Zoologia (Curitiba), Volume: 27, Issue: 6, Published: 2010
  • Survival of Ucides cordatus (Decapoda: Ocypodidae) megalopae during transport under different conditions of density and duration Aquaculture And Fisheries

    Ventura, Robson; Silva, Ubiratã A. T. da; Ostrensky, Antonio; Cottens, Kelly; Perbiche-Neves, Gilmar

    Abstract in English:

    Target areas for Ucides cordatus (Linnaeus, 1763) restocking programs are often located far from the laboratory where larval rearing is developed. During translocation, the larvae are submitted to highly stressful conditions due to handling, packing, and transport activities. The aim of the present study was to assess the mortality rates of U. cordatus megalopae caused by different transportation procedures. Megalopae at loading densities of 50, 150, and 300 ind.L-1 were packed in double polyethylene 12 x 25 cm plastic bags with 200 ml of marine water at salinity 30. The bags were filled with oxygen at a proportion of 1:2 parts of water and sealed tightly. The trepidations during transport were simulated by the use of a shaker device (800 vibrations/minute) over periods of three and six hours inside a dark container. The survivorship rates of larvae after simulation were compared to those obtained in control groups, which consisted of plastic vials with megalopae at a loading density of 50 ind.L-1 maintained at rest. Immediately after the two transport simulations, there was no significant difference in survivorship between the treatments and the control. However, 24 hours after simulation some of the tested densities resulted in significantly lower survivorships. The results demonstrated that U. cordatus megalopae can tolerate six hours of shaking during transportation, at high densities with minimal mortality.
  • Seasonal variation in the behavior of captive alpine musk deer, Moschus sifanicus, in Xinglongshan Musk Deer Farm, of China Behavior

    Xiaofeng, Luan; Changjie, Zhao; Cenyi, Hui; Xiuxiang, Meng

    Abstract in English:

    Musk deer farming has the potential to be an effective conservation tool for the protection of musk deer as well as the production of valuable musk. To be successful, this requires a thorough understanding of the behavior of captive musk deer in order to improve their reproductive success and management. Between August 2005 to January 2006, the behavior sampling of 19 male and 13 female captive alpine musk deer, Moschus sifanicus Büchner, 1891, was used to examine the durations of twelve behavioral characteristics during the pre-rut (August to October) and rut seasons (November to January). Both males and females exhibited some seasonal variation in behavior. Males rested and fed more during the pre-rut than the rut and spent more time walking, fighting, and standing alert during the rut. Females spent more time feeding, ruminating, and interacting non-aggressively with other individuals during the pre-rut and more time in agonistic interactions during the rut. The significance of these behavioral changes and their association with husbandry practices and farm management are discussed.
  • Habitat use by Callicebus coimbrai (Primates: Pitheciidae) and sympatric species in the fragmented landscape of the Atlantic Forest of southern Sergipe, Brazil Behavior

    Chagas, Renata Rocha Déda; Ferrari, Stephen F.

    Abstract in English:

    Anthropogenic habitat fragmentation is a chronic problem throughout the Brazilian Atlantic Forest biome. In the present study, four forest fragments of 60-120 ha were surveyed on a rural property in southern Sergipe, where two endangered primate species, Callicebus coimbrai Kobayashi & Langguth, 1999 and Cebus xanthosternos Wied-Neuwied, 1826, are found. Two transects were established in each fragment, and the predominant habitat in 50 m sectors was assigned to one of three categories (mature forest, secondary forest and anthropogenic forest). Standard line transect surveys of the resident primate populations - which included a third species, Callitrhix jacchus Linnaeus, 1758 - were conducted, with a total of 476 km walked transect, resulting in 164 primate sightings. At each sighting of a primate, the habitat class was recorded and the height of the individual above the ground was estimated. The analysis indicated a significant (p < 0.05) preference for mature forest in C. xanthosternos which was also observed more frequently in the larger and better preserved fragments. No clear habitat preference was verified in the other two species, although both were relatively more abundant in the smaller fragments. However, a tendency to avoid anthropogenic forest was observed in C. coimbrai. Callitrhix jacchus used significantly lower (p < 0.05) forest strata than the other species, although other differences were unclear, presumably because of the reduced stature of the forest in the fragments. Overall, the results of the study indicate that C. xanthosternos is tolerant of the effects of habitat fragmentation, and that differential habitat use may play an important role in niche partitioning.
  • Responses of wild titi monkeys, Callicebus coimbrai (Primates: Platyrrhini: Pitheciidae), to the habituation process Behavior

    Souza-Alves, João Pedro; Ferrari, Stephen F.

