Abstract in English:Nursery performance, development, and RNA:DNA ratio were investigated in Farfantepenaeus paulensis (Pérez-Farfante, 1967) postlarvae acclimated from a salinity of 30‰ to higher (35‰) or lower (16, 22 and 29‰) salinities and reared for 20 days. Overall, higher final weight, yield and growth rate were observed at a salinity of 29‰. RNA:DNA ratio indicated reduced growth potential at a salinity of 35‰. Low salinities resulted in more developed individuals. Thus, early postlarval F. paulensis should not be stocked in salinities higher than that of the original hatchery, otherwise in lower salinities postlarvae should be older and/or have an extended nursery phase. Results may assist in the development of nursery rearing protocols for F. paulensis, an alternative species for aquaculture in subtropical areas.
Abstract in English:The aim of the present study was to provide a preliminary description of habitat use by Guiana dolphins, Sotalia guianensis (Van Bénéden, 1864) in the Paranaguá Estuarine Complex (PEC), state of Paraná, Brazil. Approximately 124 km² were surveyed by small boat from April 2006 to July 2008 in the following subsets of the PEC: Canal do Superagui (~28 km²); Pinheiros Bay (~34 km²); part of Laranjeiras Bay, which included the Guaraqueçaba sub-estuary (~38 km²); and part of the Mixture Section of the PEC (~24 km²). Our efforts were unevenly distributed in the study area. During 55 survey days covering seven distinct seasons, we spent 165 hours observing 323 groups of S. guianensis. Group size varied from two individuals to aggregations as large as approximately 100 dolphins. A total of 49,921 photographs were analyzed; 15,038 (30%) were considered useful for identification purposes. A total of 182 individuals were catalogued, from which 122 (67%) were cataloged in the last three seasons, when the surveyed area was expanded. The number of individual sightings in distinct days varied from one to 16. A total of 94 individuals (51.6%) were re-sighted at least once. From the 37 individuals cataloged in the first season, 18 (48.6%) were re-sighted in the last season. Eleven individuals with 5+ sightings were always observed in the same subset of the estuary, including an individual with 13 sightings. Sixteen individuals with three to 16 sightings were observed in three of the four estuary subsets surveyed. An individual cataloged in May 2002 in a pilot study was re-sighted up to August 2006. Our preliminary results correspond to the first evidence of site fidelity for several monitored individuals; it also revealed, for the first time, the flexibility of movements throughout the entire estuarine complex by several other individuals
Abstract in English:The reproductive biology of Mugil liza Valenciennes, 1836 is described as a contribution to an elaborate management programm. A total of 243 specimens (89 males and 154 females) were collected in the Sepetiba Bay in south-eastern Brazil from July/2006 to June/2007. The gonadosomatic index (I G) and the sequential development of the ovaries observed through histological studies suggested that the spawning season ranged from May to August. The population reached total sexual maturity (L T100) at 550 and 570 mm total length (L T) for males and females, respectively. Females attained a larger size than males, and the sex ratio was female-biased for fish larger than 500 mm L T. The hepatosomatic index (I H) was significantly related to the I G, indicating that vitellogenesis mobilizes hepatic energy during reproduction. Mean fecundity was 3,080,000 oocytes. The presence of only two phases of oocyte development in ripe ovaries - a reserve stock and a clutch of post-vitellogenic oocytes - indicated that ovarian development is group synchronic and this species is characterized as a total spawner. The results suggest that establishing a closed fishing season from May to August and establishing a minimum size for capture of 350 mm L T would enhance stock conservation and production for future harvest seasons.
