Abstract in English:Abstract This study aims to analyze the mechanisms through which the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic impacts on well-being at work and on productivity. The secondary objective is to identify stress management strategies for the work environment during the pandemic. This is an integrative review. Phase 1 consisted of searches of open access electronic databases (MEDLINE, SciELO, Bireme, and LILACS) for papers published in 2020 addressing mental health, work, and pandemics. Phase 2 consisted of selecting literature recommended by specialists in occupational psychiatry and positive psychology. These materials were read and critically analyzed. Forty references were included in the literature review. The articles reviewed were classified into the following categories: articles concerning work relationships in Brazil; articles describing the impact of pandemics on mental health and work; articles focusing on the work of health professionals during pandemics; articles about well-being at work; and papers proposing strategies to improve well-being and productivity and to promote mental health. The COVID-19 pandemic can have a significant impact on workers’ mental health and productivity. Most professionals face a need to adapt to changes, which can decrease their feeling of well-being. Consequently, strategies to promote well-being and mental health in the work environment should be a priority. Work routines were modified after the COVID-19 pandemic set in and assessing these changes is essential to maintain workers’ mental health. By so doing, it is possible to promote general well-being and post-traumatic recovery and reduce stress levels.
Abstract in English:Abstract Introduction Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by persistent deficits in social communication and social interaction, associated with the presence of restricted and repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or activities. Cannabis has been used to alleviate symptoms associated with ASD. Method We carried out a systematic review of studies that investigated the clinical effects of cannabis and cannabinoid use on ASD, according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA checklist). The search was carried out in four databases: MEDLINE/PubMed, Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO), Scopus, and Web of Science. No limits were established for language during the selection process. Nine studies were selected and analyzed. Results Some studies showed that cannabis products reduced the number and/or intensity of different symptoms, including hyperactivity, attacks of self-mutilation and anger, sleep problems, anxiety, restlessness, psychomotor agitation, irritability, aggressiveness perseverance, and depression. Moreover, they found an improvement in cognition, sensory sensitivity, attention, social interaction, and language. The most common adverse effects were sleep disorders, restlessness, nervousness and change in appetite. Conclusion Cannabis and cannabinoids may have promising effects in the treatment of symptoms related to ASD, and can be used as a therapeutic alternative in the relief of those symptoms. However, randomized, blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials are necessary to clarify findings on the effects of cannabis and its cannabinoids in individuals with ASD. Systematic review registration International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO), code 164161.
Abstract in English:Abstract Introduction Mindfulness-based interventions (MBI) have been growing progressively as treatment options in the field of mental health. Aim: To assess the impact of mindfulness-based interventions for reducing suicidal thoughts and behaviors. Methods A systematic review was performed in December 2020 using PubMed, PsycINFO, EMBASE, SciELO, Pepsic, and LILACS databases with no year restrictions. The search strategy included the terms (‘mindfulness’ OR ‘mindfulness-based’) AND (‘suicide’ OR ‘suicidal’ OR ‘suicide risk’ OR ‘suicide attempt’ OR ‘suicide ideation’ OR ‘suicide behavior’). The protocol was registered in the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO), CRD42020219514. Results A total of 14 studies met all inclusion criteria and were included in this review. Most of the studies presented Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy as the MBI assessed (n=10). An emerging and rapidly growing literature on MBI presents promising results in reduction of suicide risk, particularly in patients with MDD. Four studies assessing other MBI treatment protocols (Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction; Daily Mindfulness Meditation Practice; Mind Body Awareness and Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Behavior Therapy) all demonstrated that MBI reduces factors associated with suicide risk. Conclusion MBI might target specific processes and contribute to suicide risk reduction.
Abstract in English:Abstract Introduction Based on studies of the biographies of artists and on research in which modern diagnostic criteria were applied, it has been suggested that there is a relationship between bipolar disorder (BD) and creativity. Objective: To investigate the relationship between BD and creativity and whether creative capacity varies depending on mood state. Method We conducted a systematic search of the scientific literature indexed on the PubMed, ISI Web of Science, PsycINFO, and SciELO databases using the terms “bipolar” OR “bipolar disorder” OR “mania” OR “manic” AND “creativ*”. Original studies were selected that investigated samples of at least ten patients with BD using at least one psychometric instrument to assess creativity. Results Twelve articles met the selection criteria. The results of comparisons of BD patients with control groups without BD were heterogeneous. BD was not associated with higher levels of creativity than other mental disorders. When comparing BD phases, depression was associated with worse performance on creativity tests and patients in mania (or hypomania) were not distinguished from euthymia patients. Conclusion It was not possible to corroborate the hypothesis that individuals with BD are more creative than individuals without psychiatric diagnoses or than patients suffering from other mental disorders, which may be related to the cross-sectional rather than longitudinal designs of virtually all of the clinical studies.