    Abstract in English:

    Adequate habituation of free-ranging subjects is essential for any field study, but is generally unsystematic. Here, attempts to habituate three titi monkey (Callicebus coimbrai Kobayashi & Langguth, 1999) groups are described, and factors determining the effectiveness of the process are discussed. The "relentless pursuit" approach was aided by playback recordings of vocalizations but only one group was habituated adequately. Average contact in 13 encounters with group 1 was just over one minute, whereas in 32 encounters with group 2, it averaged 3,5 minutes (maximum = 22 minutes). Group 3 was more tolerant of observers, and was considered fully habituated by the seventh encounter. The factors determining this disparity remain unclear, although vegetation density seems important. Whereas group 3 occupied an area of relatively undisturbed forest, with a sparse understory, the other groups occupied a habitat with dense undergrowth and an irregular canopy. The subjects' tolerance may have been affected by reduced visibility and less discreet behavior of the observers. On 10 occasions, the members of group 2 leapt to the ground and fled through the undergrowth. The results indicate the need for a careful evaluation of habitat characteristics prior to the selection of groups for habituation.
  • Shelter building behavior of Pyrrhopyge papius (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) and the use of the Mayfield method for estimating survivorship of shelter-building Lepidopteran larvae Biology

    Greeney, Harold F.; Walla, Thomas R.; Jahner, Josh; Berger, Ryan

    Abstract in English:

    Estimating the survivorship of lepidopteran larvae in the field poses many problems, most notably the potential for monitored subjects to simply wander away. Larvae of the family Hesperiidae, however, construct and dwell in shelters built out of leaf tissue on their host plants, return to their shelters between feeding bouts, and build a predictable series of shelters during larval ontogeny. Here we describe the shelter building behavior of Pyrrhopyge papius Hopffer, 1874 from northeastern Ecuador. Subsequently we test the use of the Mayfield method, a widely-used ornithological method for estimating survivorship of nests, to examine its utility for monitoring survival in free-living hesperiid larvae. Pyrrhopyge papius builds three distinct shelter types during its ontogeny. Monitoring of larvae in the field was successful, generating a predicted 16.4% survivorship from hatching to pupation. We found no significant differences in survivorship between larval shelter types, and only marginally significant differences between years. The Mayfield method of data collection and analysis may be a useful tool for some studies of survivorship in free-living lepidopteran larvae.
  • Feeding strategy of Menticirrhus americanus and Menticirrhus littoralis (Perciformes: Sciaenidae) juveniles in a sandy beach surf zone of southern Brazil Biology

    Rodrigues, Fábio L.; Vieira, João P.

    Abstract in English:

    The diet and foraging strategy of juvenile Menticirrhus americanus (Linnaeus, 1758) and Menticirrhus littoralis (Holbrook, 1847) were studied, testing the existence of trophic overlap between these species and within different seasons (spring and summer). Individuals were sampled using a beach seine in the surf zone near Rio Grande, state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Based on Morisita's Simplified Overlap Index and Bootstrapping technique, trophic overlap between species was considered high during the spring (Cik = 0.97 ± 0.07) and low during the summer (Cik = 0.37 ± 0.14). Juveniles shared the same food resources during the spring (FO of amphipods > 0.75), with the M. americanus diet presenting lower prey diversity (N = 7) when compared to M. littoralis (N = 13). In the summer, M. americanus presented a more varied diet (N = 13) than during the spring, suggesting a non-specialized opportunistic diet, whereas M. littoralis continued to show a diversified diet (N = 14). During the summer, M. americanus presented a generalist-opportunist feeding strategy, whereas juvenile M. littoralis tended to be more specialist.
  • Foam nest in Scinax rizibilis (Amphibia: Anura: Hylidae) Biology

    Bastos, Rogério P.; Haddad, Célio F. B.; Pombal Jr, José P.

