Abstract in English:The present contribution explores the impact of the QUALIS metric system for academic evaluation implemented by CAPES (Coordination for the Development of Personnel in Higher Education) upon Brazilian Zoological research. The QUALIS system is based on the grouping and ranking of scientific journals according to their Impact Factor (IF). We examined two main points implied by this system, namely: 1) its reliability as a guideline for authors; 2) if Zoology possesses the same publication profile as Botany and Oceanography, three fields of knowledge grouped by CAPES under the subarea "BOZ" for purposes of evaluation. Additionally, we tested CAPES' recent suggestion that the area of Ecology would represent a fourth field of research compatible with the former three. Our results indicate that this system of classification is inappropriate as a guideline for publication improvement, with approximately one third of the journals changing their strata between years. We also demonstrate that the citation profile of Zoology is distinct from those of Botany and Oceanography. Finally, we show that Ecology shows an IF that is significantly different from those of Botany, Oceanography, and Zoology, and that grouping these fields together would be particularly detrimental to Zoology. We conclude that the use of only one parameter of analysis for the stratification of journals, i.e., the Impact Factor calculated for a comparatively small number of journals, fails to evaluate with accuracy the pattern of publication present in Zoology, Botany, and Oceanography. While such simplified procedure might appeals to our sense of objectivity, it dismisses any real attempt to evaluate with clarity the merit embedded in at least three very distinct aspects of scientific practice, namely: productivity, quality, and specificity.
Abstract in English:We studied the altitudinal distribution of 426 bird species in the Serra dos Órgãos, a mountainous region in southeastern Brazil. Thirty-four localities were visited between 1991 and 2009. Our study revealed a decline in bird species richness with elevation, although a smaller number of species was recorded at lower altitudes (below 300 m) possibly due to local extinctions caused by the intense human occupation of the region. A less diverse avifauna was found above 2,000 m, with only one species (Caprimulgus longirostris) recorded exclusively in this altitudinal range. Most endemic species were found between 300 and 1,200 m, but the endemism was more significant at higher altitudes. Nearly half of the birds found above 1,400 m were endemic species. Most of the threatened species from the state of Rio de Janeiro recorded in our study were found below 1,200 m, but no significant difference was found between the proportions of threatened species among different altitudinal ranges. Species of seventeen genera have exhibited some replacement (sometimes with partial overlap) along altitudinal gradients.
Abstract in English:The present study characterizes the oogenesis and the ovarian maturation scale, and determines the reproductive period, type of spawning, recruitment period, and population variations in the reproductive process of the flatfish Achirus lineatus (Linnaeus, 1758). Specimens were sampled on a monthly basis in the shallow near shore area of the Paranaguá Bay, state of Paraná, Brazil, from March 2006 to February 2007. The specimens collected were measured for morphometric data (total length and total weight) and their gonads were exposed for macroscopic evaluation. The gonads were subsequently removed, weighed and processed for microscopic analyses. Six phases of the ovarian follicle development were defined, as well as five ovarian development stages. Growth patterns differed between the sexes: negative allometry for females and positive allometry for males. Based on the seasonal assessments of the distribution of individual GSI values, the distribution of stages of gonadal development, individual body size, sex ratio, the ratio of juveniles to adults, and histological examination of the ovaries, reproduction was found to occur in the spring (spawning in batches), and recruitment in the autumn. These results show that A. lineatus is an estuarine-resident species that uses the study area for reproduction and recruitment, providing an argument in favor of the need to conserve the estuarine environment in order to preserve stocks.
