Zoologia (Curitiba), Volume: 26, Issue: 2, Published: 2009
  • Population dynamics of matrinxã Brycon amazonicus (Characidae) in Central Amazon

    Santos Filho, Leocy C. dos; Batista, Vandick da S.

    Abstract in English:

    The matrinxã, Brycon amazonicus (Spix & Agassiz, 1829) is one of the most important fishery resources of the Amazonas state. Its population dynamics in Central Amazon was analyzed based on total landing and biometry data registered in the main landing port of Manaus, between 1994 and 2002. Growth and mortality rates were estimated separately for the rivers Purus, Madeira and Solimões. Differences in size structure and growth curves suggest that different population units exist among these rivers, requiring individualized evaluation and fisheries management strategies. The analysis of the yield per recruit does not indicate overexploitation. However, the highest relative exploitation rate was observed in the Madeira river. The suggested management strategies are related to restrictions to the fishery in the main fishing grounds during the migratory dispersal period, instead of restrictions during reproductive periods.
  • Daily activity patterns of visits by males of four species of Eulaema (Apidae: Euglossina) to odor baits in a tropical forest fragment in Bahia, Brasil Behavior

    Melo, Pedro N.; Gimenes, Miriam; Oliveira Neto, Antonio

    Abstract in English:

    Several studies have been conducted with bees of the subtribe Euglossina using odor baits as attractants. The objective of this study was to analyze the daily activity pattern of visits by males of four species of Eulaema - Eulaema nigrita Lepeletier, 1841, Eulaema flavescens (Friese, 1899), Eulaema cingulata (Fabricius, 1804) and Eulaema bombiformis (Packard, 1869) - to vanillin and benzyl acetate baits, and their relationship with climatic and environmental factors throughout the day in different months of the year in a tropical forest fragment in Bahia. Eulaema nigrita was the most frequent species on vanillin baits and E. flavescens was the most frequent species on benzyl acetate baits. The highest frequency of visits was observed in February and December. Activities started between 5:00 and 9:00 h. In February and November, visits of E. nigrita to the bait were observed daily, following a bimodal pattern. The same activity pattern was observed for E. bombiformis in December. Males of four species of Eulaema occurred in all remaining months in a unimodal daily activity pattern, with a higher frequency before 9:30 h. The correlation between the visiting activity to odor baits and climatic factors was low. This result can be due to bee flight activity occurring within a range of adequate climatic variation, particularly temperature, which in our study ranged from 23 to 32ºC. Daily activity patterns of Euglossina males on odor baits can represent patterns of flower fragrance collection under natural conditions, with visits usually at the time of highest production.
  • Geographic distribution and spatial differentiation in the color pattern of abdominal stripes of the Neotropical stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Biogeography

    Batalha-Filho, Henrique; Melo, Gabriel A. R.; Waldschmidt, Ana M.; Campos, Lucio A. O.; Fernandes-Salomão, Tânia M.

    Abstract in English:

    Melipona quadrifasciata Lepeletier, 1836, regionally known as "mandaçaia", has been traditionally divided in two distinct subspecies: M. quadrifasciata anthidioides and M. quadrifasciata quadrifasciata. The main difference between the subspecies refers to the yellow metasomal stripes which are continuous in M. q. quadrifasciata and discontinuous in M. q. anthidioides. This study investigated the geographic differentiation in the metasomal stripes and characterized the restriction sites in the mtDNA of both chromatic types. Specimens from 198 localities were examined, and the variation observed in the pattern of stripes was grouped into distinct classes. The distribution pattern found in the present work agrees with the previously reported pattern: M. q. quadrifasciata inhabits the southern portion of the distribution, from Misiones, Argentina, southeastern Paraguay and Rio Grande do Sul to southern São Paulo, and M. q. anthidioides ranges from northeastern São Paulo to the northern Diamantina Plateau, Bahia, and westwards to the central portion of the Goiás state. It is documented for the first time the occurrence of two populations with continuous stripes inhabiting disjunct areas in relation to M. q. quadrifasciata - one in northern Minas Gerais and another in northeastern Bahia and Sergipe. The data of RFLP showed two restriction patterns, one present in M. q. quadrifasciata, and another in M. q. anthidioides and in populations with continuous metasomal stripes from northern Minas Gerais and northeastern Bahia and Sergipe. The observed patterns of geographic differentiation of M. quadrifasciata suggests the occurrence of repeated events of geographical isolation, followed by range expansion, that occurred probably during the cycles of climatic changes in the Pleistocene.
  • Natural history and reproductive biology of marsupials from Pantanal, Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Aragona, Mônica; Marinho-Filho, Jader