    Abstract in English:

    During the intervals of February 1993 to January 1994 and November 1994 to February 1995, in the southern São Paulo state, we studied the breeding activity of Scinax rizibilis (Bokermann, 1964), the only known hylid species with oviposition in foam nests. The foam nests were constructed by female jumps, during the oviposition. The clutches contained 850-1250 eggs, which were almost black, except for the small clear vegetative pole. The construction of foam nest in S. rizibilis is unique among the other species with this characteristic. The complexity of a foam nest is intermediate, and egg development was faster when eggs were surrounded by foam. It is possible to recognize a progression from less developed structures, represented by the bubble nests of some microhylid frogs, to more complex examples, such as the foam nests of Leptodactylidae or Leiuperidae.
  • Reproductive biology of Palmistichus elaeisis (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) with alternative and natural hosts Biology

    Pereira, Fabricio F.; Zanuncio, José C.; Pastori, Patrik L.; Chichera, Roberto A.; Andrade, Gilberto S.; Serrão, José E.

    Abstract in English:

    Mass rearing of parasitoids depends on choosing appropriate alternative hosts. The objective of this study was to select alternative hosts to rear the parasitoid Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare & LaSalle, 1993 (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae). Pupae of the lepidopterans Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner, 1818 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), Bombyx mori Linnaeus, 1758 (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) and Thyrinteina arnobia (Stoll, 1782) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) were exposed to parasitism by females of P. elaeisis. The duration of the life cycle of P. elaeisis was 21.60 ± 0.16 and 24.15 ± 0.65 days on pupae of A. gemmatalis and B. mori, respectively, with 100.0% parasitism of the pupae and 71.4 and 100.0% emergence of parasitoids from the first and second hosts, respectively. The offspring number of P. elaeisis was 511.00 ± 49.70 and 110.20 ± 19.37 individuals per pupa of B. mori and A. gemmatalis, respectively. The reproduction of P. elaeisis from pupae of T. arnobia after six generations was similar to the other hosts.
  • Correction of the weight and length for juveniles Atherinella brasiliensis (Actinopterygii: Atherinopsidae) after fixation in formalin and preservation in ethanol Biology

    Melo, Marcelo T.; Saturnino, Cíntia; Santos, Joaquim N. S.; Vasconcellos, Ruan M.; Cruz-Filho, Antonio G.; Araújo, Francisco G.

    Abstract in English:

    The present study compared losses of weight and length in specimens of Atherinella brasiliensis (Quoy & Gaimard, 1825) after fixation in formalin 10% during ten days, and posterior preservation in ethanol 70% for 45 days, in two solvents: freshwater and marine water. Additionally, correction factors were proposed to calculate the correction for weight and length from preserved specimens. The specimens were weighted and measured after collection (fresh), and with 10, 20, 27, 34, 41 and 55 days of fixation plus preservation. The largest losses in weight occurred during the first 20 days (10.35 ± 0.31% - freshwater; 11.29 ± 0.44% - marine water), continuing with lesser intensity up to the 27th day in freshwater dilution, and up to the 34th day in marine water dilution. Weight losses stabilized by the 34th day for both freshwater (11.77 ± 0.33%) and marine water (13.62 ± 0.41%). The largest losses in the total length for the two methods were also observed in the first 20 days (7.42 ± 0.27% - freshwater; 9.76 ± 0.26 - marine water), stabilizing after the 27th day in freshwater (8.60 ± 0.26%) and 20th day in marine water (9.76 ± 0.26%). The losses of weight and total length were significantly dependent on fish size, with smaller individuals suffering the most significant losses. Complete regression equations were proposed for the retro-calculation of fresh weight and total length from the preserved specimens for freshwater (Wfresh = 1.0536W P + 0.0416; TLfresh = 0.9588TL P + 5.8437) and marine water (Wfresh = 1.0868W P + 0.0451; TLfresh = 0.8621TL P + 10.425).
  • Reproductive biology in the starfish Echinaster (Othilia) guyanensis (Echinodermata: Asteroidea) in southeastern Brazil Biology

    Mariante, Fátima L. F.; Lemos, Gabriela B.; Eutrópio, Frederico J.; Castro, Rodrigo R. L.; Gomes, Levy C.

