Abstract in English:Abstract In much of the West, including Brazil, drug use has increased since social distancing began in response to the pandemic. Use of smoked and modified drugs, and their impacts on health, may contribute to aggravate the effects of the pandemic. However, studies on the relationship between use of smoked drugs and the new coronavirus are still scarce and have not received enough attention in global health recommendations. This paper aims to briefly review the relationship between use of smoked drugs and acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 [SARS-CoV-2]. Recent studies also suggest that drug consumption increases the risk of contamination by SARS-CoV-2 and leads to worse prognosis, particularly consumption of drugs that affect lung function. Use of smoked drugs, especially tobacco, is strongly associated with lung diseases that are risk factors for contamination by SARS-CoV-2. It is essential to develop strategies based on specific characteristics of drug users and for mental health professionals to be included in strategic teams. It is also necessary to invest in information campaigns regarding risks and prevention of harm caused by smoked drugs as well as to design strategies that facilitate access to psychosocial treatment during the pandemic.
Abstract in English:Abstract The world is experiencing a moment of political polarization between liberal and conservative ideas, which has aggravated since the arrival of the Covid-19. Many countries (Brazil included) have been experiencing the generalized occurrence of people fighting over politics, in contexts including family, workplace, friendships, and romantic relationships. Over the past 2 years, it has been possible to observe an unexpected and overwhelming effect of the political climate on psychotherapy patients, some of whom have started to actively look for therapists who share their convictions. Brazil is experiencing a moment of severe sanitary, economic, social, and political crisis, which is directly affecting our patients. Nevertheless, the impact of the political climate on our population has not been systematically investigated. However, as the political environment is an inherent part of the social component of the psychosocial model, it is important that mental health professionals be prepared to have this conversation with their patients. This highlights the need to address these difficulties in supervision, rounds, and clinical discussions.
Abstract in English:Abstract Recent scholarly investigation of suicidal ideation has been largely based on identifying associated factors and using ideation-to-action theories to explain its occurrence. However, this approach may not be sufficient, as many aspects of suicidal ideation fall beyond the reach of such conceptualizations. The overemphasis on explaining rather than understanding this phenomenon is a significant factor in this insufficiency. As such, it is argued that qualitative methods that use data to derive theories could offer a more nuanced understanding of suicidal ideation. By adopting bottom-up approaches, researchers can explore how individuals experience and understand suicidal ideation and how it relates to their lives and experiences. Furthermore, use of qualitative research methods could aid in development of more accurate and inclusive definitions that are more firmly grounded in data.
Abstract in English:Abstract Introduction Suicide among physicians constitutes a public health problem that deserves more consideration. A recently performed meta-analysis and systematic review evaluated suicide mortality in physicians by gender and investigated several related risk factors. It showed that the post-1980 suicide mortality was 46% higher in female physicians than among women in the general population, while the risk in male physicians was 33% lower than among men in general, despite an overall contraction in physician mortality rates in both genders. Methods This narrative review was conducted by searching and analyzing articles/databases that were relevant to addressing questions raised by a prior meta-analysis and how they might be affected by COVID-19. This process included unstructured searches on Pubmed for physician suicide, burnout, judicialization of medicine, healthcare organizations, and COVID-19, and Google searches for relevant databases and medical society, expert, and media commentaries on these topics. We focus on three factors critical to addressing physician suicides: epidemiological data limitations, psychiatric comorbidities, and professional overload. Results We found relevant articles on suicide reporting, physician mental health, the effects of healthcare judicialization, and organizational involvement on physician and patient health, and how COVID-19 may impact such factors. This review addresses information sources, underreporting/misreporting of physician suicide rates, inadequate diagnosis and management of psychiatric comorbidities and the chronic effects on physicians’ work capacity, and, finally, judicialization of medicine and organizational failures increasing physician burnout. We discuss these factors in general and in relation to the COVID-19 pandemic. Conclusions We present an overview of the above factors, discuss possible solutions, and specifically address how COVID-19 may impact such factors.
Abstract in English:Abstract Introduction Although post-traumatic stress disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder have distinct diagnostic criteria, some psychopathological phenomena seem to be shared, which may lead to misdiagnosis and erroneous treatment decisions. This scoping review explores the psychopathological similarities and differences between these two disorders. Method The review complies with the recommendations of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) and included articles published in Portuguese, English, or Spanish in the last 50 years indexed in the PubMed database. Case-reports were excluded. Results Fifty-three studies with different designs were included (30 [56.5%] were cross-sectional studies; eight [15.1%] were case-control studies; one [1.9%] was a cohort study; three [5.7%] were clinical trials; nine [17%] were reviews/systematic reviews; and two [3.8%] were meta-analyses). The main psychopathological aspects described by the studies included were flashbacks x obsessions; avoidant behavior (AB); depressive, anxious, and somatic symptoms; sexuality, sleep, and appetite; psychiatric comorbidities; and suicidality. The intersection between clinical features seems to occur in the extrinsic psychopathological dimension. Conclusion The disorders’ core psychopathological symptoms (intrinsic characteristics) are distinctly different, since flashbacks and obsessions are consequences of different predominant defective mental functions: the former derives from defective memory, the latter from defective thought. Along the same lines, the ABs observed in the two disorders are products of different purposes and inner necessities.
