Abstract in English:Bradybaena similaris (Férussac, 1821), commonly known as the Asian trampsnail, is a terrestrial snail native to Asia, introduced in other regions of the world. In Brazil, populations of this land snail are distributed from the state of Amapá in the North to Rio Grande do Sul in the South. This species acts as an intermediate host for parasites and is a difficult-to-control agricultural pest as well, causing great losses to crops and ornamental plant cultivation. This land snail is easily reared in the laboratory and has been successfully used as a biological model in studies that aim at verifying molluscicidal effects of plant extracts. Several studies have demonstrated that B. similaris, like many other species of land and freshwater snails, is physiologically adapted to survival over transitory unfavorable environmental conditions. Moreover, this species seems to have a life history strategy characterized by a short life span and a maximal opportunistic reproductive effort during transient favorable periods. Such biological features may potentially lead to the inefficacy of control attempts and, simultaneously, make this species able to repopulate sites previously treated with biocides. For this reason, studies that aim at verifying the effect of molluscicides on the reproduction, growth and survival of molluscs are greatly required. Molluscicides of plant origin may represent a safe and effective way of controlling these animals. Thymol is a substance of plant origin which has bactericidal, fungicidal and anti-inflammatory properties and has been presented as a promissory biocide of mollusc species. The aim of this work was to assess the molluscicidal property of thymol in combination with DMSO against eggs and adults of B. similaris. During 120 days, we evaluated the effect of thymol+DMSO at different concentrations (2.5 g/L and 5 g/L) on the hatching success, hatchling survival, growth and reproduction of B. similaris under laboratory conditions. We tested thymol+DMSO on 160 eggs, 160 10-day-old and 160 30-day-old juveniles. The results showed that thymol+DMSO (5 g/L and 2.5 g/L) affected hatching success, acting as an ovicide. The tests with 10-day-old juveniles showed that thymol+DMSO at 2.5 g/L and 5 g/L caused 90 and 100% of mortality, respectively. For the 30-day-old juveniles, thymol+DMSO caused 87.5% of mortality at 5 g/L, and 75% at 2.5 g/L. With regard to growth, the results were not significant. The 10-day-old individuals treated with thymol+DMSO showed only one reproductive event during the 120 days of the experiment. Thymol+DMSO showed molluscicidal and residual activity, which makes evident its potential for controlling snails, and consequently, snail-borne diseases.
Abstract in English:The present study analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively the temporal and spatial changes in the fish assemblages present in seabob shrimp distribution sites in two important fishing areas of the Santa Catarina coast. Monthly bottom trawls, conducted between March 2007 and February 2008 in Balneário Barra do Sul and Penha, yielded a total of 38,608 specimens belonging to 54 species, of which 35 occurred in both regions. The Sciaenidae was the most represented family in both number of species and abundance of individuals. The dominant species were Stellifer rastrifer (Jordan, 1889), S. brasiliensis (Schultz, 1945), Paralonchurus brasiliensis (Steindachner, 1875), Isopisthus parvipinnis (Cuvier, 1830), Trichiurus lepturus (Linnaeus, 1758), and Pellona harroweri (Fowler, 1917). The ichthyofaunal structure showed a spatiotemporal dependence with significant differences in March 2007 and January and February 2008 between Balneário Barra do Sul and Penha. The main differences were attributed to dominant species, which were responsible for significantly altering the abundance of the assemblages. The species richness was similar in both sites, whereas the diversity and equitability indices showed monthly fluctuation patterns that differed between Balneário Barra do Sul and Penha. The Shannon index differed in August, September and November 2007 and January and February 2008, with an H' ranging from 0.74 to 1.98 influenced by dominant species, whereas significant variations were observed for the Pielou index in November 2007 and February 2008. The Berger-Parker index demonstrated a clear dominance pattern where the monthly numeric contribution of a single species ranged from approximately 30 to 80%. Although the results showed differences between fishing grounds 25% of the time, we conclude that fish assemblies captured as accompanying fauna in artisanal seabob shrimp fisheries showed statistically similar characteristics for most of the year, although Balneário Barra do Sul and Penha are 35 km away from each other.