    Abstract in English:

    Echinaster (Othilia) guyanensis Clark, 1987 is an endangered starfish distributed throughout the Caribbean and Atlantic Ocean. Even though it has been extensively harvested, little is known about the biology and ecology of this starfish. Here, we examine reproduction seasonality in E. (O.) guyanensis. Individuals were collected monthly for one year, including four complete lunar phases. The gonad index (GI) was calculated to determine annual and monthly reproductive peaks. Gametogenesis stages were also determined. Sex ratio was 1:1.33 (M:F). Gonadosomatic index, body weight, central disc width and arm length were similar for both sexes. Gonads were present in all animals with arm length greater than 36.2 mm. Lunar phase was not associated with E. (O.) guyanensis reproduction. GI and gametogenesis patterns suggest that starfish have an annual reproductive peak with spawning during autumn months (March to May).
  • Microhabitat use by Cnemidophorus vacariensis (Squamata: Teiidae) in the grasslands of the Araucaria Plateau, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil Biology

    Caruccio, Rodrigo; Vieira, Renata C.; Verrastro, Laura

    Abstract in English:

    Microhabitat use by Cnemidophorus vacariensis Feltrim & Lema, 2000 as studied between October 2006 and September 2007 in two rocky formations in the municipality of Bom Jesus. The area was searched randomly between 8:00 am and 6:00 pm and the microhabitat used by the lizards was recorded. Our observations revealed that C. vacariensis has terrestrial habits and prefers open areas. Burrows are the main microhabitat used by the species (56.38%). When in activity, 54.76% of the individuals were observed under rocks, and 38.1% on the ground where herbaceous vegetation was present. The rocks under which they constructed their burrows were on average significantly thicker during warmer seasons temperatures (x¯ = 13,45cm) with respect to colder seasons (x¯ = 9,85cm). The rocks selected by the adults (x¯ = 12.94 cm) were on average significantly thicker than those selected by the juveniles (x¯ = 9.86cm). There were no statistically significant differences between sexes with respect to rock thickness.
  • Effects of habitat and landscape characteristics on medium and large mammal species richness and composition in northern Uruguay Conservation

    Andrade-Núñez, María José; Aide, T. Mitchell

    Abstract in English:

    The increasing world population and demand for food and other products has accelerated the conversion of natural habitats into agricultural lands, plantations and urban areas. Changes in habitat and landscape characteristics due to land-use change can have a significant effect on species presence, abundance, and distribution. Multi-scale approaches have been used to determine the proper spatial scales at which species and communities are responding to habitat transformation. In this context, we evaluated medium and large mammal species richness and composition in gallery forest (n = 10), grassland (n = 10), and exotic tree plantation (n = 10) in a region where grasslands have been converted into exotic tree plantations. We quantified mammal species richness and composition with camera traps and track surveys. The composition of the mammal community was related with local habitat variables, and landscape variables measured at seven spatial scales. We found 14 mammal species in forest, 11 species in plantation, and 7 mammal species in grassland. Two species are exotics, the wild boar Sus scrofa Linnaeus, 1758 and the European hare Lepus europaeus Pallas, 1778. The most common species are the crab-eating fox Cerdocyon thous Linnaeus, 1766, the nine-banded armadillo Dasypus novemcinctus Linnaeus, 1758 and the gray brocket deer Mazama gouazoubira G. Fischer, 1814 which are generalist species. Our results showed significant differences in mammal species richness and composition among the three habitat types. Plantations can have positive and negative effects on the presence of species restricted to grasslands. Positive effects are reflected in a wider local distribution of some forest species that rarely use grassland. The most important habitat and landscape variables that influenced mammal species richness and composition were vertical structure index, canopy cover, tree species diversity, percentage of grass, and the percentage of forest and grassland at the landscape scale of 0.1 km. We advise the following important measures for conservation of this mammal community: 1) reduce logging and cattle grazing in gallery forest, and 2) increase grassland buffer zones between plantation and forest.
  • The influence of habitat integrity and physical-chemical water variables on the structure of aquatic and semi-aquatic Heteroptera Ecology

    Dias-Silva, Karina; Cabette, Helena S. R.; Juen, Leandro; Jr, Paulo De Marco

    Abstract in English:

    This work aimed to assess the effect of certain physical-chemical variables and the Habitat Integrity Index (HII) have on an aquatic and semi-aquatic heteropteran community. We collected in five streams (from 1st to 4th order) that differed in habitat integrity, in order to test 1) whether heteropteran richness decreases with the Habitat Integrity Index; and 2) whether richness responds to alterations in water physical-chemical variables, since these influence community structure. In each stream, linear transects of 100 m were demarcated. A total of 1425 specimens from 10 families, 30 genera and 67 morphospecies were collected. Species richness was correlated with the Habitat Integrity Index (HII), showing a positive relationship only for Gerromorpha. This may be due to the fact that streams with greater integrity offer nearby marginal vegetation where prey and shelter can be easily found, representing optimal places for oviposition and hunting. Species adapted to such conditions are more sensitive to alterations in the physical structure of rivers. Significant differences in the composition of Heteroptera and studied infra-orders were also observed, which suggests that the anthropic disturbances over these sites have changed these insect communities. Our results indicate that the alteration in riparian areas can lead to significant changes in Heteroptera composition, even though species richness was not affected. The physical-chemical variables showed no influence on the distribution of species. This result suggests that the environment presented insufficient variation that could cause changes in the investigated community, which implies that factors other than those analyzed here may explain such variation. Three species Rhagovelia trailli (White, 1879), Rhagovelia sp. 4 and Tenagobia incerta (Lundblad, 1928) were considered to be indicators of pristine sites. The results indicate that aquatic and semi-aquatic Heteroptera and more specifically the sub-order Gerromorpha can be an important tool to assess environmental habitat integrity and enhance conservation actions of riparian forests.
  • Interconnectedness during high water maintains similarity in fish assemblages of island floodplain lakes in the Amazonian Basin Ecology

    Freitas, Carlos Edwar de C.; Siqueira-Souza, Flávia K.; Guimarães, Alan Rezk; Santos, Fabiane A.; Santos, Ivanildo L.A.

    Abstract in English:

    We conducted a study to test the hypothesis that interconnectedness among island floodplain lakes and the adjacent Solimões River during the flood stage of the hydrologic cycle is enough to maintain similarity in fish species assemblages. Gill net samples were collected during high and low water periods for three consecutive years (July 2004 to July 2006) in four lakes on Paciência Island. Two lakes, Piranha and Ressaca, are connected to the river all year, and the other two, Preto and Cacau, which are in the center of the island, are isolated during low water periods. The abundance, species richness and evenness of the fish assemblages in these lakes did not differ according to their relative positions or the season of the hydrological cycle, which confirmed our hypothesis. However, fish abundance during the dry season was greater than in the flood season. Apparently, the short period of full connection between the lakes is enough to allow the colonization of all fish species, but not to cause similar abundances. Our study indicates that persistence of the species composition of island floodplain lakes is primarily due to the annual replenishment of fish to the lakes during the flood season.
  • Swimming performance of the small characin Bryconamericus stramineus (Characiformes: Characidae) Ecology

    Castro, Miriam A. de; Santos, Hersília de A.; Sampaio, Francisco A. C.; Pompeu, Paulo S.

    Abstract in English:

    Very little research has been conducted on the swimming capacity of Neotropical fish. The few studies available have focused on large migratory species. The present study used fixed and increasing velocity tests to determine prolonged and sustained speeds of the "pequira", Bryconamericus stramineus Eigenmann, 1908, a small, abundant species found in fish passages implemented at the Paraná basin, Brazil. The results of increasing velocity tests showed significant relationships between critical speeds, total and standard lengths, and body weight. When compared with other Neotropical fish, the "pequira" is able to swim faster than individuals of other species of similar length. The point of change from sustained to prolonged swimming was found to occur at an approximate speed of 8.7 lengths per second. These data provide guidance and criteria for design and proper maintenance of structures such as fishways, fish screens and other systems that aim to facilitate or avoid upstream passages as part of management strategies.
  • Seasonal variation of epiphytic hydroids (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa) associated to a subtropical Sargassum cymosum (Phaeophyta: Fucales) bed Ecology

    Cunha, Amanda Ferreira; Jacobucci, Giuliano Buzá

    Abstract in English:

    Hydroids are broadly reported in epiphytic associations from different localities showing marked seasonal cycles. Studies have shown that the factors behind these seasonal differences in hydroid richness and abundance may vary significantly according to the area of study. Seasonal differences in epiphytic hydroid cover and richness were evaluated in a Sargassum cymosum C. Agardh bed from Lázaro beach, at Ubatuba, Brazil. Significant seasonal differences were found in total hydroid cover, but not in species richness. Hydroid cover increased from March (early fall) to February (summer). Most of this pattern was caused by two of the most abundant species: Aglaophenia latecarinata Allman, 1877 and Orthopyxis sargassicola (Nutting, 1915). Hydroid richness seems to be related to S. cymosum size but not directly to its biomass. The seasonal differences in hydroid richness and algal cover are shown to be similar to other works in the study region and in the Mediterranean. Seasonal recruitment of hydroid species larvae may be responsible for their seasonal differences in algal cover, although other factors such as grazing activity of gammarid amphipods on S. cymosum must be taken into account.
  • Genotoxic effects of the diesel water-soluble fraction on the seahorse Hippocampus reidi (Teleostei: Syngnathidae) during acute exposure Morphology And Physiology