Abstract in English:Abstract Objective To conduct a systematic review to describe cognitive abilities in bipolar disorder (BD) in comparison to cognitive abilities in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia. Methods A literature search was performed with no year or language restrictions. The search yielded 1,461 articles, with 1,261 remaining after removal of duplicates, five of which were suitable for the systematic review: two for the comparison between BD and MCI and three comparing BD and dementia. Results Analyses from our systematic review showed that euthymic individuals with BD present impairments in cognitive domains such as attention and executive functioning, motor skills, conceptual thinking, and visuo-spatial abilities that are equally severe as or more severe than the impairments observed in individuals with MCI. In contrast, studies comparing BD and dementia indicated that Alzheimer’s disease (AD) dementia and behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) both showed greater cognitive deficits than BD during euthymia, whereas BD during a mood episode demonstrated higher cognitive impairments than bvFTD. Conclusion Findings from our systematic review suggest that cognitive impairments in euthymic BD fall into a range between the impairments seen in MCI and those seen in dementia. More studies are needed to analyze these comparisons, while also focusing on comparing different clinical stages of BD with MCI and dementia to analyze the progression of the clinical course and cognitive dysfunction in BD.PROSPERO registration ID: CRD42020150412
Abstract in English:Abstract Introduction: Repetitive thinking as a transdiagnostic factor plays an essential role in the development and maintenance of emotional disorders. Two versions of the Repetitive Thinking Questionnaire (RTQ-31 and RTQ-10) are the best-known measures used for assessing repetitive thinking in clinical and non-clinical samples. The present study was conducted to evaluate the psychometric properties and factor structure of Persian versions of them. Methods: Participants were 592 students assessed with the RTQ-31, the RTQ-10, the Ruminative Response Scale, the Perseverative Thinking Questionnaire, the Beck Depression Inventory-second edition, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, and the Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scale-21. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis were used to determine construct validity. Results: The findings showed that the RTQ-31 and the RTQ-10 demonstrated excellent internal consistency and good test-retest reliability (α = 0.946: r = 0.844) and (α = 0.903: r = 0.776) respectively. Also, five items from the original version were omitted due to inadequate factor loadings. This study showed that the resulting 26-item version has a two-factor structure, while the short version has a one-dimensional structure. Finally, it was found that repetitive thinking has a positive and powerful relationship with other measures of rumination and with symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress. Conclusion: Persian versions of the RTQ have good factor structures and psychometric properties and can be used in clinical populations and related studies.
Abstract in English:Abstract Introduction: Anhedonia is a critical symptom of major depressive disorder that is defined as the reduced ability to experience pleasure. The Temporal Experience of Pleasure Scale (TEPS) is commonly used to measure anhedonia and has exhibited satisfactory reliability. Objectives: We aim to perform cross-cultural adaptation of a Brazilian version of the TEPS and evaluate its psychometric properties. Method: The cross-cultural adaptation was performed according to previously established protocols. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of internal consistency was used to establish the degree of interrelation and coherence of items. Also, we calculated the intraclass correlation coefficient to determine the stability of the scale after a proposed interval had elapsed and used exploratory factor analysis to evaluate the scale’s factor structure and content validity. Principal component analysis was used to determine the factors to be retained in the factor model. Results: The participants reported that the Brazilian version of the TEPS had good comprehensibility and applicability. The results revealed a statistically significant correlation between measures. The intraclass correlation coefficient calculated was significant. The Cronbach’s alpha value calculated indicated that the scale’s overall internal consistency was adequate. Conclusion: The Portuguese version of the TEPS scale proposed achieved good comprehensibility for the Brazilian population and its psychometric characteristics demonstrated good reliability and validity.
Abstract in English:Abstract Objective The objective of this study was to translate and adapt the National Institute of Mental Health Life Chart Method – Self/Prospective (NIMH-LCM-S/P™) instrument for self-monitoring of mood into Brazilian Portuguese and provide evidence of content validity. Additionally, a user guide was prepared for the instrument and evaluated by mental health professionals. Methods The study was divided into two stages – Stage 1: Translation and cross-cultural adaptation and Stage 2: Determination of content validity index (CVI) scores. The translation and cross-cultural adaptation process involved 37 participants between translators, experts, target population, and evaluators. Results The CVI was evaluated by 15 mental health professionals. 11 (78.57%) of the items evaluated attained the maximum CVI score of 1.00, which constitutes the highest level of content validity, and no changes were suggested by participants. Only one of the items evaluated had a CVI score lower than 0.80. Conclusion The final translated and adapted version of the NIMH-LCM-S/P™ and its user guide were evaluated by the target population and the mental health professionals. Both groups displayed satisfactory comprehension levels, suggesting there is potential for using this instrument in clinical practice to assess therapeutic interventions in Brazilian settings.