Abstract in English:Abstract Introduction Recently, evidence has been accumulating that both smoking and mental health disorders are continuously increasing among adolescents. This systematic review elucidates the research into evidence of the direction of the association and risk factors influencing the relationship between smoking and depression. We also highlight recent studies on the effects of electronic cigarettes and developments on the association between depression and smoking. Methods A literature search was conducted on databases including PubMed, Ovid Medline, EMBASE, and PsycINFO and in relevant neurology and psychiatry journals. Terms used for electronic searches included smoking, tobacco, cigarettes; depression; adolescent, youth; direction. Relevant information was then utilized to synthesize findings on the association between smoking and depression among adolescent population. Results The initial database searches yielded 2,738 related articles. After screening and cross-referencing, duplicate articles, articles published in languages other than English, and studies on animals, social and lifestyle factors, mood disorders, and substance use were excluded. Of these, a total of 122 publications only focusing on smoking and depression in the adolescent population were selected for synthesis in this qualitative systemic review. These include 110 original research articles, eight meta-analyses and reviews, and four reports and websites. Conclusion The relationship between smoking and depression in the literature does not reflect the cause-effect relationship. The lack of evidence on the direction of the association may reflect futile study designs, confounding factors and/or use of indirect measures of depression and quantification of smoking. Future prospective randomized studies should target elucidation of the causal association.
Abstract in English:Abstract Introduction Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a severe mental health condition that affects millions of people worldwide. Etiologically, several factors may play a role in its development. Previous studies have reported elevated plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) levels in patients with depression, suggesting that PAI-1 levels might be linked to the etiology of MDD. Methods We systematically searched the following online databases: MEDLINE, Scopus, and Web of Science up to September 10, 2020, to identify studies in which PAI-1 levels were reported in subjects with MDD. Subsequently we used RevMan 5.3 to perform a meta-analysis of data extracted from the included studies using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) and PICO criteria for the search and analysis. Results Six studies that reported mean ± standard deviation (SD) were included in the analysis, with a total of 507 MDD patients and 3,453 controls. The overall standardized mean difference (SMD) was 0.27 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.01-0.53). PAI-1 serum levels were 0.27 SDs higher in MDD patients than in controls. The test for overall effect was significant (z = 2.04, p = 0.04). Substantial heterogeneity was detected among the studies, demonstrated by the inconsistency test (I2 = 72%) and the chi-square test (χ2 = 18.32; p = 0.003). Conclusion This systematic review and meta-analysis showed that MDD might be related to elevated PAI-1 levels. We propose larger prospective clinical studies to further investigate this clinical correlation and validate the clinical significance of these observations.
Abstract in English:Abstract Introduction Few instruments are available in Brazil to evaluate psychomotor activity in psychiatric emergency, clinical, and research settings. This study aimed to perform a cross-cultural adaptation of the Behavioral Activity Rating Scale (BARS) into Brazilian Portuguese and assess the adapted scale’s psychometric properties. Method An expert consensus committee conducted a translation and back-translation of the original scale, resulting in the BARS-BR. Four pairs of physicians administered the BARS-BR and the Sedation-Agitation Scale (SAS) to patients in a hospital psychiatry emergency room and patients in the hospital’s psychiatric wards. The BARS-BR was compared to the SAS to assess concurrent validity and internal consistency was evaluated with the Bland-Altman technique. Results In the emergency room, the correlation coefficients between the first and second assessments were rho = 0.997 and rho = 1.0, respectively. In the hospital wards, the correlation coefficient between the pair of evaluators was rho = 0.951. There were strong correlations between the BARS-BR score of the first examiner and the SAS score of the second examiner (rho = 0.903) and between the SAS score of the first examiner and the BARS-BR score of the second examiner (rho = 0.893). Conclusion The BARS-BR showed good psychometric properties, and we recommend its use because it constitutes an easy method for assessment of changes in psychomotor activity. Further studies are suggested to evaluate adoption and comprehension of the BARS-BR scale by all classes of healthcare professionals.
Abstract in English:Abstract Humanity is sporadically subjected to leaders with deviant behavior, ego problems, or psychiatric disorders, potentially leading to social instability. Bipolar disorder is not common in all populations, but, coincidentally, studies suggest that it affected two sovereigns that were contemporaries, King George III of England, who died 201 years ago, and Queen Maria I of Portugal, who died 205 years ago. They lived during a time when Europe was in turmoil with the French Revolution and Napoleonic Wars, which also coincided with the rise of psychiatry. Both monarchs were forced to have prince regents rule in their place, due to their emotional decline, and they shared the same medical consultant, Francis Willis.