Abstract in English:Sexual dimorphism in birds is often attributed to sexual selection, but another interpretation suggests the evolution of this phenomenon by natural selection. Predation may be an important selective pressure, acting mainly on females. In this study, I tested the latter hypothesis on the coal-crested finch (Charitospiza eucosma Oberholser, 1905) in a neotropical savanna of the Central Brazil (Cerrado). I used capture methods for ascertaining the sex ratio in the population, and focal observations to gather behavioral data. My results show that the sex ratio is skewed toward males (1:1.39). Males were more vigilant, vocalized for longer periods of time, and used higher perches than females. Females foraged more, spent more time on parental care and remained on the ground for longer periods than males. These results support the 'foraging effort hypothesis, suggesting that females are more preyed upon because they spend more time foraging. Ultimately, this may reflect the fact that females invest more on parental care than males. The sex-dependent parental investment may favor the evolution of different antipredator strategies in males and females: the camouflage in females as a less efficient strategy than vigilance in males.
Abstract in English:Brazil is the second most bat species-rich country in the world, but the information on its species diversity, occurrence and distribution is still heterogeneous and fragmented. None of the Brazilian biomes are well surveyed for bats, but this situation is more critical in Amazonia, an area covering nearly 2/3 of the country. Here we provide updated information on the bats of Amapá, once a data gap in the diversity and distribution of bats in the easternmost Amazonia, and the Guiana Shield as well. Rapid biological assessments (5,551 mistnet.hours) were conducted in conservation units and areas of concern, resulting in 1,695 captures, 59 species, 36 genera and six families for the State. New records for the state and for the Guiana Shield area are reported. With our records, 82 species of bats are currently known in Amapá, filling a gap in the knowledge of bat fauna in the Amazon River's delta region.
Abstract in English:The nesting success of three colonies of Streptoprocne biscutata (Sclater, 1866), and the influence of clutch and brood size on nesting success of species were studied. Overall, apparent nesting success was 58% and Mayfield nesting success was 53%. Nest survival during incubation (64%) was lower than during the nestling period (83%). During incubation, clutches were lost to rain, desertion, predation, egg ejection, egg damage, and egg disappearance. During the nestling period, losses occurred due to offspring disappearance, nestling death by starvation, predation and falling. During both incubation and nestling periods, predation was low, while egg ejections and nestling starvation were the main causes of nest failure. Nest survival during incubation was directly proportional to clutch size, while during the nestling period it was inversely proportional to the brood size. Apparently, there seemed to be an advantage to having more eggs during incubation. However, if all eggs were to hatch during unfavorable weather the nest success could be low. These results suggest that when the breeding pairs face adversity during incubation, they control the brood size by ejecting part of the clutch.
Abstract in English:Feeding habits of the Molina's hog-nosed skunk, Conepatus chinga (Molina, 1782) in the extreme south of Brazil. We analyzed 60 stomachs of road-kills of C. chinga in the extreme south of Brazil. The contents revealed 808 prey parts, including invertebrates (frequency of occurrence - FO = 96.7% and relative abundance - RA = 94.7%), vertebrates (FO = 18.3% and RA = 2.8%) and plants (FO = 31.7% and RA = 2.3%). We identified 18 kinds of food, including the invertebrate order Coleoptera which showed the highest FO (86.7%) and RA (75.2%). Other important orders were Orthoptera (FO = 35% and RA = 10.4%) and Araneae (FO = 41.7% and RA = 4%). The combination of occurrence and abundance of the preys consumed allowed classifying C. chinga as an omnivorous with a predominance of insects, especially Coleoptera, consuming other invertebrates, vertebrates and plants in smaller numbers. Behavioral and morphological adaptations of C. chinga favor the predation of insects, which are preys that offer low physical resistance and are available in all terrestrial environments.
Abstract in English:Age and growth parameters were estimated for the yellowfin tuna Thunnus albacares (Bonnaterre, 1788). Atotal of 443 individuals were sampled from China longline fisheries in the eastern and central Pacific Ocean from February to November 2006. The von Bertalanffy growth parameters were estimated at L∞ = 175.9 cm fork length, k = 0.52 year-1, and t0 = 0.19 year. The total mortality rate (Z) was estimated to be from 1.19 to 1.93 year-1, the fishing mortality (F) and the natural mortality (M) were calculated to be 0.91 year-1 and 0.65 year-1, respectively. The rate of exploitation (U) was estimated to be 0.46. This study provides estimates of growth and mortality rate for yellowfin tuna in the eastern and central Pacific Ocean, which may be used as biological input parameters in future stock assessments for the oceanic region. However, age analysis with other techniques, additional validation of the size composition and stock structure are also needed.