Abstract in English:Abstract Objective To investigate the effectiveness of tele-counseling for the mental health of staff working in hospitals and reference clinics during the COVID-19 outbreak. Methods In the first stage of the study, using a convenience sampling strategy, 313 staff members working at Iran’s hospitals and COVID-19 clinics answered a Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the Short Health Anxiety Inventory online. In a second stage, 95 staff members who were willing to participate in the intervention were randomly assigned to the intervention (n = 51) or control (n = 44) groups. The intervention consisted of seven intensive tele-counseling sessions. Results In the first stage, the percentages of anxiety and depression related to coronavirus were 79.2% and 82.1% and the mean health anxiety score was 17.42. In the intervention phase, anxiety related to coronavirus and to perceived risk of illness (likelihood of illness) were significantly lower in the intervention group in comparison with the control group (p = 0.001). Depression related to coronavirus and anxiety related to the negative consequences of infection were non-significantly reduced in the intervention group compared to the control group (p = 0.08 and 0.12; respectively). Conclusion Continuous monitoring of the negative psychological impacts on medical staff of outbreaks as well as implementation of appropriate interventions to respond to them should be emphasized in order to improve staff mental health. Clinical trial registration: Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials, IRCT20170611034452N11.
Abstract in English:Abstract Introduction Burnout syndrome is highly prevalent among medical students. Whereas burnout syndrome has been associated with negative outcomes, like suicidal ideation, protective factors are still unknown. Objective To evaluate if there is an association between burnout syndrome and resilience in medical students, assessing covariates such as depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and religiosity. Method This cross-sectional study was carried out with a sample of 209 students from a medical school in Brazil. Burnout syndrome was assessed using the Maslach Burnout Inventory – Student Survey. Potential protective factors and aggravators to burnout syndrome were investigated using appropriate scales. Results Fifty-nine students (28.2%) presented burnout. Multivariate analysis showed that resilience was a protective factor (p < 0.001), along with being older, married or having better academic performance. Depressive symptoms were positively associated with burnout. Religiosity was not a protective factor and suicidal ideation was not associated with burnout when adjusted for depressive symptoms. Conclusion Burnout is frequent among medical students, impacting mental health and academic performance. Resilience seems to be a protective factor, and the relationship between burnout and suicidal ideation is possibly mediated by depressive symptoms. Prospective studies are needed to further investigate the associations found in this study.
Abstract in English:Abstract Introduction: Suicide is the cause of death of almost 800 thousand people worldwide every year. In Brazil, Rio Grande do Sul is one of the states with the highest suicide rates. This study aimed to assess whether there is a significant monthly time pattern of suicide in Rio Grande do Sul, by gender and age ranges, and whether suicide characteristics in the state are coherent with findings from previous studies. Methods: All data were collected from official secondary sources maintained by the national Brazilian and Rio Grande do Sul governments, covering a period from 2015 to 2019. Data included suicide deaths and population, divided by gender and age range. Sum totals, frequencies, odds ratios, and time series analyses were performed. Results: From 2015 to 2019, 6,287 people committed suicide in Rio Grande do Sul. Most of them were men and the most prevalent age band was from 50 to 59 years old. Men had higher suicide rates then women in all age ranges (p < 0.001) and in all months of the year, with an approximately 4-fold higher risk of committing suicide when compared to women. Men had a trending peak of suicide in January and December (p < 0.001), whereas women’s suicide rates peaked in March and December (p = 0.001). Conclusion: There are monthly time trends and seasonal patterns of suicide rates in Rio Grande do Sul, varying by gender and age range. Gender differences occurred mainly in the first three months of the year, and the age pattern was more evident among individuals aged 60 years or older.
Abstract in English:Abstract Introduction Social isolation has been associated with poor sleep quality and mental health problems during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, most studies have investigated heterogeneous samples subjected to varying social distancing policies and did not focus on a single local profile subject to homogeneous prevention policies. Objective To evaluate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental health and sleep quality in a specific region in the South of Brazil where the populations have similar culture and local governments have adopted similar social distancing policies. Methods This study was conducted with 327 individuals aged 18-72 years, living in the Vale do Taquari area, Brazil. We assessed sociodemographic variables with a standardized protocol, symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress with the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21), sleep quality with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and post-traumatic stress symptoms with the Impact of Event Scale (IES-R), using a web-based online survey. Results Our results showed that sleep dysfunction moderated the effects of age on psychological symptoms, indicating that younger participants who had poorer sleep quality had worse mental health. Furthermore, participants with more perceived stress during the pandemic and more sleep dysfunction reported more symptoms of anxiety and post-traumatic stress. Conclusion Psychological symptoms were not related to social isolation duration but were related to the subjective perception that the pandemic interfered with life and generated stressful situations. These results may help governments make important decisions about protection and isolation measures in future waves of COVID-19 infection.