Abstract in English:Parastacus defossus Faxon, 1898 is a fossorial crayfish species, which constructs its burrows in swampy areas in southeast Uruguay and in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The present field study was carried out in Lami, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, from May 2003 through August 2005. Environmental measurements (temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, and water-table depth) of the water in the galleries were made monthly. Burrow morphology was analyzed by means of resin and gypsum casts. The spatial distribution and changes in the number and shape of the surface openings over time were observed in a 100 m² area. To estimate the spatial distribution of the openings, the observed distribution was compared with the expected distribution predicted by the Poisson and Negative Binomial frequency-distribution models. The adult population density was estimated by direct observation of burrows and counts in the study area. Inside the burrows of P. defossus, the water temperature ranged between 16.6°C (autumn 2004) and 23°C (spring 2003). The water was hypoxic and slightly acidic, and the dissolved oxygen content was very low (mean 1.43 mg/l) (18.2% saturation). The soil with burrows had higher percentages of coarse sand, fine sand, and silt. The spatial distribution of the openings showed a significant fit to the Negative Binomial distribution, indicating that the distribution of the openings is aggregated, as confirmed from the burrow morphology. The galleries are always formed by a central tunnel with multiple branchings that connect the underground water to the soil surface by one or more openings, which can be recognized by the chimneys. From knowledge of the burrow morphology, the population density was estimated to be about 120 individuals/100 m².
Abstract in English:The goal of this contribution was to study the biology and morphology of all developmental stages of Molippa cruenta (Walker, 1855), a member of Hemileucinae (Saturniidae), endemic to southern Brazil and northeastern Argentina. Daily observations were carried out on individuals reared under controlled temperature (25 ± 1ºC), relative humidity (70 ± 10%) and photophase (14 hours of light). The duration and viability of each developmental phase, as well as morphological and behavioral aspects of each stage, were evaluated. Under laboratory conditions, the life-cycle of M. cruenta was completed in 150 days, with mean periods for egg, larva, pupa and adult phases being 35, 71.95, 37.85, 19.17 and 4.81 days, respectively. The larval phase included six instars, with an average growth rate of 1.46. The study of the immature stages of M. cruenta revealed several morphological characteristics that are distinct from other species of the genus, highlighting the importance of these stages for taxonomic and phylogenetic studies.
Abstract in English:The Brazilian Savanna Ecoregion (Cerrado) is one of the richest biomes in the world, with a characteristic highly seasonal climate a dry season between May and September and a rainy season from October through April. Ground-dwelling spiders from three Cerrado phytophysiognomies, "campo cerrado", "cerrado" and "cerradão", were sampled using pitfall traps during two years, totaling 111 species and 3,529 individuals. The abundance of individuals and species richness was higher during the wet season. Fifty-eight species were captured exclusively during that period, whereas only nineteen were restricted to the dry season. Only two species were found in all samples. The number of juveniles was higher than the number of adults in all phytophysiognomies and in all species during both seasons. The highest abundance was registered in October and the lowest in April. Overall sex ratio was male-biased in all vegetation types sampled. Distinct climate variables affected the abundance of spiders depending on sex, age and vegetal physiognomy where they were sampled. This study involved the longest sampling of spider abundance and diversity on the ground of a Brazilian Savanna.
Abstract in English:A reference inventory of prehistoric marine mollusks from the Rio das Ostras region was created based on an excavation carried out at the Sambaqui da Tarioba shellmound. Patterns of richness and biogeography were studied, and the representativeness of bivalve and gastropod diversities found at this archaeological site were inferred. A total of 47 taxa belonging to 28 families, most of which from unconsolidated substrates, was identified. The shellmound species composition does not differ from the present-day composition. All recorded species are characteristic of a wide transition zone between the south of the states of Espírito Santo (21°S) and Rio Grande do Sul (32°S). Thus, the data show little evidence of evolution in the composition, richness,and biodiversity distribution patterns of mollusks in the Rio das Ostras region. Likewise, a reconstitution of the paleoenvironment from the functional characteristics of the shellmound species indicates that the locality's geomorphology and climate remained largely unchanged in the last 4,000 years BP.
Abstract in English:Seasonal variations in scorpion activity were investigated during a 24 month period in an area of Caatinga (dryland) vegetation in the state of Paraíba, Brazil. The total number of scorpions captured was correlated with climatic variables and prey abundance. Scorpions were captured monthly using pitfall traps; their potential prey was captured using malaise, beating trays and pitfalls. A total of 104 scorpions were captured, representing four species: the bothriurids Bothriurus asper (Pocock, 1893) (n = 74; 71.2%) and B. rochai (Mello-Leitão, 1932) (n = 20; 19.2%), and the buthids Rhopalurus rochai (Borelli, 1910) (n = 4; 3.8%) and Tityus stigmurus (Thorell, 1876) (n = 1; 1.0%). The sex ratios (male:female) of the two most abundant species were 14:1 for B. asper and 7:1 for B. rochai. The abundance of scorpions captured was significantly correlated with precipitation, real evapotranspiration, and abundance of invertebrates (mainly insects). Scorpion activities, especially those of B. asper and B. rochai, may be closely related to their reproductive cycles. Reproduction apparently reaches its maximum when there is an abundance of food, which in the Caatinga is strongly associated with rainfall patterns.
