion These results suggest that the Brazilian Portuguese version of the SHAPS is a reliable and valid instrument to assess hedonic tone.
Abstract in English:Abstract Introduction Sex addiction is a major psychiatric disorder in which a person is compelled to participate in sexual activities despite negative consequences. This study was conducted to localize a brief sex addiction screening instrument (PATHOS) for use in the Iranian population and to determine variables predictive of sex addiction in the general Iranian population. Methods In this study, we evaluated the psychometric properties of PATHOS in a sample of 443 Iranians in 2018. Data were analyzed using exploratory factor analysis (Factor 10.8.04 software). Simple and multiple linear regression analyses were used to investigate construct validity and variables predictive of addiction. Results Exploratory factor analysis identified two factors in this dichotomous questionnaire and reported the questionnaire’s test-retest reliability in the target population. Prognostic variables for sexual addiction in the Iranian population were determined to be female gender, higher education, viewing pornographic videos, having multiple sex partners, having difficulty interacting in sex, and history of masturbation. Conclusion The Persian version of the brief sex addiction screening instrument (PATHOS) has sufficient reliability and validity in the Iranian population. The predictive variables of sex addiction are indicative of the presence of risk of this disorder in Iranian samples and more studies are needed in order to enable prevention and treatment.
Abstract in English:Abstract Introduction Gender dysphoria (GD) is characterized by a marked incongruence between experienced gender and one’s gender assigned at birth. Transsexual individuals present a higher prevalence of psychiatric disorders when compared to non-transsexual populations, and it has been proposed that minority stress, i.e., discrimination or prejudice, has a relevant impact on these outcomes. Transsexuals also show increased chances of having experienced maltreatment during childhood. Interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-10 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) are inflammatory cytokines that regulate our immune system. Imbalanced levels in such cytokines are linked to history of childhood maltreatment and psychiatric disorders. We compared differences in IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α levels and exposure to traumatic events in childhood and adulthood in individuals with and without GD (DSM-5). Methods Cross-sectional controlled study comparing 34 transsexual women and 31 non-transsexual men. They underwent a thorough structured interview, assessing sociodemographic information, mood and anxiety symptoms, childhood maltreatment, explicit discrimination and suicidal ideation. Inflammatory cytokine levels (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α) were measured by multiplex immunoassay. Results Individuals with GD experienced more discrimination (p = 0.002) and childhood maltreatment (p = 0.046) than non-transsexual men. Higher suicidal ideation (p < 0.001) and previous suicide attempt (p = 0.001) rates were observed in transsexual women. However, no differences were observed in the levels of any cytokine. Conclusions These results suggest that transsexual women are more exposed to stressful events from childhood to adulthood than non-transsexual men and that GD per se does not play a role in inflammatory markers.
Abstract in English:Abstract Introduction Internet addiction disorder has reportedly become an important cause of health and social problems. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral group therapy for internet addiction symptoms, quality of life, and mental health of students with internet addiction. Methods This was a quasi-experimental study with pretest-posttest measures and a control group. The statistical population of the study consisted of all students at Tehran universities in the academic year of 2018-19. The target group was selected through an internet addiction test and a clinical interview using a targeted sampling method and was divided into experimental and control groups by randomization. The experimental group participated in fifteen 90-minute cognitive-behavioral group therapy sessions. Before, immediately after, and 3 months after the treatment, the internet addiction symptoms of both groups were evaluated to assess mental health with the IAT, quality of life (QOL), and SCL-90-R questionnaires. Data were analyzed with ANCOVA analysis using SPSS Statistics 20 software. Results After treatment, cognitive-behavioral therapy groups showed reductions in internet addiction scores (p < 0.05). Results showed that the cognitive-behavioral group therapy was effective for improving quality of life (p < 0.05) and mental illnesses (p < 0.05) in students with internet addiction. Conclusions Cognitive-behavioral group therapy can enhance awareness and mental health of students with internet addiction. Therefore, this intervention can be used as a beneficial treatment to reduce internet addiction symptoms and improve the condition of people with behavioral addictions such as internet dependency.