    Abstract in English:

    Three forested habitats at Pantanal of Poconé (Mato Grosso) were sampled during 17 months, with an effort of 38,635 trap-nights, resulting in a 6.3% of trapping success. Six marsupial and eight rodent species were recorded. Natural history, reproductive biology, behavior and habitat use are described for six marsupial species from the Pantanal floodplain: Caluromys philander (Linnaeus, 1758), Didelphis albiventris Lund, 1840, Gracilinanus agilis (Burmeister, 1854), Micoureus demerarae (Thomas, 1905), Monodelphis domestica (Wagner, 1842) and Philander opossum (Linnaeus, 1758). Micoureus demerarae was the species with the highest number of captured individuals (n = 240) and with the highest number of capture events (n = 1287). Reproduction of most species begins at the end of the dry season, being intensified during the wet season. The flooded forest locally known as 'landis' showed the highest marsupial species richness (six species), whereas the forests that are never flooded, locally known as 'cordilheiras', and the seasonally flooded forest, locally known as 'cambarazais', showed the lowest species richness, with three species each.
  • Fish predation on brachyuran larvae and juveniles in the Pinheiros river, Guaratuba Bay, Paraná, Brazil Biology

    Costa, Paulo V.; Silva, Ubiratã A. T. da; Ventura, Robson; Ostrensky, Antonio; Angelo, Leandro

    Abstract in English:

    Fish predation is thought to exert an important influence on the demographical dynamics of larvae and juveniles of estuarine brachyuran crabs but few studies have investigated this phenomenon in nature. In this study, fishes were captured during full moons (in January and February 2005), when many brachyuran species are known to release their larvae. Samples were carried out in the Pinheiros river, Guaratuba Bay, Paraná, Brazil. The stomach contents of collected fishes were surveyed to determine the species that are most likely to prey on brachyuran immature forms in this location. Two techniques were used to capture fishes: manual samplings, using a 5-mm mesh size net (1.8m depth), and bottom trawling with a 20-mm mesh size net. The collected specimens were fixed using 10% formaldehyde and preserved in 70% ethanol. A total of 2941 fishes of 43 different species were collected and the stomach contents of 962 individuals were analyzed in laboratory. Food items were identified and quantified. The fish species captured using manual nets that showed the highest number of preyed zoeae per stomach was the clupeid Platanichthys platana (Regan, 1917). Sphoeroides testudineus (Linnaeus, 1758) and Centropomus parallelus Poey, 1860 showed the highest levels of predation on megalopae. Of the fish species captured using trawl nets, Genidens genidens (Cuvier, 1829) showed the highest average number of zoeae per analyzed stomach and Bairdiella ronchus (Cuvier, 1830) was the most important predator on brachyuran megalopae and on young juveniles. The obtained data indicate that brachyuran crab restocking efforts performed in the Guaratuba Bay should include strategies to avoid or, at least, reduce the access of fishes to the released early juvenile stages, given the potential substantial losses caused by fish predation. Considering that, in general, predation potential was 8.5 times lower in juveniles than in megalopae, releasing immature forms produced in laboratory in the juvenile phase or releasing megalopae into tethered areas and maintaining than under this condition until they reach the juvenile phase may be tested as a method to reduce losses given to fish predation.
  • A test of the edge effect on predation of natural and artificial bird nests in the Cerrado

    França, Letice C.; Marini, Miguel Â.