Abstract in English:Seasonal variation of large medusae abundance and biomass was studied in the North Bay, Santa Catarina, southern Brazil (27°30'S, 48° 32'W), from February to December 2005. Collecting was conducted seasonally with the help of fishing bottom trawl in 30-minute sections (12 in summer, 18 in each of the remaining seasons) in six stations, totaling 66 samples. Eight species were found: the hydrozoans Aequorea sp., Olindias sambaquiensis Müller, 1861, and Rhacostoma atlantica L. Agassiz, 1850; the cubozoans Chiropsalmus quadrumanus (Müller, 1859) and Tamoya haplonema Müller, 1859, and the scyphozoans Aurelia sp., Chrysaora lactea Eschscholtz, 1829 and Lychnorhiza lucerna Haeckel, 1880. Capture rates were low, up to 38 indiv. ha-1, and only ~47% of the samples were positive for jellyfish, comprising 206 individuals. Medusae abundance and species richness clearly changed from one season to another, but did not vary between the sites. Higher species richness (7 out of 8) and greater abundances were recorded during the fall (~60% and 72% of all medusae individuals and biomass respectively). Specific frequency of capture varied from 1.5 to 29% and C. lactea was the only species found in more than 25% of the samples. The three most common species dominated in different periods of the year: C. lactea during fall (78% of individuals and 60% of biomass), R. atlantica during winter (90% of individuals and 17% of biomass), and O. sambaquiensis in spring (78% of individuals and 40% of biomass). Only two individuals were caught during summer, one C. lactea and one R. atlantica. The results offer a general picture of the distribution of the macromedusae in the North Bay, but a continuous monitoring is desirable for a more detailed knowledge on the jellyfish dynamics in the Brazilian coastal waters.
Abstract in English:Mean prevalence and intensity of infestations by epibionts were evaluated in Arenaeus cribrarius (Lamarck, 1818), based on monthly samplings (May/1991 to April/1993), in Ubatuba, Brazil. Bryozoans were quantified in terms of colony numbers and barnacles by the number of specimens. Prevalence of infestation was determined in 1,914 individuals of A. cribrarius and assessed with respect to sex, maturity stage and season. No significant interaction was detected between epibionts and biological host factors. Males showed a higher infestation rate by Chelonibia patula (Ranzani, 1818) when compared to mature non-ovigerous females, yet Octolasmis lowei Darwin, 1851 infestation was associated to adult crabs. The ovigerous females of A. cribrarius showed a higher prevalence of infestation than males and non-ovigerous females, with lower infestations being recorded during winter. A synchrony between the life cycle of the epibionts and their hosts was evident and promotes the continuity of the former in the area.
Abstract in English:Material currently classified under the name Aricoris constantius (Fabricius, 1793) is examined and found to consist of three distinct species inhabiting southeastern and central Brazil, from the Brazilian state of Bahia to Paraguay. They are A. constantius, A. tutana (Godart, ), reinstated status and A. monotona (Stichel, 1910), reinstated status, the latter two removed from synonymy. Besides significant morphological differences in wing pattern and genitalia, their status as separate species is supported by their overlapping ranges where each phenotype is sympatric with at least one other, with no evidence of hybridization. Notes are provided on the habitat in open formations, range and distribution in south eastern Brasil, and biology, including evidence of mymecophily.
