Abstract in English:A fundamental step in the emerging Movement Theory is the description of movement paths, and the identification of its proximate and ultimate drivers. The most common characteristic used to describe and analyze movement paths is its tortuosity, and a variety of tortuosity indices have been proposed in different theoretical or empirical contexts. Here we review conceptual differences between five movement indices and their bias due to locations errors, sample sizes and scale-dependency: Intensity of Habitat use (IU), Fractal D, MSD (Mean Squared Distance), Straightness (ST), and Sinuosity (SI). Intensity of Habitat use and ST are straightforward to compute, but ST is actually an unbiased estimator of oriented search and ballistic movements. Fractal D is less straightforward to compute and represents an index of propensity to cover the plane, whereas IU is the only completely empirical of the three. These three indices could be used to identify different phases of path, and their path tortuosity is a dimensionless feature of the path, depending mostly on path shape, not on the unit of measurement. This concept of tortuosity differs from a concept implied in the sinuosity of BENHAMOU (2004), where a specific random walk movement model is assumed, and diffusion distance is a function of path length and turning angles, requiring their inclusion in a measure of sinuosity. MSD should be used as a diagnostic tool of random walk paths rather than an index of tortuosity. Bias due to location errors, sample size and scale, differs between the indices, as well as the concept of tortuosity implied. These differences must be considered when choosing the most appropriate index.
Abstract in English:The present study used the previously defined relationships among the snail-killing species of Sepedonea as the starting point for a cladistic biogeography analysis of endemic areas in the Neotropical region. The goal of the study was to use two different data sets to test the possible monophyly of two important biomes in the region: the Amazon and the Atlantic Forest. The possible historical significance of the arid biomes was also investigated. The study used Brooks Parsimony Analysis (Primary BPA). The area groups were based on previous biogeographical classifications of the Neotropial region. The analyses showed Amazonia to be non-monophyletic whereas the Atlantic forest was found to be a natural unit. The importance of including dry areas in the analyses, was highlighted by Sepedonea individuals that probably inhabit enclaves of humid forest present in the area. In general, the results indicate incongruence with the prior pattern of area relationships. In fact, one single history of the current distribution of organisms in the region is unlikely. This situation has been supported by several studies proposing incongruent hypotheses of historical relationships between endemic areas of the region.
Abstract in English:This study evaluated the relationships of certain allometric measurements in Melanoides tuberculatus Muller, 1774, in order to develop a statistical model to estimate the biomass of this mollusc species. We measured the total length and aperture of 70 shells. These measurements were correlated with the biomass values to construct exponential and power-function models, and both models showed high coefficients of determination. The exponential model was the better biomass predictor, with a coefficient of determination over 93%. These proposed models may be an effective tool to determine the biomass of M. tuberculatus in eutrophic Brazilian reservoirs.
Abstract in English:The immature stages (egg, larva, and pupa) morphology, larval and oviposition behavior, and host plant of the "eighty-eight" butterfly Diaethria clymena janeira (C. Felder, 1862) are described. Eggs are laid singly under leaf, and have pronounced vertical ribs ending up in a crown. Larvae of early instars construct stick-like frass chains where they rest when not feeding. Late instars are green with reduced body scoli and long branched head scoli. Pupae are entirely green, and pupation occurs on the upper leaf surface. In general, morphology and behavior of immature stages are similar to those of related species in the tribe Callicorini.
Abstract in English:Studies of anuran population dynamics are key to uncovering the mechanisms responsible for temporal fluctuations in abundance and those that shape population structure. Population structure and population fluctuations can result from species specific demographic and behavioral characteristics, reproductive microhabitat availability (which is influenced by local environment and climate), as well as from responses to populations of other, sympatric species. In view of this, our study aimed to ascertain the temporal trends in a population of Hypsiboas leptolineatus, to describe how abundance changes between seasons, and to uncover the effects of environmental variables in shaping seasonal variations in abundance. Although H. leptolineatus occurs throughout the year, abundance showed a clear seasonal pattern linked to an interaction between temperature, relative air humidy, and moon phase.