Abstract in English:Abstract Introduction Interpersonal negotiation skills (INS) comprise actions used to solve social situations between interacting individuals involving different needs or desires. These abilities are part of one’s social competence and may be impaired in some psychiatric conditions. There are few validated psychometric tools for measuring INS in the literature. This pilot study aimed to investigate some basic psychometric properties of the Brazilian version of the Interpersonal Negotiation Strategies Interview (INSI) in children and adolescents. Methods We developed a new version of the INSI adapted to the Brazilian culture using eight different dilemmas in dyadic situations (with peers and adults), presented visually as drawings on cards. A group of psychologists and psychiatrists chose and adapted the dilemmas formerly proposed by the original version. The same scoring criteria as for the original instrument were used. A total of 20 children and adolescents were included in this pilot study. We investigated test reliability using measures of interrater reliability, test-retest, and internal consistency. The content validity of the INSI was also evaluated by comparison with scores from the Child Behavior Checklist-Revised (CBCL). Results Internal consistency and test-retest evaluations were acceptable (rater 1: α = 0.77; rater 2: α = 0.72); the reliability of the instrument was excellent (K = 0.078; intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.98; 95% confidence interval 0.97-0.99); and content validity was strongly significant (p < 0.001). Conclusions Preliminary results suggest that this version of the INSI has good interrater reliability and internal consistency and constitutes a promising tool to assess social competence.
Abstract in English:Abstract Objective To translate the Fear Survey Schedule for Infants-Preschoolers (FSSIP) into Brazilian Portuguese and to examine its reliability and validity for assessing fears among Brazilian preschoolers. Methods Two independent bilingual professionals conducted translation and back-translation of the original survey. The translated version was used to assess 152 preschool children divided in two groups: Clinical - 71 children referred for treatment for nighttime fear, and Control - 81 children enrolled at kindergarten who had not been referred for any mental health service in the previous 6 months. All parents filled out the FSSIP, the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL/1.5-5), and a sociodemographic questionnaire. Results Cronbach’s alpha coefficients were 0.949 (95% CI: 0.94-0.96) for the entire sample; 0.948 (95% CI: 0.93-0.96) for the Clinical Group, and 0.95 (95% CI: 0.93-0.96) for the Control Group. The mean score for fears was higher in the clinical group (60.19 vs. 51.53, t = -2.056; p = 0.042), indicating acceptable discriminate validity. We also found positive, moderate, and statistically significant correlations between FSSIP and most CBCL scores, indicating good convergent validity. Conclusion The Brazilian Portuguese version of the FSSIP showed good psychometric properties, and hence may be used in research and clinical settings to evaluate fears in preschoolers.
Abstract in English:Abstract Introduction The existence of a general factor related to psychiatric symptoms is supported by studies using a variety of methods in both clinical and non-clinical samples. Objectives This study aims to evaluate the replicability of the internal structure of the Brief Symptom Inventory in a large Brazilian sample. Methods Participants were 6,427 Brazilian subjects (81% female). Mean age was 42.1 years (standard deviation [SD] = 13.6, Min = 13, Max = 80). All participants completed the online version of the Brief Symptom Inventory. This scale presents a general score (GSI) and nine specific clusters of symptoms (depression, anxiety, phobic anxiety, interpersonal sensibility, psychoticism, paranoid ideation, obsessive-compulsive behavior, hostility, and somatization symptoms). Results Confirmatory factor analysis was performed to assess the factor structure of the BSI. The results showed that the best-fitting model was a bifactor solution and the general factor was the main dimension explaining most of the reliable variability in the data. Conclusion The findings suggest that the BSI’s internal structure was replicated in a non-clinical sample and that the general factor is the most reliable score. However, it is necessary to better understand the meaning of the general factor scores in a non-clinical sample to increase interpretability of scores.
Abstract in English:Abstract Introduction Recent research has suggested an increase in the global prevalence of psychiatric symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aimed to assess whether lifestyle behaviors can predict the presence of depression and anxiety in the Brazilian general population, using a model developed in Spain. Methods A web survey was conducted during April-May 2020, which included the Short Multidimensional Inventory Lifestyle Evaluation (SMILE) scale, assessing lifestyle behaviors during the COVID-19 pandemic. Depression and anxiety were examined using the PHQ-2 and the GAD-7, respectively. Elastic net, random forest, and gradient tree boosting were used to develop predictive models. Each technique used a subset of the Spanish sample to train the models, which were then tested internally (vs. the remainder of the Spanish sample) and externally (vs. the full Brazilian sample), evaluating their effectiveness. Results The study sample included 22,562 individuals (19,069 from Brazil, and 3,493 from Spain). The models developed performed similarly and were equally effective in predicting depression and anxiety in both tests, with internal test AUC-ROC values of 0.85 (depression) and 0.86 (anxiety), and external test AUC-ROC values of 0.85 (depression) and 0.84 (anxiety). Meaning of life was the strongest predictor of depression, while sleep quality was the strongest predictor of anxiety during the COVID-19 epidemic. Conclusions Specific lifestyle behaviors during the early COVID-19 epidemic successfully predicted the presence of depression and anxiety in a large Brazilian sample using machine learning models developed on a Spanish sample. Targeted interventions focused on promoting healthier lifestyles are encouraged.