Abstract in English:Abstract Objective Many adolescents suffer from depressive and anxiety disorders simultaneously and current treatment methods do not put enough emphasis on comorbidity of these disorders. The unified protocol for treating emotional disorders in adolescents is a transdiagnostic therapy which targets mutual fundamental factors. Therefore, the current study aims to compare the effectiveness of the unified protocol alone with the unified protocol combined with mindfulness as an additional treatment in adolescents suffering from emotional disorders. Method A quasi-experimental study was conducted with adolescents. The participants had been diagnosed with emotional disorders and were divided into a control group (15 participants) and an experimental group (16 participants). Both groups were offered 14 sessions of therapy. They were assessed at pre-test, post-test, and two-month follow-up. Scales used in the study included the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), the Children’s Depression Inventory (CDI), and the Youth Anxiety Measure for DSM-5 (YAM-5). Results The results showed that both of the treatment methods effectively reduced adolescents’ emotional problems, but improvements were more significant in the group administered the additional mindfulness program. Among the variables assessed, non-phobic anxiety disorders and depression improved more than specific phobia and behavioral problems. Between-subjects (Group) partial etas for non-phobic anxiety, depression, specific phobia, and behavioral problems were 0.67, 0.50, 0.23, and 0.16, respectively. Conclusion According to the findings of this study, additional treatment methods such as mindfulness could increase the effectiveness of the unified transdiagnostic protocol for adolescents (UP-A). The therapeutic implications are discussed.
Abstract in English:Abstract Objective To analyze temporal trends of mortality due to suicide among adults in Brazil, by macroregion and gender, from 2000 to 2015. Methods A retrospective study of temporal trends in suicide mortality rates in adults aged 20 to 64 years, by macroregion and gender, from 2000 to 2015. Data from the Brazilian Mortality Database (SIM) and from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE) were used. The mortality rate trends analysis was performed using simple linear regression, with Stata 14 software. Results There was an upward trend in mortality due to intentionally inflicted self-harm in the Brazilian adult population in the North, Northeast, and Southeast regions for both genders (p<0.001), with predominance in the male population in these three regions and throughout the country (p<0.001). A downward trend was observed in the South and Midwest (p=0.003 and p=0.040). Conclusion Mortality due to intentionally inflicted self-harm has increased in Brazil, but has undergone important variations in different parts of the country. Even a regional analysis is insufficient to achieve a thorough evaluation of these contrasts because of the country’s continental proportions and data collection biases. Further studies focused on this topic are required.
Abstract in English:Abstract Objective To propose a brief parenting program offered in the context of health promotion and evaluate the immediate results relating to use of appropriate parenting practices and quality of parent-child interaction. Methods Forty-five parents of school-age children from two non-governmental institutions located in a medium-sized city in the state of Sao Paulo participated in the study. The following assessment tools were used in the pre and post-tests: the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), Quality of Family Interaction Scales (EQIFs), and the Brazilian Economic Classification Criteria (CCEB). Only scores of parents who attended 75% of the program were included in the analysis (25 participants). Results Most of the participants who completed the program were grouped in socioeconomic levels B and C (72%) and the complaints reported in the pre-test centered on disobedience and stubbornness (29.6%, each). Regarding parents’ perceptions of their educational practices and interaction with the children, improvements were detected in several of the aspects measured: affective relationship, involvement, model, communication, rules and monitoring, and children’s feelings, besides reduction in use of physical punishment and negative marital atmosphere (p < 0.03). Reductions were detected in aggressive behavior (p = 0.02) and externalizing problems (p = 0.04). Conclusion Despite the small sample and application in a specific community, this quick and affordable intervention seems to have yielded improvements in parent’s monitoring and their affective relationships with their children, in addition to reductions in punishments and children’s aggressive behavior, contributing to better parent-child interaction in the community.