Abstract in English:Abstract Objectives To assess alcohol use and perceived change in alcohol consumption (before and during the pandemic) in Brazilians during the COVID-19 pandemic, their correlates, and their associations with depressive, anxiety and co-occurring depressive and anxiety symptoms (D&A). Methods This is a cross-sectional study comprising 992 individuals in self-isolation. A self-report questionnaire was used to assess whether participants were drinking during self-isolation and whether they changed their drinking behavior (drinking less, more, or no change) from before to during the pandemic. D&A symptoms were assessed using the Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories (BDI and BAI). Results A total of 68.5% of participants reported alcohol consumption during the pandemic, and 22.7% of these reported increased alcohol use. Smoking was positively associated with alcohol consumption during the pandemic. Alcohol consumption was associated with anxiety (OR = 1.40, 95%CI 1.06-1.85, p < 0.01) and D&A (OR = 1.38, 95%CI 1.02-1.87, p = 0.033) symptoms. Conclusions Drinking during self-isolation was prevalent and was associated with risk factors for alcohol use disorders. The long-term effects of high drinking rates and increased consumption should be proactively monitored and assessed.
Abstract in English:Abstract Introduction The aim of this study was to examine the effect of group cognitive-behavioral therapy (GCBT) on pathological internet use (PIU). Method The study applied a group randomized controlled trial design to assign participants to intervention and control groups. A total of 40 college students aged 18 to 30 who were pathological internet users (PIUs) participated in this study and were randomly assigned to treatment and control groups. Participants completed a self-report scale entitled the Problematic Internet Use Scale (PIUS) at three time points. The intervention lasted 8 weeks. The data collected were statistically analyzed using repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results The results showed that GCBT has significant efficacy, decreasing the symptoms of PIU among the GCBT participants compared to those in the control group and that the improvements were maintained at follow-up. We also found a significant interaction effect by time for PIU. Conclusion From the study findings, we can conclude that GCBT has significant benefit for mitigating the severity of PIU in college students. Therefore, mental health professionals are encouraged to explore the benefits of GCBT in treating symptoms associated with PIU in school settings and beyond.
Abstract in English:Abstract Introduction The Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Revised – Abbreviated (EPQR-A) consists of 24 items for assessment of the three fundamental personality traits (psychoticism, extraversion, and neuroticism) and a validity scale (lie scale). Our objectives were to assess the psychometric properties of a version of this instrument culturally adapted for Brazil. Method 321 participants were recruited using a non-probabilistic method. Results Internal consistencies ranged from minimally acceptable to respectable, except for the psychoticism domain. Higher neuroticism scores were associated with higher depression and anxiety scores, higher extraversion scores were associated with lower levels of depression symptoms, and higher psychoticism scores were associated with higher levels of depression symptoms. Conclusion Our findings describe sustainable psychometric properties for the Brazilian Portuguese version of EPQR-A.
Abstract in English:Abstract Objectives Evidence suggests that ketamine’s influence on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) might be involved in its mechanism of rapid antidepressant action. We aimed to evaluate the differential impact of ketamine and esketamine on serum BDNF levels and its association with response patterns in treatment-resistant depression (TRD). Methods Participants (n = 53) are from a randomized, double-blind clinical trial comparing the efficacy of single-dose ketamine (0.5mg/kg, n = 27) and esketamine (0.25mg/kg, n = 26) in TRD. Depression severity was assessed before and 24 hours, 72 hours, and 7 days after the intervention, using the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). Blood samples were collected before infusion, 24 hours, and 7 days afterwards. Results There were no significant changes in BDNF levels at post-infusion evaluation points, and no difference in BDNF levels comparing ketamine and esketamine. Both drugs exhibited similar therapeutic effect. There was no association between BDNF levels and response to treatment or severity of depressive symptoms. Conclusion There was no significant treatment impact on BDNF serum levels – neither with ketamine nor esketamine – despite therapeutic response. These results suggest that ketamine or esketamine intervention for TRD has no impact on BDNF levels measured at 24 hours and 7 days after the infusion. This clinical trial is registered on the Japan Primary Registries Network: UMIN000032355.
Abstract in English:Abstract Introduction There are several negative impacts on the physical and mental health of people presenting internet addiction, including development of mood disorders, such as depression. Objective The aim of the study was to evaluate the association between internet addiction and depressive symptoms, as well as to test the mediating role of physical activity in this association. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted with undergraduate students from three universities (one private and two public institutions) in southern Brazil. Depressive symptoms were measured with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-21), internet addiction with the Internet Addiction Test (IAT-20), and physical activity with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ – short version). Poisson regression and the Karlson-Holm-Breen mediation method were used for statistical analyses. Results We observed a dose-response relationship between internet addiction and depressive symptoms. Levels of physical activity mediated the association between moderate internet addiction and depressive symptoms, accounting for 10.7% of the effect observed. Conclusion Internet addiction can be detrimental to individuals’ health, contributing to development of depressive symptoms. Along with psychological and pharmacological therapies, prescription of physical activities is recommended.