Abstract in English:Grazing and fire, used in pasture regeneration practices, are inter-related activities in livestock management. Both activities affect habitat characteristics by changing the structure of the herbaceous and shrubby vegetation, reducing their biomass and litter cover. This study evaluated the effect of fire and livestock grazing on the assemblage of non-flying small mammals in grassland-Araucaria forest ecotones in southern Brazil. We compared four areas frequently affected by livestock management with four protected areas. Surveys were carried out in four sampling periods, one in each season of 2004. We captured a total of 325 individuals from 12 species of rodents - Akodon montensis Thomas, 1913, Akodon paranaensis Christoff, Fagundes, Sbalqueiro, Mattevi e Yonenaga-Yassuda, 2000, Akodon sp. 1, Akodon sp. 2 (2n = 34), Brucepattersonius iheringi (Thomas, 1896), Delomys dorsalis (Hensel, 1872), Oligoryzomys flavescens (Waterhouse, 1837), Oligoryzomys nigripes (Olfers, 1818), Oxymycterus nasutus (Waterhouse, 1837), Scapteromys sp. (2n = 34), Sooretamys angouya (Fischer, 1814) and Thaptomys nigrita (Lichtenstein, 1829) - and two species of marsupials - Monodelphis dimidiata (Wagner, 1847) and Philander frenatus (Olfers, 1818) -, in a total effective effort of 5254 traps.day-1. The abundance, biomass and diversity of non-flying small mammals were significantly higher in the protected areas than in those affected by fire and livestock grazing. Species strictly associated with grassland habitats were not found in the impacted area. These results indicate that the presence of herds of domestic ungulates negatively affect the assemblage of non-flying small mammals in grassland and Araucaria forest areas in southern Brazil.
Abstract in English:This study analyzes the occurrence and distribution of lanternfish (Myctophidae) larvae along the Brazilian coast (12-22ºS) between 200 m and the surface. Three cruises were conducted during the spring/1998, winter/1999 and autumn/2000. A total of 3,394 lanternfish larvae were identified representing 27 species and Lepidophanes guentheri (Goode & Bean, 1896) was the most abundant. Most of the identified taxa were in the postflexion stage. Myctophid larvae were more numerous during the winter. Most taxa were distributed widely from 12-22ºS, including some seamounts, and occurred mainly outside the 1,000 m isobath. Although there was no difference in the myctophid community among the coastal, oceanic and seamount regions it was significantly different during the three seasons. During the spring and autumn Hygophum reinhardtii (Lütken, 1892) was the discriminating species while in the winter there were more L. guentheri.
Abstract in English:The present study evaluated and characterized the different phases of development and the cell types present in the gill epithelium of embryos, larvae, and fingerlings of guppy (Poecilia vivipara Bloch & Schneider, 1801) specimens exposed to water with salinity ranging from 0‰ to 20‰. The development of P. vivipara was classified into eight phases. The yolk was intensely eosinophilic, with glycidic and lipidic components between phases 1 to 7. After the development of their branchial epithelium, the presence of pavement cells, mitochondria-rich cells, and mucous cells (MCs) was observed. The understanding of ontogenesis indicates the sequence of cellular origin. Only type IV MCs located in the gill rays was detected from phase 3 through phase 7. Other types of MCs were observed only when the fingerlings were exposed to salinity changes and showed to be lectin-reactive, thus indicating that P. vivipara modulates the cellular behavior when submitted to salinity changes. Exposure to variable saline concentrations did not interfere in the initial development of guppies. The presence of a yolk sac until the fingerling phase characterized this species as ovoviviparous.
