Trends in Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Volume: 43, Issue: 2, Published: 2021
  • Obsessive-compulsive disorder reinforcement during the COVID-19 pandemic Trends

    Ornell, Felipe; Braga, Daniela Tusi; Bavaresco, Daniela Vicente; Francke, Ingrid Davila; Scherer, Juliana Nichterwitz; von Diemen, Lisia; Kessler, Felix Henrique Paim

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The COVID-19 pandemic is unquestionably impacting on the mental health of the population worldwide. Fear of contamination can both increase levels of stress in healthy individuals and intensify psychiatric symptoms in patients with pre-existing conditions, especially obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). During the COVID-19 pandemic, the imminent risk of contamination creates a logical need for self-surveillance and hygiene habits. However, this kind of information can have drastic implications for subjects with OCD, since cognitive distortions and compensatory strategies (cleansing rituals) are no longer irrational or oversized – rather, these ideas become legitimate and socially accepted, generating plausible validation for the intensification of compulsive cleaning rituals. Patients who presented remission of OCD symptoms would be more likely to have a relapse, and subclinical patients may scale up and ultimately be diagnosed with OCD due to the reinforcement of their habits, emotions and thoughts.
  • COVID-19 pandemic and social distancing: economic, psychological, family, and technological effects Review Article

    Both, Luciane Maria; Zoratto, Gustavo; Calegaro, Vitor Crestani; Ramos-Lima, Luis Francisco; Negretto, Bianca Lorenzi; Hauck, Simone; Freitas, Lucia Helena Machado

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Introduction The concept of social isolation is currently understood as a measure of epidemiological containment that aims to reduce the speed of spread of the disease, enabling health services to prepare their resources to cope with the likely increase in demand, while also seeking to provide additional protection to groups considered to be at higher risk. Objective The present narrative review aims to compile and synthesize the literature related to social isolation produced during the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020. Method This study is a narrative review of the literature on social isolation in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Results 73 publications were included for full-text reading and were classified into the following categories: levels of social isolation, economic effects, family relationships, health system, mental health of the population, and use of technology. Conclusions It is necessary to plan an escalation of responses to the consequences of the pandemic, especially in view of the increased demand on the health sector and social services. The negative effects of social isolation can be prevented by public policies that offer a response to the economic recession, maintenance of social work, encouragement of quality care in mental health services, and community support for vulnerable families.
  • Gender invariance and psychometric properties of a Brazilian version of the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ) Original Article

    Pinto, André Luiz de Carvalho Braule; Pasian, Sonia Regina; Malloy-Diniz, Leandro Fernandes

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Introduction Emotion regulation refers to use of strategies to change or suppress a response to an affective experience and is an important component of an individual’s subjective wellbeing. Difficulties properly regulating emotions are related to psychopathological processes. Objective This study assessed the factor structure of the Brazilian version of the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ); the invariance of its psychometric parameters as a function of gender; and its convergent validity with other scales measuring affective processes. Method A total of 813 adults (73.7% women), aged between 18 and 64 years and with a high educational level used an electronic platform to complete the ERQ, the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS), the Affect Scale (AS), and the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS). Factor structure, reliability, and validity of the adapted version of the ERQ were investigated. Results Multi-group confirmatory factor analysis (MGCFA) revealed adequate goodness of fit for the ERQ’s two-factor model (cognitive reappraisal and emotional suppression), providing evidence of invariance of its psychometric parameters as a function of gender. Correlations between the ERQ’s factors and measures of affect and emotional dysregulation presented positive indicators, with significant associations between emotion regulation and affective experiences depending on gender. Conclusion The ERQ presents good psychometric indicators for use with the Brazilian population.
  • Psychometric properties of the Persian version of the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire Original Article

    Foroughi, Ali Akbar; Parvizifard, Aliakbar; Sadeghi, Kheirollah; Parsa Moghadam, Arash

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Introduction Gross’s Emotion Regulation Questionnaire is one of the most widely-used and valid questionnaires for assessing emotion regulation strategies. The validity and reliability of the Persian version have not been determined and data on its psychometric properties are not available to Iranian mental health researchers. The purpose of this study was to determine the psychometric properties of the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire in Iranian students. Methodology In this cross-sectional study, 348 students (170 males and 178 females) were selected from Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Science and Tehran University of Medical Science. The following statistical procedures were conducted: correlation coefficients, factor analysis, Cronbach’s alpha, and independent t tests. Results The results showed that men use suppression more than women (T = -2.62, p = 0.009). Cronbach’s alpha coefficients were 0.76 for the cognitive reappraisal sub-scale and 0.72 for the suppression sub-scale (excluding question 9). Six questions related to the cognitive reappraisal factor explained 30.97% of emotion regulation variance, and 3 questions related to the suppression factor explained 22.59% of emotion regulation variance. Overall, these factors explained 53.5% of emotion regulation variance. There were significant correlations between suppression and difficulties in emotion regulation, trait anxiety, and affective control. Furthermore, there was a significant correlation between cognitive reappraisal and the Five-Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire. Conclusion The results indicate that the Persian version of the ERQ is a reliable and valid instrument that can be helpful for development of further important studies of emotional regulation.
  • Factors associated with adherence to sports and exercise among outpatients with major depressive disorder Original Article