Abstract in English:Abstract Introduction Prodromal characteristics of psychosis have been described for more than a century. Over the last three decades, a variety of studies have proposed methods to prospectively identify individuals (and youth in particular) who are at high risk of developing a psychotic disorder. These studies have validated various screening instruments and made them available in several languages. Here, we describe the translation into Brazilian Portuguese and cross-cultural adaptation of two such screening tools – the Prodromal Questionnaire-16 (PQ-16) and the Prevention through Risk Identification, Management, and Education (PRIME)-Screen. Method Two bilingual native speakers of Brazilian Portuguese translated the questionnaires from English. A native English speaker then performed back-translations into English. These back-translated versions were submitted to the original authors. They provided feedback and later approved the final versions. Results After translation and cross-cultural adaptation, no items needed to be changed in the adapted PQ-16 and four items were revised in the PRIME-Screen. After the peer-review process, we included two suggestions in the PQ-16 to facilitate use of the tool in our cultural and social contexts. The PRIME-Screen did not need further changes. Conclusion These new instruments can help screen Brazilian Portuguese-speaking patients who are at risk of psychosis in primary care.
Abstract in English:Abstract Objective To describe translation to Spanish and Portuguese and adaptation of the Mental Illness Clinicians’ Attitudes Scale version 4 (MICA v4). Methods The questionnaire was administered to primary care physicians (PCPs) from four Latin-American countries, Brazil, Bolivia, Chile, and Cuba. The validation process included four phases: 1) translation of the questionnaire to Spanish and Portuguese; 2) assessment of face validity; 3) assessment of reliability; and 4) evaluation of construct validity with confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Results The study sample comprised 427 PCPs. The mean age of the Spanish-speaking sample (n = 252) was 40.1 (S.D = 9.7) years and the mean age of the Portuguese-speaking sample (n = 150) was 40.2 (S.D = 10.9) years. Both models demonstrated “appropriate” internal reliability. Total omega was 0.91 for the Spanish-speaking sample and 0.89 for the Portuguese-speaking sample. The CFA of both questionnaires showed an appropriate fit for a three-factor model (Portuguese: CFI = 0.927; TLI = 0.913; RMSEA = 0.066; Spanish: CFI = 0.945; TLI = 0.935; RMSEA = 0.068). Conclusion The Latin-American versions of the MICA v4 in Spanish and Brazilian Portuguese have appropriate psychometric properties, good internal consistency, and are applicable to and acceptable in the Latin-American context. The instrument proved its validity for collecting data on stigmatizing attitudes among health professionals in different contexts and cultures.
Abstract in English:Abstract Introduction The Cognitive Distortions Questionnaire (CD-Quest) is an instrument that identifies logical errors or cognitive distortions and is used in trial-based cognitive therapy (TBCT). However, it had previously only been available for adults. Objectives To develop and validate a version of the CD-Quest for teens (CD-Quest-T) aged 11 to 17 years and test its psychometric properties. Method A total of 299 schoolchildren participated in the investigation. After content validity was assessed, the language was adapted for the target age group, and the length of the instrument was reduced to eight items (from the initial 15). Five cognitive therapists analyzed the content and structure of the items. Finally, to investigate the construct validity of the CD-Quest-T, the instrument was divided into a full scale and two subscales, which measure the frequency of the distortions and the intensity attributed to them, respectively. Results The overall internal consistency of the scale was α = 0.77, whereas subscale indices were α = 0.75 for the frequency scale and α = 0.73 for the intensity scale. Results from exploratory factor analysis and concurrent validity analysis indicated that the CD-Quest-T items have good psychometric properties and generate scores reliably. Conclusion The psychometric properties of the CD-Quest-T demonstrate its adequacy for measurement of cognitive distortions in adolescents.
Abstract in English:Abstract Introduction The academic environment can negatively impact the mental health of undergraduate students, particularly in the context of the coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) pandemic. This study aimed to describe the methodological and operational aspects of a study of the health and well-being of undergraduate students: the Study on the Health and Wellness of Undergraduate Students (SABES-Grad) project. Method This was a nationwide cross-sectional study divided across two data collection strategies: a single-center, on-site data collection carried out in 2019 at the Universidade Federal do Rio Grande (FURG) and a multicenter, multilevel, online data collection carried out in 2020/2021 at FURG, the Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), the Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso (UFMT), the Universidade do Estado do Amazonas (UEA), and the Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UFRPE). The main outcomes of interest were depressive symptoms, generalized anxiety, and suicide risk. Results A total of 996 students participated in the 2019 data collection (63.8% female; median age of 22 years; response rate of 85.2%) and 5,720 students participated in the 2020/2021 collection (66.7% female; median age of 22 years; response rate of 84.3%). Significant variations in socioeconomic and demographic profiles were observed between the different universities. Approximately one-third of the sample had been tested for Covid-19 in 2020/2021, 7.8% of whom had tested positive. Conclusion The SABES-Grad project was the result of collaborative work between several actors from public universities in Brazil. Several aspects of the preparation and execution of this research are discussed in terms of its originality and relevance. Barriers and limitations and strategies adopted to overcome them are also presented.