    Santos, Celina Alcoforado; Novaes, Larissa Simões; Gomes, Levy Carvalho

    Abstract in English:

    The high toxicity of diesel components makes oil spills a threat to the biota in coastal marine environments. The genotoxic effect of the diesel water-soluble fraction (DWSF) on Hippocampus reidi (Ginsburg, 1933) was assessed. Fish were exposed to three different DWSF dilutions for up to 96 hours, and genotoxicity was analyzed using the micronuclei test and the comet assay. The micronuclei test revealed no significant differences between any of the DWSF dilutions and the control in the 24-hours period; however, micronuclei increased in fish exposed to 1:500 and 1:100 DWSF dilutions for 96 hours. For all dilutions, there was an increase in micronuclei in fish exposed for 96 hours when compared to those exposed for 24 hours. The tested dilutions increased frequencies of cell classes 2 (medium damage) and 3 (large damage) in the comet assay after 24 and 96 hours. Fish exposed to DWSF 1:100 exhibited a higher frequency of class 4 (apoptosis) cells in the 96-hours period. All dilutions increased the comet score when compared to the control at 24 and 96 hours. The micronuclei and comet tests were efficient in detecting DWSF genotoxic effects in H. reidi.
  • Changes in the size of cephalic salivary glands of Apis mellifera and Scaptotrigona postica (Hymenoptera: Apidae) queens and workers in different life phases Morphology And Physiology

    Poiani, Silvana B.; Cruz-Landim, Carminda da

    Abstract in English:

    The bee species of the Apinae, in addition to the thoracic salivary glands, possess a pair of cephalic glands originating as branches of the excretory duct that crosses the head. These glands are known as cephalic salivary or labial cephalic glands. The degree of development of these glands in newly emerged, nurse and forager workers and virgin and egg-laying queens of Apis mellifera Linnaeus, 1758 and Scaptotrigona postica Latreille, 1807 were evaluated by measuring the secretory alveolar units. The area of the secretory alveoli, measured in total gland preparations, was used to evaluate differences in size. In both species, gland size was found to increase progressively from newly emerged workers to foragers and from virgin to egg-laying queens. A statistical analysis revealed significant differences (p < 0.05) in the area of gland alveoli of workers in different life phases in both species, and between S. postica virgin and egg-laying queens, but not between A. mellifera queens. In the case of workers, this suggests cephalic salivary gland secretion has a function in forager activity and, in queens, a possible pheromonal function.
  • Offspring production in three freshwater crab species (Brachyura: Pseudothelphusidae) from the Amazon region and Central America Morphology And Physiology

    Wehrtmann, Ingo S.; Magalhães, Célio; Hernáez, Patricio; Mantelatto, Fernando L.

    Abstract in English:

    Freshwater crabs are an important component of the fauna of limnic environments, and out of the two true freshwater crab families present in the Neotropics, Pseudothelphusidae is the most diverse. Considering the lack of information regarding reproductive features of neotropical freshwater crabs, we studied, for the first time, the fecundity and the presence of juveniles carried by females of two pseudothelphusids from the Amazon region - Kingsleya latifrons (Randall, 1840) and Kingsleya ytupora Magalhães, 1986 - and one from Central America - Potamocarcinus magnus (Rathbun, 1896). The two Kingsleya species produced relatively few (56-114) and large eggs (1.9-3.7 mm), typical for species with an abbreviated or direct development. Recently produced eggs were substantially larger in K. latifrons (mean 2.83 mm) when compared to those of K. ytupora (mean 1.87 mm); however, at the end of the embryogenesis, mean egg diameter was similar in both species. Therefore, it is assumed that hatchlings in both species should have a similar size. A brief description of attached juveniles of K. ytupora is provided. The number of juveniles varied between 30 (K. ytupora) and 179 (P. magnus); two size groups of juveniles were found, which indicates that the offspring cling to their mother for a prolonged period of time. There was no significant loss of eggs and juveniles; it is assumed that parental care diminishes the loss of their offspring. We compiled the available information of reproductive aspects from freshwater crabs: egg diameter was in the range of 2-3 mm, independent of female size and fecundity, and reported egg number varied between 9 and 417 eggs.
  • Does gestation or feeding affect the body temperature of the golden lancehead, Bothrops insularis (Squamata: Viperidae) under field conditions? Morphology And Physiology

    Bovo, Rafael P.; Marques, Otavio A. V.; Andrade, Denis V.