Abstract in English:Abstract Introduction Exposure to peer aggression (PA) and bullying victimization (BV) are both expressions of peer victimization. Objectives In four age-sex groups, (1) Can exposure to PA and BV be considered distinct experiences? (2) To what extent do adolescents exposed to PA consider themselves bullying victims? and (3) What is the effect on BV of the number of PA events experienced? Methods This cross-sectional study evaluated a probabilistic community-based sample of 669 adolescents (11-15 years, 51.7% girls). A three-stage probabilistic sampling plan involved random selection of census units, eligible households, and one target child per household selected. A 15-item scale investigated exposure to PA events (physical aggression, verbal harassment, social manipulation) occurring more than once in the past six months. BV occurring more than once a week or most days in the past six months was investigated after presenting respondents with a BV definition that required them to feel harmed by their victimization experiences. Results Adolescents exposed to PA and/or BV reported PA only (76.2%), BV only (4.7%), and both (19.1%). Rates of BV among those exposed to PA were as follows: 11-to-12-year-old boys (22.7%), 13-to-15-year-old boys (9.7%), 11-to-12-year-old girls (46.5%), and 13-to-15-year-old girls (13.2%). Multiple logistic regression analysis (outcome = BV) found a significant interaction between PA, age, and sex. PA events had a significant effect on BV for all except older girls. Conclusion Exposure to PA and BV are different constructs; few older boys exposed to PA consider themselves bullying victims; and older girls are less affected by PA when it comes to BV.
Abstract in English:Abstract Introduction Childhood trauma (CT) is known to be a vulnerability factor for schizophrenia, but the specific impacts of different trauma subtypes on the prognosis of these patients remains unclear. Objective To assess the relationships between the occurrence of overall CT and its subtypes with factors with known prognostic impact on schizophrenia, such as age at onset of symptoms, global functioning, and cognitive impairment in a sample of Brazilian patients. Methods One hundred and five stable patients diagnosed with schizophrenia according to DSM-5 criteria were evaluated using the Independent Living Skills Survey (ILSS; self-report global functioning), Schizophrenia Cognition Rating Scale (SCoRS; subjective cognitive impairment), and Childhood Trauma Questionnaire scales (CTQ; perceived overall CT, emotional neglect, physical neglect, physical abuse, and emotional and sexual abuse). Statistical analysis was performed with multivariate linear regression. Results After controlling for educational level and age, subjective cognitive impairment was directly correlated with overall perceived CT occurrence, emotional abuse, and sexual abuse. Self-report global functioning was inversely correlated with perceived overall CT occurrence, emotional abuse, and sexual abuse. Emotional abuse and physical abuse were also inversely correlated with age at onset of symptoms. Conclusions CT can be related to more severe prognoses in schizophrenia, impacting on early onset of symptoms, lower global functioning, and greater cognitive impairment. Subtypes of trauma can be associated with different prognostic risks.
Abstract in English:Abstract Introduction Adherence to medications can be associated with circumstances related to the patient, with the pathology, with cultural health beliefs, with habits, and with quality of life. Behavioral patterns can also directly influence a patient’s pharmacological adherence, since they are related to their perception and understanding of their own health status and of their drug and non-drug treatments. Objective To investigate the association between adherence to pharmacological treatment and personality factors, sociodemographic variables, and economic data in the elderly. Methods Cross-sectional descriptive study. The population studied were elderly people registered with the Family Health Strategy of Porto Alegre and enrolled on the Brain Aging Program (PENCE), from March 2013 to November 2015. Sociodemographic data, pharmacological adherence, and personality traits were evaluated. Exclusion criteria were incomplete data in the personality and pharmacological adherence assessments; cognitive impairment, evaluated using the instrument Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), or not having carried out this assessment. Results A total of 123 individuals were included with a mean age of 71.35±7.33 years, 58.6% of whom reported some level of non-adherence to their medication regime (low and moderate adherence). Elderly people with low adherence had significantly higher mean scores in the Neuroticism factor, while those with high adherence had significantly higher mean scores in the Agreeableness and Conscientiousness factors. Conclusion The study suggests that pharmacological adherence among the elderly is negatively associated with the Neuroticism personality trait, while the Agreeableness and Conscientiousness traits are positively associated.
Abstract in English:Abstract Introduction The effects of dialectical behavior therapy on generalized anxiety disorder have not been examined to date, whereas cognitive behavioral therapy is a well-known psychotherapy for generalized anxiety disorder. Objectives This study investigated the effects of cognitive behavioral therapy versus dialectical behavior therapy on executive function and reduction of symptoms in generalized anxiety disorder. Method In the present study, 72 generalized anxiety disorder patients were randomly assigned to one of two groups: dialectical behavior therapy or cognitive behavioral therapy. Evaluations were performed at baseline, post-test, and three months after interventions as a follow-up. Measures included the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I disorders, the Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, the Beck Depression Inventory, the Tower of London Task, and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task.Results: The results of the present study showed that both groups had reduced scores for depression and anxiety and increased scores for executive function after the psychotherapies. These changes were maintained at follow-up. Conclusion Although depression and anxiety symptoms were significantly reduced by cognitive behavioral therapy, dialectical behavior therapy was more effective for improving executive function.