Abstract in English:This paper examines the frequencies of mammal roadkill in two adjacent biogeographic ecoregions (Atlantic Forest and Cerrado) of Brazil. Mammals were recorded during a seven-year period and over 3,900 km of roads, in order to obtain data for frequencies of species in habitats (sites) and frequencies of species killed by cars on roads. Sites (n = 80) within ecoregions (Cerrado, n = 57; Atlantic Forest, n = 23) were searched for records of mammals. Species surveyed in the entire region totaled 33, belonging to nine orders and 16 families. In the Cerrado, 31 species were recorded in habitats; of these, 25 were found dead on roads. In the Atlantic Forest ecoregions, however, we found 21 species in habitats, 16 of which were also found dead on roads. There was no overall significant difference between ecoregions for frequencies of occurrence in habitats or for roadkills, but there were differences between individual species. Hence, anteaters were mostly recorded in the Cerrado ecoregion, whereas caviomorph rodents tended to be more frequent in the Atlantic Forest ecoregion (seen mainly by roadkills). The greater number of species (overall and threatened) and the greater abundance of species records in the Cerrado suggest that this ecoregion has a greater biodiversity and is better conserved than the Atlantic Forest ecoregion, in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, south-western Brazil.
Abstract in English:Fire is a major determinant of structure and dynamics in savannas, and the rapid increase of human activities in this biome has changed the natural burning regime. The effects of fire on the fauna of the cerrado (Brazilian savanna) are still poorly understood, and studies comparing sites frequently and infrequently burned are scarce. In this study, the abundance of epigaeic arthropod orders and trophic guilds was assessed in cerrado sites located in the Brazilian Central Plateau that were subjected to three burning frequencies: frequent (HighFi), intermediary (MidFi), and infrequent (LowFi). In general, we found a positive relationship between the abundance of epigaeic arthropods and fire frequency. When arthropods were analyzed by orders, the abundance of Collembola and Orthoptera was lower in the LowFi site, while for Hemiptera, it was higher in the MidFi site. No significant differences were found for Hymenoptera, Coleoptera, and Araneae. The abundance of detritivores and herbivores decreased from HighFi to LowFi, but did not change significantly for omnivores and predators. These results indicate that some arthropod groups may not only be resilient to fire effects, but actually might benefit from fire effects in the cerrado. Characterizing arthropod responses to burning frequency at high taxonomic or functional levels is important for applied studies. Based on the results of the current study, springtails and ants seem to be particularly appropriate focal groups for further exploratory studies on the effects of fire at the species level.
Abstract in English:The Cerrado biome is located in the central region of Brazil and consists mainly of savanna vegetation. In this study we assessed the richness of tiger moths (Arctiidae) of the Brazilian Cerrado. Specifically, we 1) assessed species richness in one-degree cells in the biome, 2) identified areas where these moths are poorly known, and 3) tested if similarities in species composition are related to geographical distance in the relatively well-sampled areas. We obtained the data mainly from specimens deposited in museums, but we also included additional information from the literature. We compiled 2,321 records belonging to 723 species. Specimens were recorded in 108 localities distributed in 67 one-degree cells. Species occurring exclusively in one or two one-degree cells represented 64% of the total number of species. Sample effort was not uniform in the biome, as there were very few records in the northern region of the Cerrado. The best-sampled one-degree cell had 239 species. Species assemblages were structured in space with a clear trend of localities near one another presenting more similarities in faunal composition than distant localities. This distance decay in similarity was slightly more pronounced along the longitudinal than along the latitudinal distances. We conclude that the Cerrado still remains poorly inventoried for tiger moths, particularly in its northern portion, where many unrecorded species may be found in the future. Despite of this limited knowledge, the best-sampled region indicates that richness of tiger moths in the Cerrado is comparable to the species-rich forest biomes in the Neotropical region.
Abstract in English:Changes in fish assemblage structure along a longitudinal gradient of the Paraíba do Sul River and Funil reservoir were studied to detect distribution patterns and the seasonal influence of the inflowing river. Fish were caught by gill nets in three zones (riverine, transition and lentic) during two seasons (dry and wet). A total of 3,721 individuals were captured, comprising five orders, 14 families, 27 genera and 33 species. Five species were non-native and amounted to 17.7% of the total number of individuals. The 10 most abundant species were used to assess spatial-temporal patterns. Plagioscion squamosissimus (Heckel, 1840), Oligosarcus hepsetus (Curvier, 1829) and Metynnis maculatus (Kner, 1858) were widely distributed in both seasons. Astyanax bimaculatus (Linnaeus, 1758), Cichla kelberi Kullander & Ferreira, 2006 and Geophagus brasiliensis (Quoy & Gaimard, 1824) had higher abundance in the dry season, occurring mainly in the lentic zone. By contrast, the benthopelagics Pimelodus maculatus La Cèpede, 1803 and Astyanax parahybae (Eigenmann, 1908) and the benthics Hoplosternum littorale (Hancock, 1828) and Hypostomus auroguttatus Kner, 1854 had higher abundance in the wet season, with the two first species occurring mainly in the riverine zone, and latter two species in the transition zone. The highest diversity for both seasons was recorded in the transition zone, which is an ecotone that allows the co-existence of both riverine and lentic species. A major shift in assemblage structure occurred along the longitudinal gradient due to changes in discharge of the inflowing river, with increased fish abundance in the riverine zone caused by increased habitat availability in wet season, and the reverse of this situation in the dry season.