Abstract in English:Melanepyris Kieffer, 1913 was proposed to accommodate a single species of Epyris Westwood, 1832, E. imicola Kieffer, 1913, mainly based on the absence of the posterior propodeal carina. Today, Melanepyris includes only two nominal species. The type-material of these species has been considered lost since their original description. In this study, the single known adult male (holotype) of Melanepyris asiaticus Kieffer, 1922 from the Philippines has been rediscovered, redescribed and illustrated. Melanepyris asiaticus is transferred to Epyris Westwood due to the following features: scutellar groove absent, well separated scutellar pits and lower mesopleural fovea large and with undefined upper margin. We checked the original description of M. imicola and concluded that it also fits the definition of Epyris perfectly, except for the (described) absence of a posterior carina. However, the thickness of the posterior carina of the propodeal disc varies within species of different Epyrinae genera. The diagnostic characters used by Kieffer to create Melanepyris and other genera from Epyris are briefly discussed. Melanepyris is proposed as a new junior synonym of Epyris, with the transfer of M. imicola to Epyris.
Abstract in English:Currently, nine species of Syntrechalea F.O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1902 are known, six of them occurring in Brazil. In this study, two new species of of this genus are described and illustrated from the states of Amazonas and Tocantins, northern Brazil. Syntrechalea neblina sp.nov. can be distinguished from all known species by the bifurcated guide of the median apophysis. Syntrechalea robusta sp.nov. can be distinguished from all known species by the wider and concave ectal division of the retrolateral tibial apophysis. Additionally, new records of S. adis Carico, 2008, S. brasilia Carico, 2008, S. caporiacco Carico, 2008, S. napoensis Carico, 2008, S. syntrechaloides (Mello-Leitão, 1941) and S. tenuis F.O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1902 are provided.
Abstract in English:One hundred and forty specimens of Neotropical pentatomids of the Spinola collection were examined and identified and are listed in the present work. Lectotypes are designated for Arvelius gladiator Spinola, 1837; Arvelius laciniatus Spinola, 1837; Audinetella bipunctata Spinola, 1850; Ochlerus cinctus Spinola, 1837; Pentatoma albocostatum Spinola, 1852; Pentatoma dimidiaticollis (Spinola, 1852); Pentatoma unidentatum Spinola, 1852; Schaefferella litigiosa Spinola, 1850, Sympiezorhincus tristis Spinola, 1837; and Thoreyella brasiliensis Spinola, 1850. A lectotype is also designated for Chlorocoris tau, putting aside the previous Neotype designation. The preservation status of each specimen is provided.
Abstract in English:Two new species of Lycinus Thorell, 1894 are described in this paper, L. portoseguro sp. nov. and L. choros sp. nov. Lycinus portoseguro sp. nov. is based on male and female from Porto Seguro, state of Bahia, Northeastern Brazil. This is the first record of a species of Lycinus from Brazil. Males of L. portoseguro sp. nov. differ from the remaining species of the genus by the presence of a retrolateral megaspine on tibia I and by the short embolus. Females can be distinguished by the scopulae divided on tarsi II. Lycinus choros sp. nov. is based on one male from La Serena, IV Region (Coquimbo), Chile. It is the eighth species described from this country. L. choros sp. nov. resembles L. epipiptus (Zapfe, 1963) by the longer embolus and differs from it by the short palpal tibia and by the scopulae undivided on male tarsi I-II.
Abstract in English:In this study we describe the unknown female of Metagonia taruma Huber, 2000, which was discovered after sampling in two forest gap types at Porto Urucu (Urucu River Basin, Coari, Amazonas, Brazil), and also provide information on the community ecology and natural history of the sampled species. The female of M. taruma is similar to that of M. samiria (Huber, 2000) by having an epigynum with a slightly projecting broad scape with a distal pocket; it differs by the larger pore plates. We collected twelve Pholcidae species at Porto Urucu and M. taruma was the most frequent and abundant. The populations of Carapoia ocaina Huber, 2000 and Mesabolivar aurantiacus (Mello-Leitão, 1930) present homogeneous sex ratios, while M. taruma and Mesabolivar sp. were female biased. Only two species (M. taruma and Mesabolivar sp. ) exhibited differences in abundance in each forest gap type, being higher at the poorly regenerated gaps. Thus, the use of Pholcidae species as ecological indicators is promising. We also present new records, throughout the Amazon Basin, for the Pholcidae species collected at Porto Urucu.