Abstract in English:Abstract Introduction Some individuals are more susceptible to recalling false information about events that never happened in their life. Nevertheless, there are several factors, such as personality characteristics, that appear to be related to memory performance. Social anxiety also provokes memory deficits for events that happen to other people, because these individuals tend to focus on their own inner selves rather than on external signs. Objective To investigate the influence of the personality characteristics of individuals with social anxiety disorder (SAD) on memory performance. Methods In this study, 183 university students had their memory tested using a complex emotional story about a mother and her son. Only subjects without clinical symptoms of depression and general anxiety (N = 148; 61 with SAD) were included in the study. Participants were compared for differences in personality characteristics using the Factorial Inventory of Personality and for SAD using the Social Phobia Inventory. Results The main results showed that memory performance of individuals with low percentile ranks in the personality characteristic dominance, i.e., those with low self-esteem, remembered more true information about the story than those with high scores when they did not have SAD. Conclusion The results are helpful to foster better understanding of the personality characteristics related to SAD, such as low dominance, which implies low self-esteem and difficulties with trust and with imposing themselves on others. The results could help development and improvement of techniques for therapeutic intervention.
Abstract in English:Abstract Objective To investigate associations between body mass index (BMI), white matter fractional anisotropy (FA), and C-reactive protein (CRP) in a group of individuals with bipolar disorder (BD) during euthymia and compare them with a control group of healthy subjects (CTR). Methods The sample consisted of 101 individuals (BD n = 35 and CTR n = 66). Regions of interest (ROI) were defined using a machine learning approach. For each ROI, a regression model tested the association between FA and BMI, controlling for covariates. Peripheral CRP levels were assayed, correlated with BMI, and included in a mediation analysis. Results BMI predicted the FA of the right cingulate gyrus in BD (AdjR2 = 0.312 F(3) = 5.537 p = 0.004; β = -0.340 p = 0.034), while there was no association in CTR. There was an interaction effect between BMI and BD diagnosis (F(5) = 3.5857 p = 0.012; Fchange = 0.227 AdjR2 = 0.093; β = -1.093, p = 0.048). Furthermore, there was a positive correlation between BMI and CRP in both groups (AdjR2 = 0.170 F(3) = 7.337 p < 0.001; β = 0.364 p = 0.001), but it did not act as a mediator of the effect on FA. Conclusion Higher BMI is associated with right cingulate microstructure in BD, but not in CTR, and this effect could not be explained by inflammatory mediation alone.
Abstract in English:Abstract Introduction Much of the evidence on the relationship between stress, lifestyle, and other physical and mental health outcomes comes from studies conducted in high-income countries. There is therefore a need for research among populations in low and middle-income settings. Objectives To measure stress levels and identify factors associated with a high stress level and its consequences for health. Methods This was a population-based cross-sectional study carried out in 2016 with adults aged 18 years or older in a municipality in southern Brazil. A two-stage sampling strategy based on census tracts was used. Stress levels were measured with the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-14) and classified into quartiles. The impact of the highest stress levelon each outcome was assessed with etiologic fractions (EF). Results The most stressed groups were: females (PR = 1.51, 95%CI 1.25-1.81), younger people (PR = 1.76, 95%CI 1.26-2.46), middle-aged individuals (PR = 1.60, 95%CI 1.17-2.19), those with lower schooling (PR = 1.56, 95%CI 1.20-2.02), the physically inactive (PR = 1.51, 95%CI 1.20-1.91), people who spent three or more hours watching television per day (PR = 1.29, 95%CI 1.12-1.50), and those with food insecurity (PR = 1.44, 95%CI 1.19-175). Possible consequences of high stress level were regular or poor self-perception of health (EF = 29.6%), poor or very poor sleep quality (EF = 17.3%), lower quality of life (EF = 45.6%), sadness (EF = 24.2%), and depressive symptoms (EF = 35.8%). Conclusions Stress plays an important role in several domains of health. Both public policies that target reduction of inequalities and specific stress-management interventions can reduce stress levels in populations, thereby decreasing the burden of other negative physical and mental health outcomes related to stress.
