Zoologia (Curitiba), Volume: 26, Issue: 1, Published: 2009
  • Revolutionary thoughts on taxonomy: declarations of independence and interdependence Invited Review

    Wheeler, Quentin D.

    Abstract in English:

    Credible biological research depends on accurate species identifications, reliable scientific names, and an evolutionary context provided by a phylogeny or phylogenetic classification. The emphasis on such taxonomic services has detracted from the fundamental taxonomic research necessary to create and sustain such knowledge systems. A taxonomic declaration of independence is presented, emphasizing the unique mission, goals, and needs of taxonomists and taxonomic (collection-based) institutions and the non-experimental yet scientifically rigorous epistemology of taxonomy. At the same time taxonomic interdependence is declared. Questions pursued by taxonomists are planetary in scale and can only be answered given international collaboration and coordination in the growth and development of natural history collections and taxonomic hypotheses. Reciprocity of open access is urged between all nations and the taxonomic community creating information. Countries home to species diversity should allow access to taxon experts so that the world's species are discovered and described. In exchange all specimens collected should be in publicly accessible museums and all resultant taxonomic data, information, and knowledge should be openly available to all who can use them.
  • Behavioral repertory of Trichodactylus panoplus (Crustacea: Trichodactylidae) under laboratory conditions Behavior

    Zimmermann, Bianca L.; Aued, Anaide W.; Machado, Stela; Manfio, Daiara; Scarton, Laura P.; Santos, Sandro

    Abstract in English:

    This work describes the behavioral repertory of Trichodactylus panoplus von Martens, 1869, based on the animals' diel activity and the possible substrate preference under laboratory experiments. Three experimental replicates were carried out, each using six animals (three males and three females). There were four periods of observation a day, with a total of 864 observation sessions and 144 hours of experiments. A total of 15 behavioral acts divided into five categories were recorded: feeding, exploration of the environment, immobility, social interaction, and self-grooming. The obtained results suggest that T. panoplus has greater activity during the night (p < 0.05), yet without showing an activity peak. In addition, the acceptance of food does not depend on the photoperiod. There was a significant preference for gravel as the chosen substrate. The Morisita index indicates an aggregated distribution of these animals, confirming their preference for substrate with gravel. The increase in activity at night and the preference for substrate with gravel, which can be used to disguise these individuals, would be associated to some anti-predator strategies of these crabs against visually orientated predators.
  • Reproductive biology of the swamp racer Mastigodryas bifossatus (Serpentes: Colubridae) in subtropical Brazil Biology

    Leite, Pedro T.; Nunes, Simone de F.; Kaefer, Igor L.; Cechin, Sonia Z.

    Abstract in English:

    The swamp racer Mastigodryas bifossatus (Raddi, 1820) is a large snake of Colubrinae. It is widely distributed in open areas throughout South America. Dissection of 224 specimens of this species housed in herpetological collections of the southern Brazilian states of Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina and Paraná provided information on its sexual dimorphism, reproductive cycle and fecundity in subtropical Brazil. Adult specimens of M. bifossatus average approximately 1190 mm in snout-vent length and females are larger than males. The reproductive cycle of females is seasonal, with secondary vitellogenesis occurring from July to December. However, examination of male gonads did not reveal signs of reproductive seasonality in this sex. Egg laying was recorded from November to January. The estimated recruitment period extends from February to April. The mean number of individuals per clutch is 15, and there is a positive correlation between female length and clutch size.
  • Population structure of Aegla schmitti (Crustacea: Anomura: Aeglidae) in the reservoirs of Mananciais da Serra, Piraquara city, state of Paraná, Brazil

    Teodósio, Érico A. O.; Masunari, Setuko

    Abstract in English:

    A study on population structure of Aegla schmitti Hobbs III, 1979 was carried out at Mananciais da Serra, in the municipality of Piraquara, state of Paraná, Brazil (25º29'S, 48º58'W). The following aspects were treated: temporal fluctuation in abundance, sex ratio, reproductive period and size composition based on carapace length. The animals were colleted with traps, nets, measured and returned to the reservoirs. This population was sampled monthly, in two reservoirs (Carvalho and Carvalhinho) constructed in the headwater streams with swift current and steep gradient, located on west side of Serra do Mar mountains, from November, 2004 to January, 2006. The water temperature varied from 11.0 (July, 2005) to 18.2ºC (March, 2007), dissolved oxygen from 7.0 to 9.5 mg/l and pH from 4.8 to 6.7, during collection period. A total of 1230 individuals were collected, among which, 819 were males and 411 females (30 ovigerous). The abundance varied from 23 (December, 2004) to 122 (June, 2005) crabs and the sex ratio of the whole population was 1:0.5 (M:F). Male carapace length varied from 4.38 to 36.46 mm and female, from 4.28 to 32.56 mm. Ovigerous females occurred from April, 2005 to November, 2005. Higher crab abundance was recorded in the Carvalho Reservoir, which explained by the presence of numerous breaches on the old tank walls that acted as shelters for these animals. Aegla schmitti females incubate egg mass during colder months and its juveniles hatch mainly in spring, as most Aegla Leach, 1820 species occurring in southeastern and southern Brazil.
  • Biological and morphological aspects of Leucanella viridescens (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae: Hemileucinae)

    Specht, Alexandre; Corseuil, Elio; Benedetti, Augusto J.; Poletto, Graziela; Formentini, Aline C.

    Abstract in English:

    The goal of this work was to describe aspects of the biology and morphology of Leucanella viridescens (Walker, 1855), a polyphytophagous species that is a pest to several crops of economical interest and whose larvae may cause erucism. Biological parameters were obtained under controlled conditions: temperature of 25 ± 1ºC, relative humidity of 70 ± 10%, and a 14 h photophase. Morphological and behavioral aspects were analyzed in each developmental phase. The larval stage had six instars, with an average growth rate of 1.396. A high degree of polyphytophagy was observed, including over 49 host plant species belonging to 25 families, especially Leguminosae, Solanaceae and Salicaceae. The considerable chromatic variability of the adults obtained from the same egg batch corroborates the need for a new taxonomic assessment of L. viridescens viridescens Walker, 1855 and L. viridescens viridior Lemaire, 1973.
  • Population biology of the burrowing crab Neohelice granulata, (Crustacea: Decapoda: Varunidae) from a tropical mangrove in Brazil Biology

    Gregati, Rafael A.; Negreiros-Fransozo, Maria L.

    Abstract in English:

    The population biology of the burrowing crab Neohelice granulata (Dana, 1851) from a mangrove in Jabaquara Beach, Paraty, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (23º13'04"S and 44º42'47"W), was studied with respect to the following traits: size-frequency distribution, recruitment, reproductive period, fecundity, and sex ratio. Specimens were sampled monthly from April, 2003 to March, 2004, at the river margins during low tide periods. Size, sex, presence of eggs, and stage of the female gonad were recorded. Ovigerous females had their eggs removed and counted. The reproductive period was continuous and the highest frequency of ovigerous females was recorded in the fall and winter. Mature gonads were found throughout the year and recruitment was continuous but more intense during the summer. The fecundity of N. granulata (30028.3 ± 10861.2 eggs) was high in comparison to studies in other localities. In general, the proportion of males was similar to that of females (1:0.92); however, males were predominant in the fall (1:0.77) and winter (1:0.75). All the information available so far on the reproduction of N. granulata involves populations from subtropical salt marshes; therefore, comparative studies including other habitats, such as mangrove forests, are needed to further understand the environmental influences on the population and reproductive biology of semiterrestrial crabs.
  • Biology and life table of Tetranychus desertorum (Acari: Tetranychidae) on leaves of kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    Rivero, Edgar; Vásquez, Carlos

    Abstract in English:

    Biological aspects and life table of the red spider mite, Tetranychus desertorum Banks, 1900, were studied on leaf discs of kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris Linnaeus) cultivar "Tacarigua" under laboratory conditions (28 ± 2ºC, 70 ± 10% R.H. and 12:12h). Our results showed that total developmental time was 6.8 days for females, with partial duration of immature stages corresponding to 3.8, 1.4, 1.0 and 0.7 for egg, larva, protonymph and deutonymph, respectively. Preoviposition, oviposition and postoviposition periods were 1.1, 8.4 and 1.3 days, respectively; and the higher mean fecundity (6.93 eggs/female/day) was observed on day 4. Female mean longevity was 10 days. The life table parameters recorded were: net reproduction rate (Ro) = 41.10 individuals; generation time (T) = 11.15 days; intrinsic natural growth (r m) = 0.144 individuals/female/day, and finite natural increase rate (λ) = 1.155 individuals/female. Our findings could be a basis for further studies devoted to determine damage and control strategies for T. desertorum on kidney bean crops.
  • Litter size, effects of maternal body size, and date of birth in South American scorpions (Arachnida: Scorpiones) Biology

    Outeda-Jorge, Sabrina; Mello, Thayná; Pinto-da-Rocha, Ricardo

    Abstract in English:

    We present new data on litter size and date of birth (month) for 21 South American scorpions species. We provide data for one katoikogenic species, the liochelid Opisthacanthus cayaporum Vellard, 1932 (offspring = 3; birth month: Jan); and for several apoikogenic species, such as the bothriurids Bothriurus araguayae Vellard, 1934 (53; Sep), B. rochensis San Martín, 1965 (22-28; Jan, Aug); the buthids Ananteris balzanii Thorell, 1891 (10-34; Jan-Mar), Physoctonus debilis (Koch, 1840) (2; Sep), Rhopalurus amazonicus Lourenço, 1986 (19; Nov), R. lacrau Lourenço & Pinto-da-Rocha, 1997 (30; Dec), R. laticauda Thorell, 1876 (41; Nov), R. rochai Borelli, 1910 (11-47; Dec-Jan, Mar-Apr), Tityus bahiensis (Perty, 1833) (4-23; Oct-Mar), T. clathratus Koch, 1844 (8-18; Nov-Jan), T. costatus (Karsch, 1879) (21-25; Jan, Apr), T. kuryi Lourenço, 1997 (4-16; Mar), T. mattogrossensis Borelli, 1901(8-9; May), T. obscurus (Gervais, 1843) (16-31; Jan-Feb, May, Jul), T. serrulatus Lutz & Mello, 1922 (8-36; Dec, Feb-Apr), T. silvestris Pocock, 1897 (5-14; Dec-Jan, Apr), T. stigmurus (Thorell, 1876) (10-18; Nov, Jan, Mar), Tityus sp. 1 (T. clathratus group - 7-12; Feb-Apr), Tityus sp. 2 (T. bahiensis group - 2; Mar); and the chactid Brotheas sp. (8-21; Jan, Apr). We observed multiple broods: R. lacrau (offspring in the 2nd brood = 27), T. kuryi (6-16), T. obscurus (2-32), T. silvestris (8), T. stigmurus (4-9), T. bahiensis (offspring in the 2nd brood = 2-18; 3rd = 1), and T. costatus (2nd brood = 18; 3rd = 4). We found statistically significant positive correlation between female size and litter size for T. bahiensis and T. silvestris, and nonsignificant correlation for T. serrulatus.
  • The growth of Parastacus defossus (Crustacea: Decapoda: Parastacidae)

    Noro, Clarissa K.; Buckup, Ludwig

    Abstract in English:

    The present study investigates the growth of Parastacus defossus Faxon, 1898, a fossorial species known only from Brazil (state of Rio Grande do Sul) and Uruguay. The estimated growth curve was calculated for animals from the wild and for juveniles cultivated in the laboratory. The specimens were collected monthly between January, 2003 to August, 2005, in Lami region, municipality of Porto Alegre, state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The VON BERTALANFFY (1938) growth model was used to estimate the growth curve . To calculate the modal values from the frequency distributions the software PeakFit 4.12© SeaSolve Inc., was employed. The growth curve for field animals is described by the equation: Lt = 30,98 [1 - e-0,0026 (t+44,86)] and for the juveniles cultivated in laboratory: Lt = 19,29 [1 - e-0,0048 (t+37,14)]. It was shown that, under laboratory conditions, the growth was slower than in the field. By comparing the data of P. defossus with those of P. brasiliensis (von Martens, 1869), it was possible to verify a slower growth, both in laboratory as under field conditions. The longevity of the studied species (1198.7 days or 40 months) also showed to be lower when compared to P. brasiliensis.
  • Postlarval development of Nicolea uspiana (Polychaeta: Terebellidae) Biology

    Garraffoni, André R. S.; Amaral, A. Cecília Z.