Abstract in English:Ship-based sighting surveys for cetaceans were conducted in the former whaling ground off the northeastern coast of Brazil. The cruises took place in winter and spring of 1998-2001 with the objectives of investigating current distribution and abundance of cetaceans, particularly large whale species taken during whaling. In 1998 the survey were conducted between the parallels 5°30'W and 9°S and the 200 m isobath and the meridian 033°W. A total of about 3,100 nm were surveyed between 1998 and 2001 Surveys were conducted using line transect methods from about 5-10°S, and from the coast to 33°W. A total of 151 sightings (203 individuals) of large whales were recorded on effort. The Antarctic minke whale - Balaenoptera bonaerensis (Burmeister, 1867) was the most frequently sighted species (97 groups/132 individuals; Sighting Rate [SR] = 0.031 groups/nm), being recorded only in offshore waters. Density gradually increased from August to October. Minke whales were distributed throughout the area, both to the north and the south of former whaling ground. Sighting data indicate this is the most abundant species, particularly in the area beyond the continental shelf break. Breeding behavior was observed for Antarctic minke whales, but few groups containing calves were recorded (4.3% of the groups sighted on effort). Three other large whale species were recorded in low numbers: the Bryde's whale - Balaenoptera edeni (Anderson, 1879)¹; the sei whale, B. borealis (Lesson, 1828), and the sperm, Physeter macrocephalus (Linnaeus, 1758). Sei, Bryde and sperm whales were regularly caught during whaling operations, but are rare in the area, suggesting they were depleted by whaling and have yet to recover to their pre-explotation abundance. In contrast, minke whales are abundant in this area, suggesting that either they were not substantially depleted, or that they have recovered rapidly. Blue whale, Balaenoptera musculus (Linnaeus, 1758), and fin whale, B. physalus (Linnaeus, 1758), not recorded on our surveys, have always been extremely rare in the area.
Abstract in English:The jabiru stork, Jabiru mycteria (Lichtenstein, 1819), a large, long-legged wading bird occurring in lowland wetlands from southern Mexico to northern Argentina, is considered endangered in a large portion of its distribution range. We conducted aerial surveys to estimate the number of jabiru active nests in the Brazilian Pantanal (140,000 km²) in September of 1991-1993, 1998, 2000-2002, and 2004. Corrected densities of active nests were regressed against the annual hydrologic index (AHI), an index of flood extension in the Pantanal based on the water level of the Paraguay River. Annual nest density was a non-linear function of the AHI, modeled by the equation 6.5 · 10-8 · AHI1.99 (corrected r² = 0.72, n = 7). We applied this model to the AHI between 1900 and 2004. The results indicate that the number of jabiru nests may have varied from about 220 in 1971 to more than 23,000 in the nesting season of 1921, and the estimates for our study period (1991 to 2004) averaged about 12,400 nests. Our model indicates that the inter-annual variations in flooding extent can determine dramatic changes in the number of active jabiru nests. Since the jabiru stork responds negatively to drier conditions in the Pantanal, direct human-induced changes in the hydrological patterns, as well as the effects of global climate change, may strongly jeopardize the population in the region.