    Abstract in English:

    The Cerrado is still one of the most important ecosystems in Brazil, even though more than 50% of its area has been altered or converted to pastureland and plantations. Despite its intense degradation, few ecological processes that might affect its biodiversity have been evaluated. The goal of this study was to test the edge effect on the predation rates at natural and artificial nests, at the Ecological Station of Águas Emendadas, Federal District, Brazil. Natural nests were found and monitored every three to four days from September to December of 2004 in the interior and at the edge of the reserve. Artificial nests were placed at four distances from the edge (0, 500, 1000 and 2000 m) in three spatial replicates in September and again in December of 2004. Each nest received one Japanese Quail and one plasticine egg and was monitored every five days, for 15 days. There was no difference between the rates of predation either in the natural nests or in the artificial nests between treatments. For one bird species, Elaenia chiriquensis (Lawrence, 1865), Tyrannidae, daily survival rates in the incubation and in the hatchling period had opposite values between the edge and the interior. Marks on plasticine eggs suggest that birds are the main predators. Estimates of the abundance of two potential nest predators, Cyanocorax cristatellus (Temminck, 1823), Corvidae and Canis familiaris (Linnaeus, 1758), Canidae, revealed no relationship with distance to the edge, nor with predation rates. Brood parasitism of natural nests was similar between the interior (0%) and the edge (3.8% of the nests). The results described here do not support the edge effect hypothesis for nest predation rates on either natural or artificial nests, nor for brood parasitism rates.
  • Feeding habit of the Brazilian tapir, Tapirus terrestris (Perissodactyla: Tapiridae) in a vegetation transition zone in south-eastern Brazil Ecology

    Talamoni, Sônia A.; Assis, Miguel A. C.

    Abstract in English:

    Tapirs are considered generalist herbivores and the differences in the proportions of dietary items are often attributed to differences in the habitats where individuals live. This study characterized the feeding habit of Tapirus terrestris (Linnaeus, 1758) in a nature reserve in south-eastern Brazil, located in a region considered a transition zone between the Cerrado (Brazilian savanna) and the Atlantic Forest biomes. Fecal samples from T. terrestris individuals were collected monthly at six sampling areas that encompassed a total of 242.22 ha. There were 147 fresh samples found (77 during the dry season and 70 during the wet season). The diet of the tapirs in this reserve was characterized by the prevalent browsing on leaves and stems. There was a low frequency of fruit seeds in the diet of the tapirs during both the wet and dry seasons. However, in the dry season a higher percentage of samples containing seeds was observed. Fruits of Rubiaceae, Solanaceae, and Annonaceae were most consumed during the dry season. Most of the fruit seeds found presented small mean diameter (3.7-8.4 mm) and most of the fruits were capsules and dry fruits. The characteristics of the fruits consumed by the tapirs indicate that they forage in the lower forest stratum and upon species from Cerrado. Additionally, Psidium myrtoides O. Berg. clusters found in the study site suggest that the tapirs may be acting as dispersal agents of this species.
  • Hummingbirds (Aves: Trochilidae) and their floral resources in an area of caatinga vegetation in the Chapada Diamantina, Bahia State, Northeast Brazil

    Machado, Caio Graco

    Abstract in English:

    This study investigated the species of hummingbird occurring in an area of caatinga vegetation, examining their seasonal activities, the assemblages of plants that they used, as well as the floral characteristics and flowering phenology of that vegetation. These surveys were performed in an area of arboreal caatinga in Chapada Diamantina, municipality of Mucugê, state of Bahia, Brazil, during 12 expeditions undertaken on a bi-monthly basis between October, 2005 and August, 2007. Field activities included observations made of the visiting hummingbird species, their behavior, and the frequency of their visits; as well as the plant species visited, their floral attributes, size, and the flowering phenophase evident on the occasion of each expedition. Seven species of hummingbirds were registered, including five residents. Phaethornis pretrei (Lesson & Delattre, 1839) acted as the organizer of this pollination guild. This species and Chlorostilbon lucidus (Shaw, 1812), these two species were considered the principal pollinators within the community. The hummingbirds visited a total of 29 plant species, of which only 12 are considered ornitophilous. The plant community presented a continuous flowering, with 19 species flowering in both the dry and the rainy season, permitting the year-round permanence of resident hummingbird species.
  • Spatial distribution of the estuarine ichthyofauna of the Rio Formoso (Pernambuco, Brazil), with emphasis on reef fish Ecology

    Paiva, Andréa C. G. de; Lima, Marina F. V.; Souza, José R. B. de; Araújo, Maria E. de

    Abstract in English:

    The objectives of the present study were to identify species of reef fish that use the Rio Formoso estuary (northeastern Brazil) as a refuge and natural nursery and to describe the spatial distribution of the estuary fish fauna in rainy and dry seasons. A total of 5475 specimens, across 78 species and 39 families, were analyzed; 51.3% of the species were of reef origin. Among these, Eucinostomus melanopterus (Bleeker, 1863), E. gula (Cuvier, 1830), and Sphoeroides testudineus (Linnaeus, 1758), in this order, were the most abundant in the upper estuary; S. greeleyi Gilbert, 1900, E. melanopterus, and Lutjanus synagris (Linnaeus, 1758) were the most abundant in the mid estuary; and E. gula and Albula vulpes (Linnaeus, 1758) in the lower estuary. The percentages of reef species were 39.2%, 54.2% and 66.7% for the upper, mid and lower regions, respectively. The greatest diversity was found in the upper estuary and greatest abundance occurred in the mid region. The type of sediment was a strong determinant of the spatial distribution of fish fauna. The most abundant species were found in a mesohaline (5-18) to euhaline (30-40) salinity regimen, suggesting some capacity for osmotic regulation. The fish fauna of the Rio Formoso estuary receives a direct influence from the reefs and coastal region between Sirinhaém and Tamandaré, thereby providing a greater richness of reef fish.
  • The role of Asterina stellifera (Echinodermata: Asteroidea) as a predator in a rocky intertidal community in southern Brazil Ecology

    Calil, Patrícia; Rocha, Rosana M. da; Freire, Carolina A.; Roper, James J.

    Abstract in English:

    Populations of Asterina stellifera Möbius, 1859 are declining in southern Brazil and today the species is on the Brazilian list of endangered species. Here we experimentally investigate the ecological role played by A. stellifera as a predator on the rocky substrate community by increasing densities of this species. Starfish taken from other, nearby, locations were added to three replicate plots and their density was maintained every 15 days. None of the total of 32 species that were identified in the encrusting community appeared to be influenced by the experiment. Two species, the barnacle Chthamalus bisinuatus Pilsbry, 1916 and the algae Gracilaria verrucosa (Hudson), showed small apparent responses to predation. We found that A. stellifera only exerts weak predation pressure on the community, even at high densities. This result is strikingly different from that observed for similar species in the northern hemisphere and in Australia.
  • Hyper abundant mesopredators and bird extinction in an Atlantic forest island Ecology

    Galetti, Mauro; Bovendorp, Ricardo S.; Fadini, Rodrigo F.; Gussoni, Carlos O. A.; Rodrigues, Marcos; Alvarez, Ariane D.; Guimarães Jr, Paulo R.; Alves, Kaiser

    Abstract in English:

    Islands can serve as model systems for understanding how biological invasions affect native species. Here we examine the negative effects of mesopredator mammals on bird richness at Anchieta Island, an 826 ha offshore island in the coast of Brazil. Anchieta Island has the highest density of mammals of the entire Atlantic forest, especially nest predators such as marmosets and coatis, introduced more than 20 years ago. This indiscriminate introduction of mammals may have affected directly the bird community, nowadays represented by 100 species comprised mainly by water-crossing birds, being 73 forest-dwelling species. A small component of these remnant bird species nests in tree holes and on the forest floor, null model analysis suggest that birds within these two nest types are under-represented on Anchieta Island. All guilds were affected negatively, but "opportunist insectivorous/omnivorous". Experiments using artificial nests showed a predation of 73% of nests on the floor while only 26% on the mainland. Camera traps recorded predation by coatis, agoutis, and opossums. The restoration of the bird community on this island is highly constrained by the high density of hyper abundant nest predators.
  • New host records of Aglaomelissa duckei and a compilation of host associations of Ericrocidini bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Ecology

    Rocha-Filho, Léo C.; Morato, Élder F.; Melo, Gabriel A. R.

    Abstract in English:

    For the first time, confirmed host records are reported for the monotypic Ericrocidini genus Aglaomelissa Snelling & Brooks, 1985. Aglaomelissa duckei (Friese, 1906) emerged from trap-nests of Centris (Heterocentris) analis (Fabricius, 1804) and C. (Heterocentris) terminata Smith, 1874 from two sites in the Brazilian Amazonian region. The parasitism ratio caused by A. duckei was high, varying from 80 to 100% of the brood cells in a single trap-nest. Also, a compilation of the known host records for the species of Ericrocidini is presented and host-parasite associations are discussed. Host associations are known for seven of the 11 genera and about 17 of the 42 species of the tribe, involving a total of 34 confirmed or putative host species of Centridini bees. All species of the tribe are known to attack only nests of Centris Fabricius, 1804, except Mesoplia rufipes (Perty, 1833) that also parasitizes nests of Epicharis Klug, 1807. Although the phylogenetic relationships within Ericrocidini and among the subgenera of Centris are not well resolved, the current knowledge of the host-parasite associations points to a relatively high degree of specificity and possible coevolution between them.
  • Potential distribution and new records of Trinomys species (Rodentia: Echimyidae) in the state of Rio de Janeiro Ecology