    Abstract in English:

    The postlarval development of Nicolea uspiana (Nogueira, 2003), a small intertidal terebellid polychaete from rocky habitats on the southeastern and southern Brazilian coast, was studied based on postlarval, juvenile and adult specimens. The specimens, ranging from 8 to 43 segments, were collected between May 2006 and May 2007. The youngest postlarval specimen was found crawling outside of the tube. In specimens at different stages of growth, the number of ocelli and tentacles increased; the first pair of nephridial papillae appeared early (before 8-segmented specimen), and the second and third pairs appeared later (31-segmented specimen); the circulatory system only developed when the first pair of branchial bulbs arose (32-segmented specimen), and the second branchial pair appeared later (40-segmented specimen); and the inversion of the uncini positions in some rows occurred in the transition from larva to juvenile (17-segmented specimen). In the course of development, segments 2-3 lost the notochaetae, and segments 3-4 lost the neurochaetae. The changes involved in the development from postlarval to adult animals are illustrated by SEM micrographs and photographs.
  • An overview of Brazilian mammalogy: trends, biases and future directions Conservation

    Brito, Daniel; Oliveira, Leonardo C.; Oprea, Monik; Mello, Marco A. R.

    Abstract in English:

    Mammals are among the most charismatic and well-studied organisms, and Brazil harbors the largest mammal diversity of the world. The Brazilian Society of Mammalogy was established in 1985, and since 2001 it organizes the Brazilian Congress of Mammalogy. We used the proceedings of all three editions of this congress together with papers indexed in Web of Science and Scielo to evaluate trends in Brazilian mammalogy. All contributions were categorized according to mammalian order, biome, topic of research and state of authors' affiliation. Our results show that mammalian orders with higher species richness receive more attention, but the ranking is different between abstracts and papers. Higher species richness did not translate into more attention for more speciose biomes, and again the ranking was different between papers and abstracts. There are research topics that receive much higher attention than others, and also other important ones, like Taxonomy, that have been neglected. States with greater human populations produce both more papers and abstracts. We conclude that the higher number of publication in the Atlantic Forest is caused by the concentration of mammalogists in the south and southeastern regions of the country. Contrary to what is normally believed, mammalian orders received attention according to their species richness, and not their charisma, probably because richer orders provide more study models. We suggest that additional funding mechanisms should be set in place in order to encourage more research on mammalian orders, topics, and states which have been neglected so far, in order to improve the knowledge on important Brazilian mammal biodiversity.
  • The use of the point count method for bird survey in the Atlantic forest Ecology

    Volpato, Graziele H.; Lopes, Edson V.; Mendonça, Luciana B.; Boçon, Roberto; Bisheimer, Maria V.; Serafini, Patrícia P.; Anjos, Luiz dos

    Abstract in English:

    The point count method has been widely used in tropical forest for sampling bird communities. In the present study, we investigated if data on richness and abundance acquired using the point count method are different comparing spring/summer (breeding season) and fall/winter (non-breeding season) in three types of the Brazilian Atlantic forest. Twelve sites were sampled seasonally during one year. In general we recorded more species and individuals during the breeding seasons. However, bird communities vary seasonally among the forest types and functional groups. We demonstrate that the use of point counts in tropical forest should be adjusted considering the differences in forest types and feeding guilds.
  • Explaining dissimilarities in macroinvertebrate assemblages among stream sites using environmental variables Ecology

    Melo, Adriano S.