Abstract in English:This work examined the possible preference of Saccocoelioides nanii Szidat, 1954 for the three major intestinal portions of Prochilodus argenteus Agassiz, 1829 and statistically evaluated whether the river water level dynamic interfered in the parasite's ecological parameters and in its transmission to the definitive host. One-hundred-fifty specimens of P. argenteus were collected in July, 2003 (dry season) and in January, 2004 (rainy season) in the upper São Francisco River, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Of the 150 hosts, 96 (64%) were parasitized by S. nanii. The mean intensity and abundance were 32.6 ± 34.8 and 20.8 ± 31.9, respectively, and the range of infection intensity was from 1 to 177. The abundance of S. nanii was higher in the middle intestine than in either the anterior or posterior portions. This selection could be evidence of niche restriction to facilitate mating. The proportion of non-pregnant specimens of S. nanii was higher in the dry season as well as the intensity and abundance. At least two hypotheses can be considered for elucidated this inference: the presence/absence or change in the quantity of some substance in the host body amending/inhibits the reproduction of the parasite or that non-pregnant specimens corresponds to newly recruited individuals who did not have time to reproduce.
Abstract in English:Lutzsimulium d'Andretta Jr & Vulcano, 1947 is an enigmatic South American genus with four species: L. flavopubescens Lutz, 1910, L. hirticosta Lutz, 1909, L. pernigrum Lutz, 1910 and L. simplicicolor Lutz, 1910. It can be diagnosed by median arms of furcasternum with projections; subbasal tooth of the claw reduced; wing basal cell absent; spermatheca with net-like structure; apex of trichomes coiled (pupa); gill with two main trunks (pupa); antennomere 3 equal to or longer than 1+2 (larva); hypostomal teeth reduced (larva); postgenal cleft deep (larva). A morphological cladistic analysis under equal weights, with the four Lutzsimulium species and six outgroups, resulted in two most parsimonious trees, with 81 steps, CI = 0.61 and RI = 0.68. The monophyly of the genus is corroborated, supported by 15 synapomorphies, therefore it is proposed that Kempfsimulium Py-Daniel & Nunes de Mello, 1982 is synonymous of Lutzsimulium. Also the status of Araucnephia Wygodzinsky & Coscarón, 1973 and Araucnephioides Wygodzinsky & Coscarón, 1973 are revalidated, because they do not form a monophyletic group with Lutzsimulium. All the species of Lutzsimulium are revised, with redescriptions, illustrations and identification keys for adults, pupa and larva. The male and larva of L. flavopubescens are described for the first time.
Abstract in English:The digenetic trematode Canaania obesa Travassos, 1944 (Dicrocoeliidae) was described as a parasite of the bile ducts of the rodent Akodon cursor Winge, 1887 (Cricetidae) collected in Santa Teresa, state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. In the present study, we report the occurrence of C. obesa infecting three additional sigmodontinae rodent species: Akodon montensis Thomas, 1913; Oligoryzomys nigripes Olfers, 1818 and Nectomys squamipes Brants, 1827, from three municipalities situated at Serra dos Órgãos, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Scanning electron microscopy showed that this helminth has a leaf-like shape with conical extremities and the ventral mid body protrudes at the acetabulum level. The microtopography of the tegument shows a heterogeneous surface with smooth or wrinkled areas and several randomly distributed papillae. The cirrus is located just posterior to the oral sucker and is covered by smooth tegument without spines or papillae. The excretory pore is subterminal. The eggs are elliptic and operculate at one of the extremities. The present study adds new taxonomic characters to C. obesa. The municipalities of Nova Friburgo, Teresópolis and Sumidouro are new geographical areas of distribution, and A. montensis, O. nigripes and N. squamipes are new host records for C. obesa.
Abstract in English:A new species of Scinax Wagler, 1830 belonging to the S. catharinae species group is described from the state of Goiás, in the Cerrado Biome, Brazil. Scinax skaios sp. nov. is characterized by short snout-vent length (males ranging 23.2-29.6 mm; females 30.7- 36.1 mm), snout subovoid in dorsal view and protruding in lateral view; no tubercle on canthus rostralis; an inverted triangular interorbital blotch; no externally expanded vocal sac; dorsal skin texture moderately rugose; absence of a thick externally well differentiated inguinal gland; hidden areas of the thigh with vermiculate color pattern. The descriptions of the vocalizations are provided.
Abstract in English:The species of Diphuia Cresson, 1944 are reviewed with an emphasis on the fauna from southern Brazil, where two new species have been discovered and herein are described: Diphuia antonina sp. nov. and Diphuia grandis sp. nov. All known species are placed into two species groups (the anomala and nitida groups), which are characterized, and a key to these species is included. To facilitate identification of species of this uncommon genus, we have included diagnoses of the genus and tribe Hecamedini and have also provided an annotated key to New World genera in the tribe and to the known species of Diphuia. We have also provided illustrations of structures of the male terminalia of all included species.The species from southern Brazil, including the new ones, are illustrated.