Abstract in English:Macrinus Simon, 1887 can be diagnosed by the twisted tegulum with a distal retrolateral laminar projection and the fulcrum with a prolateral serrated projection on the male palp and by the copulatory ducts with an anterior, fused hyaline part and a median long and sclerotized part ending at a slightly rounded spermathecae in the female epigynum. The genus currently includes three species: Macrinus succineus Simon, 1887 and M. jaegeri Rheims, 2007, from Brazil, and M. pollexensis (Schenkel, 1953) from Venezuela. In this paper I describe two new species: Macrinus bambuco sp. nov. and Macrinus calypso sp. nov. The first is based on a male from Lomalinda, Colombia, and is distinguished from the remaining Macrinus by the presence of a retrolateral triangular projection on the tegulum of the male palp. The second is based on a male from Charlotteville, Tobago, and is distinguished from the remaining species by a small retrolateral process at the base of the RTA. In addition, Olios mohavensis Fox, 1937, from the Mojave Desert in California, USA, is transferred to Macrinus. The species can be distinguished from the remaining species of the genus by a median anterior constriction on the anterior margin of the median septum of the female epigynum. It's distribution range is extended to southwestern North America, in the Nearctic region. No Macrinus species is known to occur in Central America.
Abstract in English:The Neotropical genus Psilocymbium Millidge, 1991 can be recognized by the presence of a non-flagelliform, rigid and spiral shaped embolus, the absence of a cymbial basal excavation on the palp (males), and by having prolonged spermathecae on the epigynum and strong pedipalp setae (females). In this paper Psilocymbium antonina sp. nov., is described based on male and female specimens from the state of Paraná, southern Brazil. Psilocymbium antonina sp. nov. is diagnosed by the following combination of characters: prominent tibial apophysis with gauged distal projection, acute dorsal cymbial apex and acute cymbial proximal region of the palp (male); fertilization ducts distant from each other and the coiled copulatory ducts of the female epigynum. The male of P. lineatum (Millidge, 1991) is described and recorded for the first time in the states of Paraná and Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
Abstract in English:Tormopsolus brasiliensis sp. nov. is described from the intestine of Genypterus brasiliensis Regan, 1903, from Brazil. The new species is characterized mainly by having an almost square terminal oral sucker, a pharynx of the same size or larger than the oral sucker, and testes very close to each other and without vitelline follicles between them. Tormopsolus brasiliensis sp. nov. is most closely related to T. lintoni Caballero, 1952, sharing with the latter the space between the gonads and the distribution of the vitelline fields. It differs from that species by the lack of a space between the gonads and the absence of vitelline follicles between the testes; by the smaller distance between the oral and ventral suckers; by the presence of a wide ejaculatory duct armed with spines; a wide metraterm, almost the same size of the cirrus-sac; and by the shape and terminal position of the oral sucker. Specimens recovered already dead showed distinct differences to the well-fixed, freshly-collected material and are these differences are enumerated. Acanthocolpus brasiliensis of ALVES et al. (2002a,b) is considered synonym of T. brasiliensis sp. nov.
Abstract in English:The impact of the discovery of Temnocephala haswelli Ponce de Léon, 1989, described as ectosymbionts of ampullariid apple snails outside of Uruguay, motivated us to collect a large number of specimens of Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822) from several localities in the southern portion of the state of Rio Grande do Sul. This species was recorded three times after its description: in a study of chromosomes, in a study about the ultrastructure of the collar receptor cells, and in a study of the Haswell glands, all conducted in Uruguay. A total of 301 specimens of P. canaliculata were collected from 1999 to 2007. Temnocephalans found in the pallial cavity were identified as T. haswelli, which occurred in single infestations or concurrently with Temnocephala iheringi Haswell, 1893. Helminths usually showed a light-orange body pigmentation and conspicuous, intense red-eye pigment. Many taxonomic characters evidenced by several techniques were documented photographically for the first time. The typical curved cirrus, approximately 90°, typical of the species, showed some variation in the width of the shaft base, whereas the first longitudinal row of spines of the introvert appeared with shorter spines. The vagina was found to be thick-walled, but not very muscular, and to have a single, large and slightly asymmetrical sphincter, with the posterior portion of slightly larger diameter. Eggs were observed in the umbilicus and along the suture, but predominantly in the body whorl of the shell. Egg peduncles were found to be very short or, most of the time, the eggs were sessile, always with a long apical filament. The rounded shape of the dorsolateral 'excretory' syncytial epidermal plates had external margins reaching the ventrolateral region of the body and eccentric nephridiopores. This is the first record of the species outside Uruguay and in Brazil.