Abstract in English:The male of Acanthoscurria paulensis Mello-Leitão, 1923 is redescribed and the female is described for the first time. The male holotype, from Pirassununga, state of São Paulo, Brazil, could not be located and the redescription is based on specimens collected in the type locality. Acanthoscurria atrox Vellard, 1924 is considered a junior synonym of A. paulensis based on their original descriptions and figures of the male palpal bulb, and also supported by the study of several specimens from both type localities, Pirassununga and Campo Grande, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Acanthoscurria guaxupe Piza, 1972 is also considered a junior synonym of A. paulensis based on examination of the holotype. Acanthoscurria paulensis resembles A. chacoana Brèthes, 1909, A. juruenicola Mello-Leitão, 1923, and A. geniculata (C.L. Koch, 1842) by the large size (over 50 mm). The male of A. paulensis resembles that of A. chacoana,A. juruenicola, and A. geniculata by the aspect of the palpal bulb with an embolus ending like a shell, due to the well-developed prolateral inferior and superior keels. It can be distinguished from A. chacoana by the palpal bulb less compact and with a longer embolus and from A. juruenicola and A.geniculata by the absence of a third accessory keel. The female resembles A. chacoana,A. juruenicola, and A. geniculata by the fused base of the spermathecae, and differs by the square or slightly wider than longer base of the spermathecae and by the terminal lobes directed towards each other. New distribution records for A. paulensis are provided from the Brazilian states of Mato Grosso, Goiás, Minas Gerais, Mato Grosso do Sul, Espírito Santo, Paraná, and Rio Grande do Sul.
Abstract in English:The following taxa, formerly misplaced, are transferred to Agaristinae based on characters of genitalia and, especially, on the presence of a prominence on the frons of head, a character absent in the Arctiinae: Acyclania Dognin, 1911, Chlanidophora Berg, 1877 and Graphelysia Hampson, 1911 from the Arctiinae; Cyanohypsa Giacomelli, 1911 from the Pericopinae [= Pericopini]; Oxytaphora Dyar, 1917 from the Amphipyrinae; Cabralia judsoni Schaus, 1933 from the Ophiderinae [= Catocalinae] to Rhosus Walker, 1854 [= Rhosus judsoni (Schaus) comb. nov.]; Caularisia gen. nov. is proposed to include C. zikani (Schaus, 1933) comb. nov.; Gerra radiata sp. nov. is described from Brazil; Caridarctia Hampson, 1901 syn. nov. [= Chlanidophora Berg]; Chlanidophora mariae Köhler, 1924 syn. nov. [= Acyclania tenebrosa Dognin], Aucula particolor Dyar, 1914 syn. nov. and Gerra pulchra Draudt, 1919 syn. nov. [= Darcetina sublata (Walker, )]; lectotypes are designated for Caularis zikani Schaus, 1933 and for Aucula particolor Dyar, 1914.
Abstract in English:The harvestmen subfamily Hernandariinae is reviewed and a new classification is proposed based on cladistic analysis using 67 morphological characters. The subfamily is composed of six genera and 23 species and occurs in south-southeastern Brazil, Paraguay, and northeastern Argentina. Fourteen new combinations are proposed: Hernandaria armatifrons (Roewer, 1917); H. una (Mello-Leitão, 1927); Acrogonyleptes granulatus (H. Soares, 1966); A. pectinifemur (Soares & Soares, 1947); Acanthogonyleptes alticola (Mello-Leitão, 1922); A. editus (Roewer, 1943); A. fallax (Mello-Leitão, 1932); A. fulvigranulatus (Mello-Leitão, 1922); A. marmoratus (Mello-Leitão, 1940); A. pictus (Piza, 1942); A. singularis (Mello-Leitão, 1935); A. soaresi (Mello-Leitão, 1944); A. variolosus (Mello-Leitão, 1944). Seven synonymies are proposed: Proweyhia Mello-Leitão, 1927 and Metaxundarava Mello-Leitão, 1927 = Hernandaria Sørensen, 1884; Apembolephaenus calcaratus Soares & Soares, 1945 = H. armatifrons (Roewer, 1917); Sphaerobunus Rower, 1917 and Paraproweyhia Soares & Soares, 1947 = Acrogonyleptes Roewer, 1917; Paraproweyhia curitibae Soares & Soares, 1947 = Acrogonyleptes exochus (Mello-Leitão, 1931); and Melloleitaniana curitibae B. Soares, 1943 = Acrogonyleptes spinifrons Roewer, 1917. Three species are revalidated: Acrogonyleptes granulatus (H. Soares, 1966), A. pectinifemur (Soares & Soares, 1947), and A. spinifrons Roewer, 1917. Seven new species are described: Hernandaria sundermannorum sp. nov. (São Paulo State, Brazil), Hernandaria anitagaribaldiae sp. nov. (Santa Catarina State, Brazil), Hernandaria zumbii sp. nov. (Santa Catarina State, Brazil), Hernandaria chicomendesi sp. nov. (Santa Catarina State, Brazil), Acrogonyleptes cheguevarai sp. nov. (Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil), Pseudotrogulus pagu sp. nov. (São Paulo State, Brazil), Pseudotrogulus trotskyi sp. nov. (Paraná State, Brazil).