Abstract in English:Abstract Introduction Despite the results of epidemiological and psychometric studies reporting comparable levels of tobacco dependence among males and females, some clinical studies have detected disparities. Some smoking cessation studies based on clinical setting programs reported poorer outcomes among women than men. Methods This retrospective cohort study aimed to compare treatment success and retention between men and women on a smoking cessation program (n = 1,014) delivered at a CAPS-AD unit in Brazil. The psychological intervention lasted 6 weeks for each group of 15 patients. Each patient had to participate in weekly group cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) sessions and individual medical appointments during this period. These appointments were focused on the possibility of prescribing pharmacological treatment (i.e., nicotine replacement therapy, bupropion, or nortriptyline) as adjuvants to group therapy. Results The women had lower smoking severity at baseline, more clinical symptoms, and lower prevalence of alcohol and drug use disorders and were older than the men. Females had significantly higher levels of success (36.6% vs. 29.7%) and retention (51.6% vs. 41.4%) than males. Sensitivity analysis showed that female gender was significantly associated with both retention and success, among those without drug use disorders only. Conclusion Depending on the smoking cessation setting (i.e., low and middle-income countries and mental health and addiction care units), females can achieve similar and even higher quit rates than males. Previous drug use disorder was an important confounding variable in the gender outcomes analyses. Future studies should try to replicate these positive smoking cessation effects of CBT-based group therapy plus pharmacotherapy in women.
Abstract in English:Abstract Introduction Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is adversely affecting the mental health of patients infected with the virus and the psychological impact on recovered COVID-19 patients is unclear. Objectives The study aimed to assess posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression among COVID-19 patients after recovery from the disease. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted from November 9, 2020, to December 23, 2020. The study used a telemedicine model to enroll recovered COVID-19 patients from a database of patients provided by the health authorities. The National Stressful Events Survey PTSD Short Scale (NSESSS) for adults was used to assess PTSD symptoms and the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) was used to assess depression. Results The study enrolled 503 recovered COVID-19 patients with a mean age of 41.90 years. The majority were asymptomatic (64.6%), while 21.5% had had moderate to severe forms of the disease. Prevalence rates of PTSD symptoms and depression were 56.9 and 29% respectively. COVID-19 patients with severe forms of the disease were significantly more affected by PTSD symptoms (vs. mild, odds ratio [OR] = 18.7, 95%confidence interval [CI] 9.9-35.5) and depression (vs. mild, OR = 19.8, 95% CI 9.9-39.5). Similarly, patients who required oxygen or ventilator support reported significantly higher rates of PTSD symptoms (vs. managed at home, OR = 17.4, 95% CI 8.3-36.4) and depression (vs. managed at home, OR = 22.0, 95% CI 10.1-47.7). Conclusion This study reports that recovered COVID-19 patients suffered from a significant amount of depression and experienced significant PTSD symptoms. It will help with addressing a major psychological concern among the recovered subjects.
Abstract in English:Abstract Introduction The Brazilian psychiatric reform has revolutionized the way that mental health care is provided all over the country, introducing the Psychosocial Care Centers (CAPS) and encouraging care at liberty. The CAPS have been assigned many objectives, such as prevention of hospitalizations and intervention in crises or suicide. This paper aims to describe the correlation between the implementation of CAPS and the rates of psychiatric hospitalizations and suicides from 2008 to 2018. Methods This study has an ecological time series design and included residents of the city of Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil, who were hospitalized through the Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS). The data were obtained from official databases (DATASUS, CNES, and IBGE) and indicators were calculated (CAPS coverage, hospitalization rate, and suicide rate). Associations between the indicators were tested using Pearson’s correlation coefficients. Results We found a negative correlation between provision of CAPS and psychiatric hospitalizations (r = -0.607 p = 0.048). Conclusion These results support the hypothesis that there is a negative correlation between implementation of the CAPS and psychiatric hospitalizations. This reinforces the importance of implementing policies related to improving psychiatric reform.
Abstract in English:Abstract Introduction High rates of early hospital discharge are often observed in crack cocaine users and are related to adverse outcomes and increased public spending. This study evaluated clinical and sociodemographic factors associated with early treatment discharge among crack users. Methods The sample comprised 308 men diagnosed with crack cocaine use disorder (crack only), aged 18 to 65 years, admitted between 2013 and 2017 to a male-only hospital unit to treat substance use disorders. Sociodemographic and clinical data were obtained using the Addiction Severity Index, 6th version, and a Sociodemographic Questionnaire. Results Early discharge (within 7 days) was significantly associated with lack of own income, insufficient family support, being single, and recent homelessness. Regarding drug use, lower treatment retention was related to younger age of crack use onset, recent alcohol use, and nicotine use. Factors such as age, skin color, and educational level showed no relation to the outcome. Conclusion Our findings suggest that presence of characteristics verifiable at the time of admission may be related to crack users’ treatment retention. Identification of these factors can contribute to target interventions in order to improve treatment adherence in crack cocaine users.
Abstract in English:Abstract Objectives To evaluate the psychometric properties of the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (QID-SR16), a self-report instrument based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV) criteria that assesses the severity of depression symptoms, in the Brazilian population. Methods Participants were 4,400 Brazilians over the age of 15 years recruited for an online survey assessing depressive symptoms during the early phase of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in Brazil. The internal consistency, construct validity, and convergent and discriminant validity of the QIDS-SR16 were evaluated. Results The model tested was considered an adequate fit to the data (comparative fit index [CFI] = 0.947, Tucker-Lewis index [TLI] = 0.927, and root-mean-square error of approximation [RMSEA] = 0.051) and its internal consistency was good, with a Cronbach’s alpha of 0.71 and an average item correlation of 0.23. The correlations between the total QIDS-SR16 score and the total scores of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) instruments (r = 0.67, p < 0.001), the Posttraumatic Symptoms Checklist (PCL-5) (r = 0.61, p < 0.001), and the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) (r = 0.60, p < 0.001) indicate good concurrent and convergent validity. Conclusion The QIDS-SR16 has robust psychometric properties in terms of its internal consistency, construct validity, and convergent and discriminant validity. The Portuguese version of the QIDS-SR16 is an adequate instrument for assessment of depressive symptoms in the context of an online survey.