Abstract in English:The larva and pupa of Leptonema tridens Mosely, 1933 are described and illustrated. Larvae of L. tridens can be distinguished from other described larvae of Leptonema Guérin, 1843 mainly by the rodlike setae of the labrum and the forecoxa lacking processes, bearing only a row of spiniform setae on its inner surface. The specimens were collected in different localities of the Mantiqueira mountain range, Itatiaia massif, states of Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil. Larvae build typical hydropsychid shelters and are found in rapids, attached to rocky substrates. Gut content analysis revealed that larvae are omnivorous-filterers.
Abstract in English:It has been shown that the local extinction of large-bodied frugivores may cause cascading consequences for plant recruitment and overall plant diversity. However, to what extent the resilient mammals can compensate the role of seed dispersal in defaunated sites is poorly understood. Caviomorph rodents, especially Dasyprocta spp., are usually resilient frugivores in hunted forests and their seed caching behavior may be important for many plant species which lack primary dispersers. We compared the effect of the variation in seed mass of six vertebrate-dispersed plant species on the caching decision by the red-rumped agoutis Dasyprocta leporina Linnaeus, 1758 in a land-bridge island of the Atlantic forest, Brazil. We found a strong positive effect of seed mass on seed fate and dispersal distance, but there was a great variation between species. Agoutis never cached seeds smaller than 0.9 g and larger seeds were dispersed for longer distances. Therefore, agoutis can be important seed dispersers of large-seeded species in defaunated forests.
Abstract in English:Cases of dental agenesis, supernumerary teeth and dental losses are presented in three species of South American Otariids: Arctocephalus australis (Zimmermann, 1783), A. tropicalis (Gray, 1872) and Otaria flavescens (Shaw, 1800). For the first time, congenital and acquired dental anomalies were comparatively diagnosed in skull samples from southern Brazil and nearby areas. The skulls and mandibles were accessed in the scientific collection of mammals of the Federal University of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. Agenesis was found only among maxillary post-canine teeth, especially the distal ones (PC/6), due to an evolutionary trend towards reduction of the number of post-canine teeth in this family. Maxillary and mandibular supernumerary teeth were found in A. australis and A. tropicalis, but their positioning is unrelated to cases regarding phylogenetic and evolutionary implications. Dental losses were found in all species and different stages of alveolar obliteration suggest that this process is common in Otariids and does not affect their survival. The investigation of congenital and acquired dental anomalies in pinnipeds can provide information on dental formula evolution in Pinnipeds and in the phylogenetic relationships among Carnivora.
Abstract in English:During an ecological study of the epibiotic relationship between ciliate protists and Pomacea figulina (Spix, 1827) (Gastropoda, Ampullariidae), originating from an urban stream in southeast Brazil, a high infestation by the peritrich ciliate Carchesium polypinum (Linnaeus, 1758) Ehrenberg, 1830 (Ciliophora, Peritrichia) associated to the shell of one mollusc among 23 was observed. We provided a morphological and morphometric study of C. polypinum using observations of specimens in vivo, after protargol staining, and examined using scanning electron microscopy. The Brazilian-population of C. polypinum is characterized by: size of zooid in vivo 89 µm x 57 µm on average; colony regularly dichotomously branched with usually up to 40 zooids; macronucleus usually J-shaped; single contractile vacuole located in the upper third of body; myoneme not continuous throughout the colony; stalks contract despite the discontinuity of their individual myonemes; polykinety comprises three peniculi, each consisting of three kineties. The high infestation showed here could be related to the preference for eutrophic environments showed by C. polypinum and suggested that ciliate epibionts may be ecologically important in aquatic habitats.