    Abstract in English:

    The relationship between community structure and environmental factors usually varies according to ecosystem type, group of organisms, and spatial scale. In this study I assessed whether dissimilarities among assemblages of stream macroinvertebrates are related to differences in environmental variables. Data consisted of macroinvertebrate samples of 10 stream sites during the dry season. Seven environmental variables were assessed. The relationship among dissimilarities in assemblage structure and dissimilarities in environmental variables was assessed using the BioEnv approach. Conductivity and measures related to stream size were the most important variables. However, part of the correlation with conductivity was due to the high value observed in a single stream site, which presented a relatively distinct macroinvertebrate fauna. There was an abrupt change in assemblage structure between 4th and 5th order streams. Although the study included a single 5th order site and thus only weak generalizations are possible, this finding corroborates scattered evidence observed in previous studies. The finding that nearby sites may harbor distinct macroinvertebrate assemblages implies whole-catchment conservation strategies. As most of the remaining Atlantic Rain Forest is restricted to small fragments, restoration projects near fragments should be implemented so as to properly conserve lotic ecosystems.
  • The effects of forest structure on occurrence and abundance of three owl species (Aves: Strigidae) in the Central Amazon forest Ecology

    Barros, Obed G.; Cintra, Renato

    Abstract in English:

    We investigated how forest structure affects the occurrence and abundance of three owl species: the crested owl Lophostrix cristata Daudin, 1800, the Amazon pygmy owl Glaucidium hardyi Vielliard, 1990, and the tawny-bellied screech owl Megascops watsonii Cassin, 1849. We surveyed the owls mostly between 07:00 and 11:00 pm from July 2001 to April 2002, in eighteen 8 km transects along trails at the Ducke Reserve, Manaus, Central Amazon, Brazil. We staked out 50 x 50 m plots where the presence and absence of the owls were recorded. We compared some components of the forest structure between plots where owls were present and plots where they were absent. The spatial variation in these components were related to the occurrence and abundance of the owls using models of multiple logistic and multiple linear regressions analysis, respectively. Lophostrix cristata is rare in many other areas of the Amazon forest, but it was the most abundant in our study area. Lophostrix cristata and G. hardyi were more concentrated along the uplands (central plateau), which divide the reserve into two drainage water-basins. Megascops watsonii was distributed mainly in the southeastern part of the reserve. Glaucidium hardyi was more often found in areas with larger canopy openness. In areas with higher abundance of snags, there was significantly higher occurrence of L. cristata and M. watsonii. Megascops watsonii was also more abundant in areas with higher abundance of forest trees and in areas bearing shallower leaf litter on the forest floor. This study is the first to analyze at large spatial scale the effects of forest structure on neotropical forest top predator nocturnal birds. The results indicate that forest structure can affect the occurrence and abundance of owls in the Amazon forest.
  • Density and richness of leaf litter frogs (Amphibia: Anura) of an Atlantic Rainforest area in the Serra dos Órgãos, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil Ecology

    Siqueira, Carla C.; Vrcibradic, Davor; Almeida-Gomes, Mauricio; Borges-Junior, Vitor N. T.; Almeida-Santos, Patrícia; Almeida-Santos, Marlon; Ariani, Cristina V.; Guedes, Diego M.; Goyannes-Araújo, Pablo; Dorigo, Thiago A.; Van Sluys, Monique; Rocha, Carlos F. D.

    Abstract in English:

    Data on species composition, richness, and density are presented for the leaf litter frog assemblage of an area of Atlantic Rainforest at the Serra dos Órgãos mountain range, in the state of Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil. Three sampling methods were used: plot sampling, visual encounter surveys, and pitfall traps. The local assemblage of leaf litter frogs was composed of 16 species, with the direct-developing species, Euparkerella brasiliensis (Parker, 1926), being the most abundant. The estimated density of the local leaf litter frog assemblage based on plot sampling was 17.1 ind/100 m² and the estimated overall leaf litter frog mass was 684.2 g/ha. The estimated density of leaf litter frogs at the present study is the highest currently reported for Atlantic Rainforest areas, which reinforces the idea of higher densities of leaf litter frogs in the Neotropical Region compared to the Old World tropics.
  • Capture sequence and relative abundance of bats during surveys Ecology

    Esbérard, Carlos E. L.