Abstract in English:Abstract Introduction There is growing interest in the fields of psychiatry and psychology in investigating the relationship between personality and psychopathology. The Big-5 is a model developed to investigate five personality dimensions: Extroversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Neuroticism, and Openness. In the present study, we describe the process of translation into Brazilian Portuguese and adaptation of a free tool to evaluate the Big-5 model: The Big-5 Inventory (BFI). The instrument has 44 items with a Likert response scale ranging from 1 to 5. Objectives To translate and adapt the BFI into Brazilian Portuguese. Methods The adaptation was conducted in the following steps: 1) Translation, 2) Evaluation Committee, 3) Back-translation, 4) Pilot study, 5) Evaluation Committee, and 6) Application. The sample comprised 490 participants from various regions of Brazil. The participants’ ages ranged from 18 to 71 years, most of them had completed high school (62.9%), and the majority were women (75%). Results A model with the following fit indexes was found: χ2/df: 1.954; goodness fit index (GFI): 0.924; comparative fit index (CFI): 0.920; and root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA): 0.044. Conclusion The results are suggestive that the Brazilian version of this instrument has good psychometric properties and represent a cost-free option for investigating associations with the Big-5 in psychiatry.
Abstract in English:Abstract Objectives To propose a Portuguese version of the Objective and Subjective Knowledge and HIV Testing Scale (OSK-HIV-TS), assess its content validity, and perform item analysis after administration to a sample of undergraduate students. Methods Three translators translated the OSK-HIV-TS into Portuguese. Judges evaluated each item of a consensus version of the translated instrument for semantic, idiomatic, cultural, and conceptual equivalence. A consensus committee reviewed a back-translation against the original version of the OSK-HIV-TS. Content validity was calculated with the content validity index (CVI) and item analysis was conducted using Classical Test Theory (CTT). Results The translated scale achieved semantic, idiomatic, conceptual, and cultural equivalence to the original version. A total of 491 undergraduate students participated and the distribution of students’ responses to the OSK-HIV-TS revealed a high proportion of correct answers. All items were classified as easy or very easy and only item 16 was classified having strong discrimination power according to the discrimination index. Conclusion The OSK-HIV-TS is a novel instrument in the Brazilian literature for assessing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) knowledge and should inspire more research into HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) behavior and associated factors, which, despite being essential and necessary, is still lacking in the Brazilian literature.
Abstract in English:Abstract Introduction There is evidence that the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic impacted students on health care courses, including evidence of associations between anxiety or depression and inadequate coping mechanisms or unhealthy habits. However, little is known about possible predictors of mental health or psychiatric symptoms in Brazilian health care students during this period. Objective To evaluate possible factors associated with anxiety and depressive symptoms, used to measure psychiatric outcomes, and quality of life, used as a parameter of overall functionality, in Brazilian students on health care courses during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted with Brazilian students on health care courses from May to December 2020. Participants were recruited through social media and answered a 71-item open online questionnaire exploring demographic characteristics and personal behavior during the pandemic, anxiety, depression, and quality of life. We searched for variables potentially associated with psychiatric symptoms and mental health in these individuals using Poisson regression models. Results Multivariate models showed depression and anxiety were associated with poor quality of life and medication abuse was associated with greater anxiety and poor quality of life. Psychotherapy was an effective coping strategy for anxiety and meditation or mindfulness practice and physical activity improved the students’ quality of life. Conclusions Our study presents important information about the factors associated with psychological impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic and strategies for coping with them that should be helpful to reflect on and for designing appropriate interventions.
Abstract in English:Abstract Introduction Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is the fourth most prevalent mental disorder and is a disabling condition. OCD is associated with anatomical and functional changes in the brain, in addition to dysfunctional cognitions. The treatments of choice are selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), and exposure and response prevention (ERP). Trial-based cognitive therapy (TBCT) is a recent and empirically validated psychotherapy with a focus on restructuring dysfunctional negative core beliefs (CBs). The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of TBCT relative to ERP for treatment of OCD. Methods A randomized, single-blind clinical trial was conducted, randomizing 26 patients for individual treatment with TBCT (n = 12) or ERP (n = 14). The groups were evaluated at baseline, at the end of 3 months (12 sessions), and at 3, 6, and 12-month follow-ups. Results Both approaches reduced the severity of symptoms with large effect sizes. These results were maintained at the 12-month follow-up assessment. Conclusion TBCT may be a valid and promising treatment for this disorder.