Abstract in English:Abstract Objective Neuropsychological findings in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are mainly clustered around the role of memory and executive functions. However, outcomes vary across different OCD populations. In addition, the extent to which each of these factors can distinguish patients with OCD (PwOCD) from healthy individuals remains uncertain and attracts great attention. The present study aims to investigate the above issues. Method This was a cross-sectional study of 182 individuals (90 PwOCD and 92 matched healthy controls). After screening for inclusion and exclusion criteria, the participants were administered neuropsychological tests including, the Wechsler Memory Scale-III (WMS-III), the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), and the Stroop Color-Word Test (SCWT). Data were analyzed to test the study hypotheses using comparison of means and regression analysis methods. Results The results showed that PwOCD had poorer performance than the control group in Immediate Memory, General Memory, and Working Memory and also according to response inhibition indexes. The results also showed that General Memory and Reaction Time2 from the SCWT index could be predictive variables for discriminating between PwOCD and controls. Conclusion The findings of this study support the prior assumptions that PwOCD would have impaired memory dimensions and response inhibition, but did not support worse set-shifting performance. We also present an initial model for the predictive role of these neuropsychological variables in discriminating OCD from healthy individuals and increasing diagnostic accuracy.
Abstract in English:Abstract Objectives To assess the prevalence of early trauma in individuals with onset of schizophrenia (SZ) at early (≤ 18 years) and adult (> 18 years) ages (EOP and AOP, respectively) and explore relationships between the onset of disease and clinical variables including traumatic events and psychotic and mood symptoms. Methods Subjects with SZ (n = 71) and EOP and AOP were compared for history of psychological trauma, sexual abuse, and physical punishment using the Early Trauma Inventory Self Report - Short Form (ETISR-SF). They were also compared for history of comorbidities and affective disorders using the Diagnostic Interview for Psychosis and Affective Disorders, the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale, and the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia. Coefficients were calculated for correlations between scale results and disease duration. Results Early trauma was significantly associated with an early onset psychotic episode (r = -0.315, p < 0.01). General trauma and depressive symptoms in adulthood were also associated (r = 0.442, p < 0.01), as were social anxiety symptoms and early trauma (r = 0.319, p < 0.01). Total ETISR-SF scores and the physical abuse item were significantly higher in EOP than in AOP. In the hierarchical regression, PANSS scores were best predicted by a model including the duration of disease and age of first psychotic episode (R = 0.303). Conclusions Our results support the hypothesis that early trauma, including physical abuse, may play a relevant role in schizophrenia symptoms, such as an earlier psychotic occurrence, as well as features of other psychiatric disorders, such as greater severity of social anxiety and depression.
Abstract in English:Abstract Introduction The social distancing (SD) adopted during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has transformed the internet from a convenience into a necessity. The behavioral changes caused by isolation range from adaptation of consumption, work, and teaching routines to altered leisure options to occupy idle time at home. Such transformations can be positive, expanding use of digital technologies (DT), but they can also have serious future physical and emotional consequences if there conscious use of technological devices is lacking. Objectives The study aimed to validate the Behavioral Changes Scale on the Use of Digital Technologies During Social Distancing (BCSDTSD), an instrument for assessing behavioral changes related to use of DT during SD. Method Validation of the BCSDTSD in five phases: 1. construction of an initial scale with 10 questions; 2. evaluation of the questions by a panel of experts; 3. application to 1,012 volunteers via the internet; 4. statistical analysis of the results; and 5. preparation of the validated final version of the BCSDTSD. Data were analyzed using the dplyr, psy , and paran packages and the REdaS statistical program. Three statistical criteria were used in the factor analysis (FA). Results FA confirmed that all 10 questions in the questionnaire should be maintained, confirming its robust construction, and Cronbach’s alpha demonstrated its internal consistency with a value of 0.725, which is satisfactory for first-application questionnaires. Conclusion The BCSDTSD instrument was validated for assessment of behavioral changes related to the use of DT during SD.
Abstract in English:Abstract Introduction Changes in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) have been linked to the neuroadaptative consequences of chronic alcohol use and associated with disease severity and prognosis. Few studies have evaluated the influence of drug withdrawal and clinical and sociodemographic data on BDNF levels in severe alcohol users. Objectives Our goals were (1) to evaluate variation in BDNF levels during alcohol withdrawal and, (2) to assess the influence of putative confounding factors on BDNF levels. Methods Our sample consists of 62 men with alcohol use disorder undergoing a detoxification process. Serum BDNF levels were measured using a commercial sandwich-ELISA kit, at two points: before and after the detoxification period. Results We found an increase in BDNF levels during alcohol withdrawal (25.4±9.6 at admission vs. 29.8±10.2 ng/ml at discharge; p < 0.001), even after controlling for potential confounders (positive family history, number of days between blood sample collections, and age) (Generalized Estimating Equation: coefficient = -4.37, 95% confidence interval [95%CI] -6.3; -2.4; p < 0.001). Moreover, individuals who had first-degree relative with alcohol dependence had smaller increases in BDNF levels than individuals with no family history (14.8 [95%CI -5.3; 35.6] vs. 35.3 [95%CI 15.4; 74.8]; p = 0.005). Conclusions In summary, variation in BDNF levels seems to be influenced by withdrawal in severe alcohol users. A positive family history of alcohol dependence could also be a factor that influences variation in this biomarker.