    Abstract in English:

    It is expected that rare species will be gradually added to biodiversity surveys over time and that complete inventories will include rare species. The objective in the present work is to test whether the capture sequence of species during a bat survey is related to species abundance. Species with capture rates lower than 0.01x10-3 captures/hour-net were considered rare. At Ilha da Gipóia, rare species accounted for 22.22% of the total and, at Rio das Pedras Reserve, they represented 30.00%. The existence of a negative relationship between the relative abundance and the first night of capture of each species for the Ilha da Gipóia and the high significance level for the accumulation curve at both localities suggest that the documentation of a large number of rare species depends on a sustained capture effort. The common species were captured at the beginning of the field work and the remaining species were typically added to the collection according to their approximate relative abundance. However, rare or seldomly captured species were added at random.
  • Isolation and sequencing of the HMG domain of ten Sox genes from Odorrana schmackeri (Amphibia: Anura) Genetics

    Wang, Ning; Wang, Jing J.; Jia, Rui; Xu, Jin W.; Nie, Liu W.

    Abstract in English:

    Sox (SRY-related HMG-box) genes encode a family of transcriptional regulators, which are characterized by a conserved 79-amino acid domain known as HMG-box. They play essential roles in a diverse range of processes including sex determination and the development of the central nervous system (CNS), neural crest and endoderm. In this paper, the HMG domain of ten distinct Sox gene family members (os-Sox2, os-Sox3a, os-Sox3b, os-Sox4, os-Sox11a, os-Sox11b, os-Sox14a, os-Sox14b, os-Sox21a, os-Sox21b) were isolated from both male and female Odorrana schmackeri (Boettger, 1892) using PCR, and no sexual differences were found. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of the HMG domain suggested that these ten Sox genes are members of the SoxB and SoxC groups. In addition, sequence analysis suggested that four Sox genes (os-Sox3, os-Sox11, os-Sox14, os-Sox21) were duplicated. The duplication-degeneration-complementation model should be implied to explain the evolution and diversity of the Sox gene family in O. schmackeri.
  • Gametogenic cycle of Ophioderma januarii, a common Ophiodermatidae (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea) in southeastern Brazil Morphology And Physiology

    Borges, Michela; Yokoyama, Leonardo Q; Amaral, Antonia C. Z.

    Abstract in English:

    This study describes the gametogenic cycle of Ophioderma januarii Lütken, 1856, a common species of ophiuroid in Southeastern Brazil. The specimens were collected during the project "Biodiversidade Bêntica Marinha no Estado de São Paulo-BIOTA/FAPESP-Bentos Marinho" (Marine benthic biodiversity in the State of São Paulo-BIOTA/ Fapesp-Marine Benthos) which was conducted off the northern coast of the state of São Paulo. Specimens were captured monthly between February 2001 and December 2002. Due to the low number of individuals the monthly data was grouped in seasons (spring to winter). A total of 101 specimens were obtained: 33 in spring, 10 in summer, 23 in autumn, and 35 in winter. The gonads of eighty-eight individuals (45 females, 42 males, and one hermaphrodite) were analyzed histologically. The male and female gametogenic cycles were classified into five different gonadal stages, which were analyzed separately. The reproductive pattern could be defined through histological analyses of male and female gonads, together with oocyte diameter frequency. Some general conclusions could also be reached: this is a gonochoric species that reproduces year-round but increases its gonadal activity during summer; based on the size of its mature oocytes, it has lecithotrophic development. Apparently, its recruitment is enhanced in late summer, and smaller individuals are more frequent during autumn and winter.
  • Diversity and arrangement of the cuticular structures of Hyalella (Crustacea: Amphipoda: Dogielinotidae) and their use in taxonomy Morphology And Physiology

    Zimmer, Adriane; Araujo, Paula B.; Bond-Buckup, Georgina

    Abstract in English:

    This study describes the morphology and arrangement of the cuticular structures of Hyalella castroi González, Bond-Buckup & Araujo, 2006 and Hyalella pleoacuta González, Bond-Buckup & Araujo, 2006, to identify specific characters that can be used in taxonomstudies of this genus. The entire cuticular surface of both species was examined by optical and scanning electron microscopy. The data obtained were compared with available information for other members of Peracarida, mainly Amphipoda and Isopoda. Five different types of cuticular structures, including 30 types of setae, four types of microtrichs, three types of pores, and some structures formed by setules and denticles were identified. The results were compared with other groups of gammarids, and peracarideans, such as Thermosbaenacea and Isopoda. The use of cuticular structures as a tool for taxonomic studies showed important results, not only at species level, but also at genus, and family levels.
  • Larval development of Austinixa bragantina (Crustacea: Brachyura: Pinnotheridae) reared in the laboratory Taxonomy And Nomenclature

    Lima, Jô de Farias

    Abstract in English:

    The zoeal and megalopal stages of Austinixa bragantina Coelho, 2005, a small pinnotherid crab found in association with ghost shrimps Callichirus major (Say, 1818) and Lepidophthalmus siriboia Felder & Rodrigues, 1993 in the northeastern region of the state of Pará, Brazil, were reared in the laboratory from hatching to the megalopal stage. The duration of the larval period from hatching to megalopa was 28 days and the mean of duration for each larval stage was 6, 5, 5, 6, and 6 days, respectively. In the present study, the zoeal and megalopal stages are described and illustrated in detail.
  • Braga cigarra comb. nov. for Philostomella cigarra (Crustacea: Isopoda: Cymothoidae) with a redescription of the species based on specimens from Galeocharax kneri, a freshwater fish of Minas Gerais State, Brazil Taxonomy And Nomenclature

    Thatcher, Vernon E.; Oliveira, Antonio A. N. de; Garcia, Adriana M.

    Abstract in English:

    Specimens of a cymothoid isopod from a freshwater fish of Minas Gerais State were studied. These were found to be morphologically comparable to Philostomella cigarra Szidat & Schubart, 1960, except for having multilaminate pleopods which is the distinguishing characteristic of the genus Braga Schiödte & Meinert, 1881. The first pleopod is bilaminate while the second is quadrilaminate. Pleopods three to five are trilaminate. It is herein proposed that the generic name Philostomella Szidat & Schubart, 1960, should be considered invalid and that the species P. cigarra should be transferred to Braga. Braga now contains eight species, including B. cigarra comb. nov., all from South American freshwater fishes. The principal difference between this species and the others in the genus is the form of the female which has a narrow pleon and a small pleotelson. A redescription of this species is presented here because previous descriptions in the literature are inaccurate or incomplete.
  • Five new species of Cerambycidae (Insecta: Coleoptera) from the Neotropical Region and new records

    Galileo, Maria Helena M.; Martins, Ubirajara R.

    Abstract in English:

    New species are described: Tessaropa elongata sp. nov. from Brazil (Rondônia) has long elytra, a character that distinguishes it from the remaining species with short elytra; Hexoplon immaculatum sp. nov. from Ecuador (Pichincha) is characterized by the red-orange general color and black legs. Eburodacrys inaequalis sp. nov. from Bolivia (Santa Cruz) has elytral apices and same-color femora that cause it to be similar to E. ayri Martins & Galileo, 2006 and E. silviamariae Martins & Galileo, 2006, yet it differs from either species in the black lateral spines and dorsal tubercles of pronotum and the elongate eburneuos maculae of the elytra. Coleomethia bezarki sp. nov. (Costa Rica, Guanacaste) differs from C. australis Hovore, 1987 by male pronotum without rugosities, peduculate metafemora and metatibiae entirely pubescent. Bisaltes (B.) petilus sp. nov. (Costa Rica, Guanacaste, Alajuela) is separated from B. (B.)buquetii Thomson, 1868 and B. (B.) fuchsi Breuning, 1971 by the more slender body appearance, the absence of dark belts on pronotum, and the absence of circular macula in the anterior third of elytra. Notes and new records are provided for: Tetraibion concolor Martins, 2006 (Bolivia: La Paz); Gnomidolon ornaticolle Martins, 1960 (Panama: Colón); Mephritus apicatus (Linsley, 1935) (Brazil: Rondônia).
  • Polymorphism in the pattern of integument markings of Ceraeochrysa caligata (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) larvae and adults and redescription of the larval instars

    Viana, Gustavo G.; Albuquerque, Gilberto S.