    Abstract in English:

    Temperature affects physiological performance in reptiles and, therefore, body temperature (Tb) control is argued to have an important adaptive value. Alterations in Tb due to transient changes in physiological state, as during digestion or gestation, are often linked to the potential benefits of a more precise Tb regulation. However, such thermoregulatory responses in nature remain controversial, particularly for tropical snakes. Herein, we measured Tb of the golden lanceheads, Bothrops insularis (Amaral, 1921), at Queimada Grande Island, southeastern Brazil, to test for alteration in selected body temperatures associated with feeding or gestation. We found no evidence that postprandial or gravid snakes selected for higher Tb indicating that, under natural conditions, body temperature regulation in B. insularis apparently encompasses other ecological factors beyond physiological state per se.
  • Cephalic salivary glands of two species of advanced eusocial bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae): morphology and secretion Morphology And Physiology

    Poiani, Silvana B.; Cruz-Landim, Carminda da

    Abstract in English:

    Some adult eusocial bees have a pair of cephalic salivary glands (CSG) in addition to the thoracic labial or salivary gland pairs. This paper deals with variations in morphological features and secretion production of the CSG of females and males of Apis mellifera Linnaeus, 1758 and Scaptotrigona postica Latreille, 1807. The following life stages were studied: newly emerged, nurse, and forager workers; newly emerged and egg-laying queens; and newly emerged and sexually mature males. The histological results showed that the CSG differs between the two species in the following features: while alveoli and duct cells are cuboidal in workers and queens of A. mellifera, they change from cuboidal to flat in S. postica as the workers age. The glands of newly emerged males and females of A. mellifera are similar. However, as males become sexually mature, glands degenerate and practically disappear. The secretion from the glands of females of both species is oleaginous and gradually accumulates in the lumen of the alveoli in the beginning of the adult phase. Consequently, forager workers and egg-laying queens exhibit more turgid alveoli than younger individuals. Sudan black and Nile's blue staining indicated that the CSG secretion consists of neutral lipids. The possible role of gland secretion is discussed taking in account tasks performed by the individuals in the particular phases studied.
  • External morphology of Cotesia flavipes (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) during larval development Morphology And Physiology

    Pinheiro, Daniela O.; Rossi, Guilherme D.; Cônsoli, Fernando L.

    Abstract in English:

    Cotesia flavipes (Cameron, 1891) (Hymenoptera) is a gregarious endoparasitoid used in applied biological control against Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius, 1794) (Lepidoptera). In this study, we characterize the larval external morphology and the number of instars of C. flavipes. Parasitized larvae of D. saccharalis were sampled from the 1st to the 10th day after parasitism and dissected in an anticoagulant buffer for collection of C. flavipes immatures. Immatures were processed for scanning electron microscopy. Larvae of C. flavipes were prepared in NaOH solution and slide mounted to allow for mandible size measurements. Analysis of measurements of the parasitoid larval mandible size indicated that C. flavipes has three instars. Newly hatched larvae are caudate-mandibulate, assuming a hymenopteriform shape later in their development. The anal vesicle began to expand in the first instar and, once expanded, remained unchanged up to the beginning of the third instar. At the third instar, the anal vesicle decreased in volume. Herein we report the development and possible functions of the larval external structures modified during the development of C. flavipes, as for example their role in aiding newly-eclosed larvae to avoid the host immune response and to move within the host. To summarize the morphological changes during parasitoid growth, we should mention that the modifications in the anal vesicle were correlated with the feeding activity, and the maintenance of the anal vesicle indicates that this structure remained functional, probably playing a role in nutrient absorption and host regulation. On the other hand, the mandibles of early stage larvae are probably used to assist the parasitoid larvae during eclosion.
  • Review of the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest harvestman Longiperna (Opiliones: Gonyleptidae: Mitobatinae) Taxonomy And Nomenclature