Abstract in English:Abstract Introduction Metacognitive beliefs about worry may trigger anxiety. However, the effect of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) treatment on metacognition has not yet been investigated. Objectives To validate the Metacognitions Questionnaire (MCQ-30) in a Brazilian GAD sample and verify whether different interventions reduce metacognitive beliefs. Method We recruited 180 GAD individuals and randomized them to Body in Mind Training (BMT), Fluoxetine (FLX), or an active control group (Quality of Life [QoL]) for 8 weeks. The MCQ-30 was assessed for internal consistency, was evaluated with confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses, and was tested for convergent validity with the Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ). Generalized estimating equations (GEE) were employed to analyze differences after the interventions. Results The MCQ-30 demonstrated good internal consistency and acceptability; the original five-factor model was supported. There was a positive moderate correlation between MCQ-30 scores and worry. GEE showed a significant group x time interaction (p < 0.001). Both BMT (mean difference [MD] = -6.04, standard error [SE] = -2.39, p = 0.034) and FLX (MD = -5.78, SE = 1.91, p = 0.007) reduced MCQ-30 scores. FLX was superior to QoL, but not BMT, at weeks 5 and 8. There were no differences between BMT and QoL. Conclusion The Brazilian-Portuguese version of MCQ-30 showed good psychometric properties. Furthermore, the positive effect of FLX and BMT on metacognition suggests it may represent a potential therapeutic target.
Abstract in English:Abstract Introduction Consumption of substances has been associated with cognitive impairment. The Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) is an easy-to-apply screening tool used to assess cognitive functions. Objectives To evaluate the cognitive performance of individuals with alcohol (AUD) and/or crack cocaine use disorder (CUD) and polysubstance use using the MMSE and to investigate the impact of substance use profile and the moderation effect of educational level on MMSE performance. Methods Cross-sectional study with 508 adult male inpatients diagnosed with substance use disorders (245 with AUD, 85 with CUD, and 178 with polysubstance use). Cognitive performance was assessed using the MMSE scale (total and composite scores). Results Individuals with AUD had worse total MMSE scores and scored worse for all three MMSE components compared to individuals with polysubstance use (p < 0.001, oral/written language comprehension, p < 0.001, attention/memory, and p = 0.007, motor functions). MMSE scores were positively correlated with educational level (p < 0.017), but were not associated with age, recent drug use, or years of drug use. Educational level moderated the impact of substance use on MMSE performance, especially total score and composite language comprehension score. Individuals with a low educational level (≤ 8 years) had worse performance than those with a high educational level (≥ 9 years), mainly in individuals with AUD (p < 0.001). Discussion Individuals with a low educational level and alcohol use are more prone to present cognitive impairment than crack cocaine users, especially involving language aspects. Better-preserved cognitive function could impact treatment adherence and might guide the decision of therapeutic strategies.
Abstract in English:Abstract Introduction Individuals diagnosed with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) seek pleasurable foods to avoid their negative emotional experiences. Ineffective regulation of negative emotions may be a risk factor for emotional eating (EE), leading to suffering, dysfunctional behaviors, and weight gain. Objectives The aim of this study is to understand the relationship between emotional dysregulation and EE, investigating potential mediators such as the intensity of the worry, avoidance of internal experiences, mindfulness, and self-compassion in female patients with anxiety. Methods In this cross-sectional study, participants from a randomized clinical trial diagnosed with GAD answered the following instruments at baseline: the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS), the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ-R21), the Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ), the Action and Acceptance Questionnaire (AAQ), the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ), and the Self-Compassion Scale (SCS). We estimated Pearson correlation coefficients and performed mediation analyses. Results We evaluated 51 female individuals, 34 of whom completed all the questionnaires. Our data showed that EE was positively correlated with emotional dysregulation (r = 0.593; p < 0.001), worry trait (r = 0.402; p = 0.018), and avoidance of internal experiences (r = 0.565; p < 0.001), whereas it was negatively correlated with self-compassion (r = -0.590; p < 0.001) and mindful state (r = -0.383; p = 0.026). Moreover, we demonstrated that self-compassion mediates the relationship between emotional dysregulation and EE (ab product estimate = 0.043, 95% confidence interval [95%CI] 0.003-0.084). Conclusion Our findings contribute to the literature by identifying psychological factors that could mediate the association between emotional dysregulation and EE, enabling identification of more effective eating behavior intervention targets for patients with GAD.
Abstract in English:Abstract Objectives There are no validated instruments to measure education-related stress in Brazilian university students. Thus, we aimed to translate and test the internal reliability, convergent/discriminant validity, and measurement equivalence of the Higher Education Stress Inventory (HESI). Methods The translation protocol was carried out by two independent translators. The instrument was culturally adapted after a pilot version was administered to 36 university students. The final version (HESI-Br) was administered to 1,021 university students (mean age = 28.3, standard deviation [SD] = 9.6, 76.7% female) via an online survey that lasted from September 1 to October 15, 2020. The factor structure was estimated using exploratory factor analysis (EFA) on the first half of the dataset. We tested the best EFA-derived model with confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) on the second half. Convergent/discriminant validity was tested using the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21). Sex, age groups, period of study, family income and area of study were used to test measurement equivalence. Results EFA suggested five factors: career dissatisfaction; faculty shortcomings; high workload; financial concerns; and toxic learning environment. CFA supported the five-factor model (15 items), but not a higher order factor, suggesting multidimensionality. All five factors presented acceptable internal reliabilities, with Cronbach’s α ≥ 0.72 and McDonald’s ω ≥ 0.64. CFA models indicated that the HESI-Br and DASS-21 assess different but correlated underlying latent constructs, supporting discriminant validity. Equivalence was ascertained for all tested groups. Conclusion The 15-item HESI-Br is a reliable and invariant multidimensional instrument for assessing relevant stressors among university students in Brazil.