    Attias, Nina; Raíces, Daniel S. L.; Pessoa, Flávia S.; Albuquerque, Hermano; Jordão-Nogueira, Tássia; Modesto, Thiago C.; Bergallo, Helena de G.

    Abstract in English:

    The spiny rats of the genus Trinomys Thomas, 1921 have a broad distribution in the Atlantic Forests of southeastern Brazil. However, some species are known only from their type locality and adjacent areas. In our study, nine areas in the state of Rio de Janeiro were surveyed and three species of the genus were captured - Trinomys dimidiatus (Günther, 1877), T. setosus (Desmarest, 1817) and T. gratiosus bonafidei (MOOJEN, 1948). We extended the distribution of T. gratiosus bonafidei in 100 km, in a straight line to the northwest, and into an area of Semidecidual Seasonal Forest. We captured T. setosus, which had not been previously recorded in the state, in the municipality of Cambuci, extending its distribution 150 km, in a straight line to the east of its closest record, in Juiz de Fora, state of Minas Gerais. The state of Rio de Janeiro has now six recognized species of Trinomys, however none of them were collected above 1300 m of altitude. We used occurrence points provided by our inventories data and from the literature to model the potential distribution of Trinomys species. We used climatic, topographic and phytogeographic variables to prepare the potential distribution maps. The algorithm used for modeling was provided by the software Maxent, version 3.2.1. Although species boundaries within Trinomys in Rio de Janeiro State are not yet clear, their distributions seem to be parapatric, except for T. iheringi and T. dimidiatus.
  • Molecular cloning and expression patterns of the Vasa gene from Rana nigromaculata (Amphibia: Anura) Genetics

    Jia, Rui; Nie, Liu-Wang; Wang, Ning; Wang, Jingjing

    Abstract in English:

    The Vasa protein is a member of the DEAD (Asp-Glu-Alu-Asp) box family of ATP-dependent RNA helicases. The Vasa gene is specifically expressed in germ-line cells of many metazoans and is known to play a critical role in gametogenesis and reproductive regulation. In this paper, we isolate the full length cDNA sequence of the Vasa gene from the frog Rana nigromaculata Hallowell, 1861. The open reading frame (ORF) encoding 398 amino acid residues has nine conserved motifs. According to the similarities at the amino acid sequenceythe phylogenetic analysis of Vasa gene was consistent with the evolution relationships from chordates to mammals. Furthermore, the expression pattern analysis of RnVasa mRNA, using the technique of Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR), showed a high level of transcripts in testis, ovary and kidney, whereas little to no signal was detected in other tissues, which suggests that it may play a role during gametogenesis.
  • Scanning electron microscopic study of the tongue in golden-headed lion tamarins, Leontopithecus chrysomelas (Callithrichidae: Primates) Morphology And Physiology

    Burity, Carlos Henrique de F.; Silva, Mirlene R. da; Souza, Andreia M. de; Lancetta, Carla F. F.; Medeiros, Mildred F.; Pissinatti, Alcides

    Abstract in English:

    Leontopithecus is the largest genus of Callithrichidae, occupying isolated remnants of the Atlantic Forest in Brazil. The objective of this study was to investigate the ultrastructure of the dorsum of the tongue of golden-headed lion tamarins. Tongues of ten adult lion tamarins kept in captivity at the Center of Primatology of Rio de Janeiro (CPRJ-FEEMA) were analyzed under scanning electron microscopy. The three vallate papillae were distributed in a V shape, and each papilla was surrounded by a deep sulcus and an external pad; the medial papilla showed a round shape and the lateral one was elliptical. The filiform papillae were shaped as a crown or as finger-like papillae, and were distributed throughout the tongue, including the margins, except for the posterior region. The fungiform papillae were scattered among the filiform papillae, in a disperse manner, from the apex to the lateral vallate papillae. The foliate papillae had a typical ultrastructure, with folds that ranged in number from 1 to 3. With respect to vallate papillae, we identified the microridge and pore pattern on its surface. Further studies are required to confirm the hypotheses on the ultrastructural aspects described for golden-headed lion tamarins.
  • Ecology of ticks in a taxocenosis of snakes from the Serra do Mendanha, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, with new host records Symbiosis

    Pontes, Jorge A. L.; Gazêta, Gilberto S.; Vrcibradic, Davor; Rocha, Carlos F. D.