    Pinto-da-Rocha, Ricardo; Bragagnolo, Cibele

    Abstract in English:

    Longiperna Roewer, 1929 is revised and new records of distribution are presented for the Brazilian Costal Atlantic Rain Forest (from Rio de Janeiro to Santa Catarina states). The following new synonymies are established: Longiperna concolor (Mello-Leitão, 1923) = L. zonata Mello-Leitão, 1935 and L. heliaca B. Soares, 1942; Longiperna coxalis (Roewer, 1943) = L. areolata B. Soares, 1944; Longiperna insperata (Soares & Soares, 1947) = L. paranensis Soares & Soares, 1947 and L. curitibana Kury, 2003. Two new species are described: Longiperna kuryi sp. nov. (type-locality: Brazil, Rio de Janeiro, Parati); Longiperna trembao sp. nov. (type-locality: Brazil, Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte).
  • Lumbriclymene interstricta comb. nov. with a taxonomic key and a catalogue for all species of Lumbriclymene (Maldanidae, Polychaeta) Taxonomy And Nomenclature

    Assis, José Eriberto de; Christoffersen, Martin Lindsey

    Abstract in English:

    In this paper, we transfer Nicomache interstricta Ehlers, 1908 to Lumbriclymene Sars, 1872 based on a redescription of the type-specimen. We provide new illustrations for the species and new diagnostic features for the genus. Lumbriclymene interstricta (Ehlers, 1908) comb. nov. has 19 chaetigerous segments and four pre-anal achaetous segments; a prostomium rounded anteriorly, forming a slightly arched dorsal keel; semi-circular nuchal grooves; one acicular spine on chaetigers 1-4; and a small pygidium, with the anal pore bearing many small papillae. In addition, we compare the species with other subfamilies and genera of Maldanidae. We also provide a taxonomic key for all species presently included in Lumbriclymene. Finally, we provide a world catalogue for Lumbriclymene, containing synonyms and main references.
  • Morphology, morphometry and ultrastructure of the Amazonian manatee (Sirenia: Trichechidae) spermatozoa Short Communication

    Amaral, Rodrigo S.; Lucci, Carolina M.; Rosas, Fernando C. W.; Silva, Vera M. F. da; Báo, Sônia N.

    Abstract in English:

    This study describes the morphological, morphometric and ultrastructural characteristics of the Amazonian manatee Trichechus inunguis (Natterer, 1883) spermatozoon. The spermatozoa were obtained from a urine sample of an adult T. inunguis kept in captivity. The spermatozoa were analyzed by light and transmission electron microscopy. The head of Amazonian manatee spermatozoa had a flat oval shape and a well distinguishable midpiece. The mean dimensions of the spermatozoa were: head length, 7.49 ± 0.24 µm; head width, 3.53 ± 0.19 µm; head thickness, 1.61 ± 0.13 µm; midpiece length, 11.36 ± 0.34 µm; flagellum length, 40.91 ± 1.94 µm; total tail length, 52.16 ± 1.06 µm; total spermatozoon length, 60.08 ± 1.40 µm. The Amazonian manatee spermatozoa were similar in shape to other sirenian spermatozoa; however, presenting a different size. This study describes, for the first time, the morphometric and ultrastructural characteristics of the Amazonian manatee spermatozoa, and also demonstrates the possible use of spermatozoa retrieved from urine samples for biological studies.
  • First cases of exclusive paternal care in stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) Short Communication

    Requena, Gustavo S.; Nazareth, Taís M.; Schwertner, Cristiano F.; Machado, Glauco

    Abstract in English:

    We describe paternal care in two pentatomid bugs, Lopadusa (Lopadusa) augur Stål, 1860 and Edessa nigropunctata Berg, 1884. Field and laboratory observations showed that males remain with their eggs and early hatched nymphs, while females abandon the eggs after oviposition. Guarding males defensive behaviors towards their clutches were similar to those described for guarding females of pentatomids. Since there is no detailed information on the internal phylogeny of Pentatomidae, it is not possible to make a robust inference on whether paternal care in L. augur and E. nigropunctata has arisen independently or not. If the latter, the two new cases of paternal care we describe here represent the fifth event of independent evolution of this rare behavioral trait in Heteroptera.
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