Abstract in English:Abstract Objectives Self-guided, asynchronous, online interventions may provide college students access to evidence-based care, while mitigating barriers like limited hours of service. Thus, we examined the preliminary effectiveness of a 45-minute, self-guided, asynchronous, online, dialectical behavior therapy (DBT)-informed stress and anxiety management workshop. College undergraduates (n = 131) were randomized to either workshop (n = 65) or waitlist control (n = 66) conditions. Methods Participants in the workshop condition completed baseline measures of depression, stress, and anxiety, before completing the workshop. Participants in the waitlist control condition only completed the baseline measures. All participants were reassessed at 1-week follow-up. Results Controlling for baseline measures, students in the workshop condition experienced significantly less stress and greater self-efficacy to regulate stress and anxiety at follow-up, compared to waitlist controls. Conclusion A 45-minute, self-guided, asynchronous, online DBT skills-informed stress and anxiety management workshop may reduce stress and improve self-efficacy to regulate stress and anxiety.
Abstract in English:Abstract Background Emerging evidence indicates that inflammation plays an important role as a mechanism underlying mental disorders. However, most of the research on inflammatory mechanisms focuses on serum levels of interleukins and very few studies have investigated molecules that initiate and expand innate immune pathways such as damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). Objectives This study investigated the levels of DAMPs among patients diagnosed with major depressive disorder (MDD), bipolar disorder (BD) I and II, schizophrenia (SCZ), and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). We quantified serum levels of heat shock proteins (HSPs) 70 and 60 and of S100 calcium-binding protein B (S100B). Methods Serum levels of HSP70, HSP60, and S100B were assessed in a sample of participants with psychiatric disorders (n = 191) and a control group (CT) (n = 59) using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results Serum HSP70 concentrations were significantly higher in the MDD group compared to the CT, SCZ, and BD groups. The GAD group had higher concentrations of HSP70 than the SCZ group. Exploring associations with medications, lithium (p = 0.003) and clozapine (p = 0.028) were associated with lower HSP70 levels. Approximately 64% of the sample had DAMPs levels below the limits of detection indicated by the respective ELISA kit. Conclusion This was the first study to assess DAMPs levels in a transdiagnostic sample. Our preliminary findings suggest that HSP70 may be associated with MDD pathophysiology. Medications such as lithium and clozapine were associated with lower HSP70 levels in BD and SCZ groups, respectively. Therefore, it is worth mentioning that all participants were medicated and many psychotropic drugs exert an anti-inflammatory effect, possibly reducing the signs of inflammation.
Abstract in English:Abstract Introduction Burnout syndrome (BS) in healthcare professionals (HCP) has been a major concern, and even more so during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The need for adequate tools to assess BS is urgent. The objective of this study was to validate the Brazilian Portuguese version of the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory (CBI) in HCP. Methods The sample comprised 1,054 Brazilian HCP. Data were collected for 1 month (May-2020 to June-2020) using an online self-administered questionnaire. Results All three CBI dimensions demonstrated optimal reliability. All consistency measures attained values > 0.90. Split-half correlation values with Spearman-Brown reliability were higher than 0.8. The parallel analysis suggested two factors: personal burnout (PB) and work-related burnout (WB) items were associated with factor 1, and client-related burnout (CB) items were associated with factor 2. Conclusion Our study corroborates the validity of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the CBI, pointing to a close relation between PB and WB in HCP. A public domain tool with evidence quality to ensure sufficient content validity can aid in burnout evaluation and encourage both expansion of the research field and accurate detection and treatment of this syndrome in Brazilian HCP.
Abstract in English:Abstract Objectives To describe the theoretical procedures employed in the process of cross-cultural adaptation (CCA) for Brazil of the Child Mania Rating Scale - Parent Version (CMRS-P). Methods Seven steps were carried out: (1) translations and synthesis; (2) Committee of Judges-I; (3) grammatical review; (4) Committee of Judges-II; (5) semantic analysis (pre-test); (6) back-translation; and (7) discussion with the authors of the original instrument. Participants were two professional translators, 14 experts, a grammar proofreader, and 21 parents/guardians, representatives of the target population. The results were analyzed in terms of the percentage of agreement between evaluators and the content validity coefficient (CVC) and by analysis of comments and suggestions. Results Grammatical and cultural adjustments were made, in addition to substitution and/or inclusion of words and examples. Adequacy agreement indexes exceeding 86% were achieved and the CVC result for the total scale was excellent (0.95). The pre-test indicated good acceptance and understanding by participants. Conclusion The proposed version proved to be promising for use in the Brazilian context, although further psychometric studies are still needed to prove the scale’s validity and reliability.