    Abstract in English:

    We studied the ecology of ticks found in different species of a taxocenosis of snakes from the Serra do Mendanha, an area of Atlantic Rainforest located in the state of Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil. Snakes were sampled monthly in the field during a period of 48 months. The specific identity of the hosts and their parasites, the number of parasites, and and snout-vent length and body mass of each host were recorded. A total of 25% of the species of snakes in the area were parasitized by ticks (larvae, nymphs and adult females) Amblyomma rotundatum Koch, 1844 was the predominant parasite species. The infestation parameters varied among the species of snakes sampled, with the highest prevalence of A. rotundatum being observed in the viperid Bothrops jararaca (Wied, 1824) (71.4%), followed by the colubrids Xenodon neuwiedii Günther, 1820 (33%), Chironius laevicollis (Wied, 1824) and Spilotes pullatus (Linnaeus, 1758) (both with 22%). The latter three species also showed the highest rates of infestation by A. rotundatum. The results of the present study suggest that a combination of skin shedding, habitat of the host, type of scale and pattern of scale distribution on the body of the host can influence the degree to which a given species is parasitized by ticks
  • A new species of Argiope (Araneae: Araneidae) from Brazil Taxonomy And Nomenclature

    Motta, Paulo César; Levi, Herbert W.

    Abstract in English:

    A new species of Argiope Audouin, 1826 is described. This is a large Argiope from South America and is found mainly in "cerrado" vegetation in central Brazil. Argiope legionis sp. nov. is most similar to A. ericae LEVI, 2004 but differs from this species by the coloration and epigynum in the female and the median apophysis and embolus of the palpus in the male palp.
  • A new species of Sickesia (Laniatores: Stygnidae: Opiliones) and new records for the State of Piauí, Brazil Taxonomy And Nomenclature

    Pinto-da-Rocha, Ricardo; Carvalho, Leonardo S.

    Abstract in English:

    Sickesia tremembe sp. nov. is described from Piauí, Northeast Brazil (type-locality: Sete Cidades National Park, Brasileira and Piracuruca municipalities). It differs from S. usta and S. helmuti by the clavate male femur IV and chelicerae segment I with a pair of large tubercles on retrolateral surface. The Stygnidae Stygnus polyacanthus (Mello-Leitão, 1923); the Cosmetidae, Gryne pluriarcuata Mello-Leitão, 1936 and undetermined species of Paecilaema and Gryne and also representatives of Escadabiidae and Sclerosomatidae (Gagrellinae) are recorded from this state, for the first time.
  • Revision of the South American species of Rhopalophora (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae)

    Napp, Dilma Solange

    Abstract in English:

    Rhopalophora Audinet-Serville, 1834 is currently composed of 25 species with a distribution ranging from North to South America. Only nine of them were described from South America and have been recorded exclusively from this continent. The North and Central American species were revised by GIESBERT & CHEMSAK (1993); the South American species, on the other hand, still remain with their descriptions fragmented in different publications that date from 1824 to 1989.The purposes of this work are to redescribe the genus, to gather information on the South American species, to provide updated and standardized descriptions, illustrations, and an identification key, in order to complement that of GIESBERT & CHEMSAK (1993). The following species are treated: R. collaris (Germar, 1824) (type species), R. pulverulenta Guérin-Méneville, 1844, R. venezuelensis Chevrolat, 1859, R. occipitalis Chevrolat, 1859, R. neivai Mendes, 1940, R. prolixa Monné, 1989, R. dyseidia Martins & Napp, 1989, R. casignata Martins & Napp, 1989, and R. paraensis Martins & Napp, 1989.
  • On the taxonomy of Trechaleidae (Araneae: Lycosoidea) from Colombia and Peru Taxonomy And Nomenclature

    Silva, Estevam Luís Cruz da; Lise, Arno Antonio

    Abstract in English:

    A new species of Enna O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1897 from Cusco, Peru and two new species of Caricelea SILVA & LISE, 2007 based in males collected in Cusco, Peru are described. Enna echarate sp. nov. can be distinguished from other species by the two lateral excavations on the epigynal middle field. Caricelea apurimac sp. nov. an be distinguished from the other members of the genus, by the larger lamellar projection (LP) on the median apophysis that covers most of the guide. Caricelea camisea sp. nov. can be distinguished from other species of the genus, by the smaller lamellar projection and the smaller and acute ental division of the retrolateral apophysis. The males of Hesydrus caripito Carico, 2005 and Syntrechalea reimoseri (Caporiacco, 1947) are described and illustrated for the first time. Trechalea numida Mello-Leitão, 1943 and Trechalea limai Mello-Leitão, 1941 are transferred to Thaumasia Perty, 1833 (Pisauridae) and Paratrechalea Carico, 2005 (Trechaleidae) as species inquirenda and nomen dubium, respectively. New records of Hesydrus aurantius (Mello-Leitão, 1942), Hesydrus caripito Carico, 2005, Enna maya Silva, Lise & Carico, 2008 and Syntrechalea reimoseri (Caporiacco, 1947) from Colombia and Peru are presented.
  • A new species of Goeldia (Araneae: Titanoecidae) with notes on its natural history Taxonomy And Nomenclature

    Almeida-Silva, Lina M.; Brescovit, Antonio D.; Dias, Sidclay Calaça

    Abstract in English:

    A new species of Goeldia Keyserling, 1891 is described. Goeldia is the only genus of Titanoecidae with species in the Neotropical region and includes eight species diagnosed by the presence of a patellar process in the male palp. The new species, Goeldia zyngierae sp. nov., was found living inside the Casa de Pedra cave, Ribeira, Itabaiana, Sergipe, Brazil. Goeldia zyngierae sp. nov. is diagnosed by the tegular process with a small constriction near the base of the dorsal part and by a distal narrowing, more visible in the dorsal side of the patellar process of the male palp. The female epigynum shows a pair of sinuous depressions and a large mid field that does not close the copulatory openings as in Goeldia luteipes Keyserling, 1878. The vulva presents a narrow and straight copulatory duct in comparison with those of Goeldia mexicana Pickard-Cambridge, 1896 and a narrow spermathecae. The description includes illustrations of the genital organs, measurements of the body and legs and leg spination. Notes on the natural history show that inside the cave the spiders live farther than the first 40 m, in the aphotic zone, under stones or on the wall. They were never observed alone or walking on the ground, and the webs contained two to thirty spiders of different life stages, living together, suggesting a possible cooperative behavior. Further field work is needed to confirm and understand the degree of sociability of this new species, if this species is restricted to caves, and if this behavior occurs only inside the caves.
  • New records of Parvalona parva (Crustacea: Anomopoda: Chydoridae) from Brazil, with first description of the male Taxonomy And Nomenclature

    Elmoor-Loureiro, Lourdes M.A.; Santos-Wisniewski, Maria J. dos; Rocha, Odete

    Abstract in English:

    The Neotropical species Parvalona parva (Daday, 1905) was previously reported only from two localities (Northern Argentina and Lençóis Maranhenses, Brazil). In the present paper, seven new records of P. parva from Brazil are presented. The specimens were collected from small waterbodies located in the Federal District and the states of São Paulo, Pará, and Pernambuco. These new records suggest that this species is not as rare as previously believed. The male, sexual female, and the lateral head pores of parthenogenetic females are described and illustrated for the first time.
  • Diet and potential feeding overlap between Trichiurus lepturus (Osteichthyes: Perciformes) and Pontoporia blainvillei (Mammalia: Cetacea) in Northern Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Short Communication

    Bittar, Vanessa T.; Di Beneditto, Ana Paula M.

    Abstract in English:

    This study describes the diet and assesses potential overlap in the feeding habits of Trichiurus lepturus Linnaeus, 1758 and Pontoporia blainvilleiGervais & D'Orbigny, 1844 in northern Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil. Fishes were numerically dominant in both diets, followed by cephalopods for P. blainvillei and crustaceans for T. lepturus. Both predators move along similar coastal feeding areas in northern Rio de Janeiro, but our results indicate differences in their resource exploitation, what allows for their coexistence.
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