Abstract in English:Syllimnophora Speiser belongs to the Limnophorini tribe of the Coenosiinae subfamily. The genus can be distinguished from the others by the presence of cilia on the apical half of the dorsal surface of vein R1, combined with a strongly projected gena. In he Neotropical Region 28 species are known, three of them recorded from Ecuador - S. atrovittata (Stein), S. browni (Snyder) and S. suavis (Stein). The study of material from South America deposited at Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle (Paris) enabled the description of one species new to science - S. argentifrontata sp. nov. from San Miguel de Ibarra (Ecuador). A key to the identification of the four species is given.
Abstract in English:Eutaleola nom. nov. is proposed as a replacement name for Euteleia Marcus, 1938 (Bryozoa: Cheilostomata), a secondary homonym of Euteleia Raffray, 1904 (Arthropoda: Coleoptera). Eutaleola is a monospecific genus of Pasytheida e, found in warm shallow waters on both sides of the Atlantic and in deeper waters of the eastern Pacific. Brazilian material of Eutaleola evelinae (Marcus, 1938) comb. nov. is described and illustrated.
Abstract in English:The Neotropical genus of spider Eurymorion includes, until now, only two species: E. insigne (Millidge, 1991) and E. nobile (Millidge, 1991); both known only by males from the states of Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo (Southeastern Brazil), respectively. The genus is diagnosed mainly by the male palp with a small paracymbium and by the prolonged and medially constricted abdomen. In this paper we describe and illustrate three news species: E. triunfo sp. nov. based on male and female specimens from the states of Paraná, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil) and La Paz (Bolivia), male palp has a rounded lamella characteristica with less projected tip and less developed base of the frontal cheliceral spiniform process, females have long spermatic ducts following the course of the lateral borders of genital opening; E. murici sp. nov. based on a male and a female from the state of Alagoas (Brazil), male palp has a striated border lamella characteristica with less projected tip, subtegulum more than half the length of the cymbium, tegular duct forming a non sinuous curve and large frontal cheliceral spiniform process, female epigynum atrium with rounded lateral borders, less developed dorsal plate and separated spermathecae; and E. mourai sp. nov. based on a male from Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil), male palp with less prominent lamella characteristica distal end, embolic division with only one distal projection, frontal cheliceral spiniform process larger and with slightly bifurcated tip. In addition, new illustrations based on the type material of the E. insigne and E. nobile are provided and the female of E. nobile is described and illustrated for the first time.
Abstract in English:The identity of two insular populations of rodents of the nominal species, Zygodontomys brevicauda (Allen & Chapman, 1893), from the Veragua Archipelago was examined. The mitochondrial cytochrome-b gene was sequenced from specimens collected on Isla Coiba (n = 10), Isla Cébaco (n = 3) and on the nearby Peninsula Azuero (n = 3) in Panama and compared with sequences of Z. brevicauda and a number of other related species from GenBank. For Panama, phylogenetic analyses identified two clades within Zygodontomys Allen, 1897; one representing Isla Coiba and another clade composed of rats from Isla Cébaco and from the mainland on the Peninsula Azuero, as well as a GenBank sequence of Z. brevicauda from Venezuela. We suggest that the population from Isla Coiba may represent a previously undescribed species of sigmodontine rodent that is endemic to this Pacific Island.