Abstract in English:Diestostemma Amyot & Serville, 1843 is a diverse sharpshooter genus with 32 species. A description and illustrations of Diestostemma nasutum Schmidt, 1910 are provided. The species, previously known from Ecuador, is newly recorded from Colombia. Both the male and female genitalia are described for the first time. This is the first detailed description of the female genitalia of a Diestostemma species. Diestostemma nasutum can be distinguished from the other species of the genus by the following features of the aedeagus: shaft with the distal third distinctly curved dorsally; base of basiventral aedeagal process with a lobe directed anteriorly; and basiventral aedeagal process bifurcated on its basal portion. The style of D. nasutum, whose apical portion is broad, distinctly curved inward, and with the apex subtruncate, is also quite distinctive. We compared the female genitalia of D. nasutum with those of other Proconiini genera. Our results confirm the perception that the female genitalia in this tribe can be a source of useful taxonomic characters.
Abstract in English:Temnocephala rochensis Ponce de Léon, 1979, was the second of four species of Temnocephala Blanchard, 1849 to be described as ectosymbiont of ampullariid apple snails, Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822). There have been no records of this Uruguayan species after its initial description. As part of the present study, 111 specimens of P. canaliculata were collected between 2003 and 2009. Temnocephalans found in the pallial cavity were identified as T. rochensis, occurring in single infestations, or concurrently with Temnocephala haswelli Ponce de Léon, 1989. Specimens of T. rochensis showed a conspicuous red eye pigment which faded after ethanol fixation. Important taxonomic characters of the reproductive system were evidenced by several techniques, and documented photographically for the first time for this species: 1) the typical curved cirrus of the species showing very short and stout spines; 2) the vagina with the proximal portion dilated, forming a "vesicula intermedia"; and 3) the distal portion very muscular, as well as the large and symmetrical vaginal sphincter were documented in detail with Nomarski's DIC microscopy. Eggs were observed in the suture, in the spire, and in the umbilicus of the shell; they had a short peduncle or were sessile, always with short and curved, sometimes straight apical filaments. The rounded shape of the dorsolateral 'excretory' syncytial epidermal plates had central nephridiopores. This is the first record of this species outside of Uruguay and in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Even with extended sampling efforts in the eastern region of Rio Grande do Sul, T. rochensis has not been found, showing a geographical distribution restricted to the southern region, close to its type locality of Laguna Negra, Uruguay.
Abstract in English:Ergasilus trygonophilus sp. nov. is described from freshwater stingrays (Potamotrygon spp. and Plesiotrygon iwamae Rosa, Castello & Thorson, 1987) from the state of Pará, Brazil. The new species differs from all known species of Ergasilus Nordman, 1832 from Brazilian waters by possessing: (1) an elongate bullet-shaped cephalosome; (2) antennule setal formula 1: 10: 4: 4: 2 + 1 ae: 6 + 1 ae; (3) maxillule bearing two distal setae; and (4) terminal endopodal segment of leg 1 with rosette-like array of blunt spinules. This is the first species of a freshwater stingray Ergasilus reported from Brazil.
Abstract in English:Sycorax confusa sp. nov. is described from the Atlantic Forest of the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. The new species has a paramere with a long bristle, a characteristic that had only been observed in Sycorax longispinosa Bravo, 2007 from the Brazilian Amazon; the new species can be differentiated from the last one because the middle acute internal projections of each paramere do not cross each other and because the anterior end of aedeagal apodeme is bulbous. A key to the species of Sycorax Haliday in Curtis, 1839 (males) from the Neotropical Region is provided.
Abstract in English:Costatrichia Mosely, 1937 (Leucotrichiini) is for the first time recorded from Brazil. Two new species are described: Costatrichia nelsonferreirai sp. nov. and C. fluminensis sp. nov. from states of Pará and Rio de Janeiro, respectively. Costatrichia nelsonferreirai sp. nov. is similar to C. bipartita Flint, 1970, but can be distinguished from the latter by a pair of ventrolateral bifurcate processes on the posterior margin of male segment VIII. Costatrichia fluminensis sp. nov. is similar to C. simplex Flint, 1970, but the former can be easily distinguished from the latter by a pair of slender lateral processes on the posterior margin of male segment IX and by a spatulate apical process on phallus.