Abstract in English:Most Neotropical mammals are not easily observed in their habitats, and few studies have been conducted to compare the performance of methods designed to register their tracks. We compared the effectiveness of track registry between sand plots and two tracking methods that use artificial materials to record tracks: the sooted paper, and the plastic board methods. The latter is described here for the first time. From 2002 to 2005, we conducted two experiments in three study sites in the Pantanal region of Brazil. We compared the artificial methods with the sand plot by registering track presence/absence, the number of identifiable tracks, and the total number of tracks (identifiable and unrecognizable) in each tracking plot. Individuals avoided artificial tracking plots either by not stepping on them or by doing it fewer times than on the sand plots. The use of artificial materials to register mammal tracks resulted in underestimates that are especially relevant to short-term ecological studies. We recommend the use of the traditional sand plot method whenever possible and the development of detailed studies on the efficiency of artificial methods under a variety of environmental conditions and time lengths. Despite their relatively lower efficiency, we believe that artificial methods are useful under specific conditions and may be more efficient if used in more comprehensive sampling efforts.
Abstract in English:This study aimed to describe the species composition and abundance of the porcellanid crabs inhabiting the consolidated sublittoral off an island on the southeastern coast of Brazil. During a sampling program at Vitória Island (23º44'S, 45º01'W), collections were carried out monthly from February 2004 through January 2006. The crabs were hand-caught by SCUBA divers during the daytime. The greatest carapace width (CW) was measured, and the sex and developmental stage were identified for each crab. The specimens were grouped into five demographic categories: juvenile males, adult males, juvenile females, adult females, and ovigerous females. A total of 275 crabs belonging to three genera and six species were obtained. Petrolisthes amoenus (Guérin-Méneville, 1855) and Pachycheles riisei (Stimpson, 1858) were the most abundant species. Most of the demographic classes were represented for both species, except that no adult females of P. riisei were recorded. Among the porcellanids, Pachycheles monilifer (Dana, 1852) was the dominant species; it comprised more than 75% of the total individuals sampled, and showed the highest constancy index for the region. The results obtained in this study provided information regarding the faunal composition and the relative abundance of the species, which will be useful as a reference for other sublittoral consolidated-bottom regions along the southeast Brazilian coast.
Abstract in English:Ophiomusium (Ophiolepididae) and Ophiomisidium (Ophiuridae) are similar, but differ in features such as size of the adult, number of disc dorsal plates, length of the arms, shape of the first ventral arm plates and number of the tentacle. In this contribution, a large number of specimens of Ophiomusium acuferum Lyman, 1869 and Ophiomisidium pulchellum (Wyville Thomson, 1878) were sampled from southeastern and southern Brazilian at depths ranging from 46 to 1300 m. A close analysis has shown that specimens identified as Ophiomisidium pulchellum (C.W. Thomson, 1877) in several Brazilian museums are actually Ophiomusium acuferum Lyman, 1875. A total of 2330 individuals were examined: 2046 specimens of Ophiomusium acuferum ('Evaluation of the sustainable potential of living resources from the Brazilian Economic Exclusive Zone/Score South - Benthos' - REVIZEE; 'Rational usage of coastal ecosystems from the Brazilian Tropical Region: São Paulo State - Integrated Project/Subproject Benthos' - INTEGRADO; and the MD55/Brazil) and 284 of Ophiomisidium pulchellum (MD55/Brazil). The disc diameter of each individual was measured and the specimens were digitally photographed. The samples studied are deposited in the Museum of Zoology of the University of Campinas and Institute of Biology at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro. The specimens from the MD55 are deposited at the Paris Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle. An identification key to these species is provided here. A detailed morphological analysis and redescription of both species, comparisons, and their geographic distribution in Brazil are discussed.