    Monteiro, Fernanda Castro; Schuch, Felipe Barreto; Deslandes, Andrea Camaz; Mosqueiro, Bruno Paz; Caldieraro, Marco Antonio; Fleck, Marcelo Pio de Almeida

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Introduction Individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD) face more barriers to engagement in sports and exercise interventions. Evaluating clinical and demographic factors associated with adherence to sports and exercise among MDD outpatients could support development of new options and strategies to increase their participation. Methods In a cross-sectional study, 268 depressed outpatients were evaluated (83.51% females; mean age = 50.74 [standard deviation {SD} = 10.39]). Sports and exercise participation were assessed using a question about participation frequency during the previous month. Clinical and demographic factors were evaluated. Linear regression was used to identify predictors of participation in sports and exercise. Results MDD patients with mild symptoms of depression (odds ratio [OR] = 2.42; 95% confidence interval [95%CI] 1.00, 5.88; p = 0.04) and patients with mild to moderate symptoms (OR = 3.96; 95%CI 1.41, 11.15; p = 0.009) were more likely to engage regularly in sports and exercise than patients with more severe depression. Moreover, smoking (OR = 0.23; 95%CI 0.67, 0.80; p = 0.007) and being divorced (OR = 0.22; 95%CI 0.57, 0.86; p = 0.03) were associated with lower rates of engagement in sports and exercise. Conclusion Our findings indicate a significant association between clinical and demographic factors and participation in sports and exercise among MDD outpatients.
  • Associations between countertransference reactions towards patients with borderline personality disorder and therapist experience levels and mentalization ability Original Article

    Bhola, Poornima; Mehrotra, Kanika

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Objective This exploratory study locates countertransference as a pan-theoretical concept, comprising of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors expressed or experienced by therapists toward their patients. It aims to understand the patterns of countertransference experienced in working with borderline personality disorder. Associations between countertransference reactions and therapist-related variables of experience and mentalization ability are also examined. Method Psychotherapists (n = 117) completed the Therapist Response Questionnaire to assess patterns of countertransference experienced with a representative patient diagnosed with borderline personality disorder. They also completed a measure of mentalization ability that examined self-related mentalization, other-related mentalization, and motivation to mentalize. Results The profile of responses across eight countertransference dimensions is discussed, with the most strongly endorsed reactions being positive/satisfying, parental/protective, and helpless/inadequate. More experienced therapists reported less negative countertransference reactions in select dimensions. Therapists’ self-reported ability to reflect on and understand their own mental states was negatively correlated with a range of difficult countertransference experiences. There were few associations between their ability to make sense of others’ mental states, the motivation to mentalize, and the strength of their countertransference reactions. Conclusion The implications for countertransference management as well as therapist training and development are highlighted.
  • Efficacy of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) on depression, pain acceptance, and psychological flexibility in married women with breast cancer: a pre- and post-test clinical trial Original Article

    Ghorbani, Vajiheh; Zanjani, Zahra; Omidi, Abdollah; Sarvizadeh, Mostafa

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Objective: Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide. Many of these patients suffer from multiple psychological symptoms. The present study aimed to investigate the impact of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) on depression, pain acceptance, and psychological flexibility in married women with breast cancer. Methods: The present study was a pre- and post-test clinical trial with intervention and control groups. The research population consisted of women with breast cancer referred to the Ayatollah Yasrebi and Shahid Beheshti Hospitals in Kashan in 2018. Through a purposive sampling method, 40 women were selected and randomly divided into two groups, namely, intervention (n = 20) and control (n = 20). The applied tools included the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21), Chronic Pain Acceptance Questionnaire 8 (CPAQ-8), and Acceptance and Action Questionnaire - II (AAQ-II). Data were analyzed by SPSS 16 using descriptive statistics and analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results: The results showed that ACT treatment significantly reduced the mean scores of depression compared to the control group (F = 107.72, p < 0.001). The mean scores of pain acceptance (F = 9.58, p < 0.05) and psychological flexibility (F = 10.61, p < 0 .05) significantly increased in comparison with the control group. Conclusion: ACT can be considered as an effective therapeutic approach to reduce depression and increase pain acceptance and psychological flexibility in women with breast cancer. These changes appear to be due to improved acceptance of thoughts and feelings associated with cancer and increased psychological flexibility, which is the primary goal of ACT treatment. Clinical trial registration: Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (IRCT), IRCT20190518043620N1.
  • Translation, cross-cultural adaptation, and psychometric properties of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau Financial Well-Being scale Original Article