    Abstract in English:

    Ceraeochrysa caligata (Banks, 1945) is one of the several species of Ceraeochrysa Adams, 1982 that occur in agroecosystems of the Neotropical region and show potential for use in biological control programs. However, little is known about its biology, partly because of the poor status of the systematics of this group. To help in the identification of C. caligata and to contribute with additional characters for future phylogenetic studies with the genus, here we characterize the variations in relation to the pattern of integument markings originally described for the adults and larvae and redescribe the three larval instars, including characters not considered in the original description, especially the number of setae in the tubercles and somatic segments. We also present preliminary results regarding the nature of the variation in the pattern of adult markings.
  • Intraspecific variation in preserved specimens of the fiddler crabs Uca panacea and Uca pugilator (Decapoda: Ocypodidae) Taxonomy And Nomenclature

    Bezerra, Luis E. A.; Coelho, Petrônio A.

    Abstract in English:

    The fiddler crabs Uca panacea Novak & Salmon, 1974 and Uca pugilator (Bosc, 1802) are closely related North American species that are sympatric along the north coast of Gulf of Mexico. Since U. panacea was described, there has been confusion in the identification these two species. Morphological differences between these two fiddlers have been pointed out in recent years, mainly regarding the presence of a pigment spot and granulations on the dorsal margin of carapace in U. pugilator. We report herein some intraspecific differences between the two species that we believe to be useful in avoiding misidentification among preserved specimens of these two fiddler crabs, such as the absence of the pigment spot in U. pugilator and the presence of the pigment spot and granulations on dorsal margin of carapace in U. panacea as well. Our results have also revealed that 65% of the U. pugilator specimens examined possess a gape pile in the major chela, which is not a reliable diagnostic character, but could be useful when present. The gonopods of both species were analyzed using SEM, confirming the previous statement that the sub-terminal thumb is shorter in U. panacea than in U. pugilator. Finally, as important morphological characters are missing in the original description of U. panacea, a redescription of this species is also provided.
  • Distibutional and taxonomic status of the Eumops bonariensis species complex (Chiroptera: Molossidae) in southern Brazil

    Bernardi, Itiberê P.; Miranda, João M. D.; Passos, Fernando C.

    Abstract in English:

    The taxonomic status and the geographical distribution of the specimens from southern Brazil previously identified as members of the Eumops bonariensis (Peters, 1874) species complex are here reviewed based on specimens deposited in collections of the states of Paraná and Rio Grande do Sul. The results of an investigation of diagnostic morphological characters and a multivariate morphometrics analysis suggest the recognition of two forms, E. bonariensis and E. patagonicus Thomas, 1924, thus altering considerably the distributional scenario of these forms in southern Brazil.
  • The effect of temperature on the reproduction of Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri (Oligochaeta: Tubificidae) Short Communication

    Nascimento, Haroldo L. S.; Alves, Roberto G.

    Abstract in English:

    The tubificid worm Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri Claparede, 1862 is widely used as an indicator of organic pollution in aquatic environments. Nevertheless, little is known about its biology. The present work aimed to compare the reproductive rate of L. hoffmeisteri raised at three different temperatures (15, 20 and 25°C). Seventy-five adult individuals were kept in fifteen 250 ml beakers (five individuals per beaker) containing sand and dechlorinated tap-water each. Beakers were arranged so as to form three groups of five. Each group was kept in a given temperature for 21 days. Results show that worms raised at 25°C produced a significantly larger number of eggs compared to those raised either at 15 or 20°C, as observed in the tropical tubificid Branchiura sowerbyi Beddard, 1892.
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