Abstract in English:Abstract Introduction Delinquent behaviors are risky behaviors that increase during puberty and reach their highest peak in late adolescence. It has been proposed that poor decision-making and theory of mind (ToM) are key cognitive processes implicated with delinquency during adolescence, affecting evaluation of risks and impairing appreciation of social norms. Nevertheless, it is not yet clear whether adolescent offenders who are subjected to provisional deprivation of liberty due to conflict with the law (adolescents in conflict with the law [ACL]) might, in fact, present a specific profile with regard to these cognitive processes. Objectives To assess deliberative decision-making and ToM among adolescents in conflict with the law and adolescents not in conflict with the law. Methods The sample comprised 62 participants: ACL (n = 29) and a control group (CG) (n = 33). ToM was assessed with the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET) and decision-making was assessed with the Columbia Card Task (CCT). Substance use, callous-unemotional traits, childhood maltreatment, and intelligence quotient (IQ) were also assessed. Results ACL had more ToM errors for negative mental states in comparison to CG, but not for error rates concerning neutral and positive mental states. With regards to decision-making, our results suggest that ACL group members did not vary their behavior based on the available information and that the risk information had an opposite effect on the number of cards chosen (risk-taking behavior) when compared to CG. Conclusion These findings have important implications for development of interventions for these adolescents, suggesting that they tend to learn little from negative outcomes and have reduced capacity to process negative emotions.
Abstract in English:Abstract Introduction COVID-19 has trickle-down psychological effects on multiple strata of society, particularly university students. Apart from the worry of contracting or spreading COVID-19, Malaysian university students were also locked down on their campuses, suffering significant psychological distress. Hence, an online mindfulness intervention was proposed to alleviate psychological distress and improve psychological flexibility and mindfulness. Methods This was a quasi-experimental study with university students as participants. Intervention group participants were instructed to complete online questionnaires which covered basic demographics and instruments assessing depression, anxiety, stress, mindfulness, psychological flexibility, and fear of COVID-19 before and after the one-hour intervention. The control group also completed before and after questionnaires and were subsequently crossed over to the intervention group. Repeated measures ANOVA was conducted to assess time*group effects. Results 118 participants were involved in this study. There were significant differences in anxiety (F(1,116) = 34.361, p < 0.001, partial eta-squared = 0.229) and psychological flexibility between the two groups (F(1,116) = 11.010, p = 0.001, partial eta-squared = 0.087), while there were no differences in depression, stress, mindfulness, or fear of COVID-19. Conclusion The results of this study corroborate the efficacy of online single-session mindfulness therapy as a viable short-term psychological intervention under financial and time constraints. Since university students are in the age group with the highest incidence of depressive and anxiety disorders, it is crucial to utilize resources to address as many students as possible to ensure maximum benefit.
Abstract in English:Abstract Objective To evaluate the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on depressive symptoms and suicide risk among patients receiving treatment at a Public Health Psychosocial Addiction Care Center (CAPS AD III) in Porto Alegre, Brazil. Methods Questions from the Coronavirus Health Impact Survey (CRISIS) translated into Brazilian Portuguese were used to evaluate 70 patients’ perceptions of and behaviors during the Covid-19 pandemic. Validated Brazilian versions of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and the General Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7) were used to evaluate the severity of depressive symptoms, suicide risk, and anxiety symptoms. A multiple logistic regression model was used to evaluate predictors of suicide risk in the sample. Results Around 70% of patients reported moderate depressive symptoms and 30% reported severe depressive symptoms, 17% of patients reported having thoughts of suicide or death on more than half of days and 10% reported having them daily. The logistic regression model identified history of alcohol use as the main predictor of suicide risk in (OR 13.0, p = 0.03). Conclusions Individuals with a history of alcohol consumption had significantly higher suicide risk scores at a psychosocial public health care center in Brazil during the Covid-19 pandemic. This result may be important for devising better strategies and interventions to support this specific population profile.
Abstract in English:Abstract Introduction Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have been linked to occurrence of autoimmune diseases in adults, including psoriasis. Objectives To study the prevalence of ACEs in psoriasis patients, comparing them with a sample from the general population. Methods Three hundred and eighteen individuals were included (104 psoriasis patients and 214 controls). Patients and controls answered questions on an ACE study questionnaire about experiences of childhood abuse, negligence, domestic violence, and household dysfunction. Questionnaire scores range from zero (best result) to 8 (worst scenario). Psoriasis patients’ charts were reviewed for epidemiological, clinical, and treatment data. A Psoriasis Area Severity Index (PASI) was calculated from measurements taken when the questionnaire was administered. Results Psoriasis patients reported a median of 4 ACEs (interquartile range [IQR] = 3-5) while controls had a median of 3 (IQR = 2-4) with p < 0.0001. The number of ACEs was not associated with PASI, age of disease onset, or presence of associated arthritis (all p > 0.5). Female psoriasis patients had more ACEs than males (p = 0.04). Conclusion Patients with psoriasis have more ACEs than controls and ACEs were more common in female patients.