    Howat-Rodrigues, Anna Beatriz Carnielli; Laks, Jerson; Marinho, Valeska

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Objective: To translate and back-translate the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB) Financial Well-Being Scale into Brazilian Portuguese, to assess its cross-cultural semantic equivalence, and to verify the psychometric properties of the final version. Methods: Adaptation of the original scale applied a three-step methodology: translation and back-translation, appreciation of semantic equivalence, and administration to a convenience sample of 834 subjects. The analysis of psychometric properties comprised evaluation of evidence of the instrument’s validity by factor analysis, validity by contrasting groups, and internal consistency with Cronbach’s alpha coefficient. The CFPB granted authorization to conduct cross-cultural adaptation into Brazilian Portuguese. Results: Results indicated adequate cultural adaptation between scales, with good equivalence between the original English version and the final Brazilian version. The Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for the instrument’s internal consistency in this sample was 0.89. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses demonstrated high levels of item reliability and goodness of fit, with all 10 items loading onto a single factor, financial well-being. The measure has shown structural stability in two different cultural contexts (Brazil and the USA). Conclusion: The Brazilian version demonstrated acceptable psychometric properties and adequate structural and cross-cultural validity and the participants found it easy to understand.
  • Video-based cognitive-behavioral intervention for COVID-19 anxiety: a randomized controlled trial Original Article

    Shabahang, Reza; Aruguete, Mara S.; McCutcheon, Lynn

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Objective Cognitive-behavioral interventions can be effective for relieving anxiety associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but complications such as social distancing, quarantine, a shortage of experts, and delayed care provisions have made it difficult to access face-to-face therapeutic interventions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of a video-based cognitive-behavioral intervention for reducing COVID-19 anxiety. Method In the present randomized controlled trial, 150 college students with severe COVID-19 anxiety were randomly assigned to either an intervention (n = 75) or a waiting list control (n = 75) group. The intervention group participated in a video-based cognitive-behavioral program consisting of nine 15-20-minute sessions (three days a week for three weeks). Dependent measures included the COVID-19 Anxiety Questionnaire, Short Health Anxiety Inventory, Anxiety Sensitivity Index-3, Somatosensory Amplification Scale, Experience of Parasocial Interaction Scale, and Source Credibility Scale. Results Participants who were randomly assigned to the cognitive-behavioral program reported high parasocial interaction, source credibility, and satisfaction with the intervention. Eighty percent reported that the video-based intervention was a beneficial alternative to traditional face-to-face therapeutic intervention. At post-treatment evaluation, the video-based cognitive-behavioral intervention group showed a significant reduction in COVID-19 anxiety, health anxiety, anxiety sensitivity, and somatosensory amplification when compared to the wait-listed control group. Conclusions This study suggests that video-based cognitive-behavioral interventions can be an affordable, feasible, and effective method to reduce anxiety during a large-scale pandemic.
  • Associations between Gilbert’s syndrome and personality characteristics Original Article

    Düzenli, Tolga; Maden, Özgür; Tanoğlu, Alpaslan; Kaplan, Mustafa; Yazgan, Yusuf

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Objective Gilbert’s syndrome (GS) is a benign genetic disorder that is characterized by intermittent mild jaundice in which the liver doesn’t process bilirubin properly. The aim of this study was to determine whether GS patients have a different personality structure and if there are associations between properties of temperament and character and total bilirubin levels. Methods A total of 1665 young male individuals aged from 19 to 30 who were admitted for occupational examinations were included in this study. Careful patient history was taken, a detailed physical examination was conducted, and hematologic and biochemical tests and abdominal ultrasonography were performed. The Turkish version of the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) was administered to all participants. 81 patients diagnosed with GS and 150 randomly chosen healthy individuals (control group) were investigated with comparison and correlation analyses. Results GS patients had higher scores than healthy controls for disorderliness (NS4) (p = 0.018), sentimentality (RD1) (p = 0.042), and fatigability (HA4) (p = 0.03). Moreover, Gilbert syndrome patients scored lower than controls for empathy (C2) (p = 0.041) and transpersonal identification (ST2) (p = 0.044). Bilirubin levels were positively associated with disorderliness (NS4) (r = 0.141, p = 0.032) and fatigability (HA4) (r = 0.14, p = 0.033). Conclusions GS patients may have some different personality characteristics from healthy individuals. This study is an initial exploration of the personality structure of GS patients and the findings should be interpreted with caution. Further prospective studies are needed to identify the relationship between Gilbert disease and personality characteristics.
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E-mail: trends@aprs.org.br