Abstract in English:Oryctophila bonaerensis sp. nov. parasitizing curculionid beetle larvae from Argentina, is described and illustrated. The species is characterized by a prominent genital cone and a short and filiform tail appendage. Female with vulva at midlenght of body, vagina long, S-shaped, monodelphic, opistodelphic. Male with one club-shaped spicule. Genital papillae arranged as follows: one pair of large preanal papillae and three pairs of postanal papillae of various sizes: a pair of medium sized papillae is immediately posterior to the anus, followed by a pair of large papillae, and one pair of small papillae at the base of the caudal appendage.
Abstract in English:A new species of Acteon Montfort 1810, Acteon mirim sp. nov., from Canopus Bank, state of Ceará, Brazil is described based on shell morphology. The new species is compared with other species of the genus reported from Brazil. It differs from other Brazilian species in having a whitish color with dark orange-brown spiral bands and a shell surface covered with small spiral grooves, regularly rectangular.
Abstract in English:Phorbas capixaba sp. nov. is described from 54 m depth off Guarapari, diagnosed by its two clear-cut categories of isochelae from Phorbas spp. known from the Western Tropical Atlantic. Four nomina nova are proposed for homonyms in Phorbas spp.: P. bergmontae nom. nov. for P. areolatus Bergquist & Fromont, 1988, preoccupied by P. areolatus (Thiele, 1905); P. burtoni nom. nov. for P. arborescens sensu (Burton, 1956), preoccupied by P. arborescens (Ridley, 1884); P. hechteli nom. nov. for P. ramosus (Hechtel, 1983), preoccupied by P. ramosus (Lendenfeld, 1888; in part - composite species); P. tanitai nom. nov. for P. purpureus (Tanita, 1961), preoccupied by P. purpureus (Carter, 1886). Three little known species are redescribed: Aplysina alcicornis Pinheiro et al., 2007; Mycale (Aegogropila) escarlatei Hajdu et al., 1995 and Yucatania sphaeroidocladus (Hartman & Hubbard, 1999). All three are new records for Espírito Santo. The first and the last of these are range extensions, while the other fills a distribution gap. A list of sponges hitherto recorded from off Espírito Santo state, with indication of the bibliographic source of the record is given in appendix. In total, 118 species were compiled from 23 publications.
Abstract in English:A new species of Nesticus is described based on specimens collected during a structured inventory of the Reserva Particular do Patrimônio Natural Mata Samuel de Paula, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Nesticus ivone sp. nov. can be recognized by the paracymbium of the male palpus with three not hooked processes, and by the presence of a central vulval plate in the female epigynum. Additionally, a new record is presented for Nesticus taim Ott & Lise, 2002, extending the known distribution range of this species northwards.
Abstract in English:A new species, Mangora ouropreto sp.nov., is described and illustrated based on male and female specimens from Ouro Preto, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Males of the new species can be distinguished by an anterior projection on the terminal apophysis, which is wider apically and has a serrated edge. Females resemble those of M. chiguaza Levi, 2007 in the shape of epigynum, but differ in the smaller and posteriorly directed scape.
Abstract in English:Examination of gill parasites from Ophthalmotilapia ventralis (Boulenger, 1898) in Lake Tanganyika (Africa) revealed the presence of four new species of Monogenea, all members of Cichlidogyrus Paperna, 1960 (Ancyrocephalidae). In view of the systematic importance of haptoral structure, the fish host shows a remarkable diversity of morphological groups. Cichlidogyrus vandekerkhovei sp. nov. and C. makasai sp. nov. are especially characterized by the unusual length of the dorsal transverse bar auricles, while C. sturmbaueri sp. nov. is distinguished by the unique shape of the accessory piece of its male copulatory organ. Importantly, C. centesimus sp. nov. displays a number of features new to the genus, namely a spirally coiled thickening at the end of the penis, the absence of an accessory piece in the genital apparatus, and a hitherto unknown uncinuli configuration in the haptor. This is the first record of ancyrocephalid parasites from the Tanganyika basin. Some mechanisms possibly contributing to this yet unknown diversity are discussed, identifying topics deserving further scientific scrutiny.
Abstract in English:Currently, the Neotropical genus Lepidiella Enderlein, 1937 comprises ten species, only one of them recorded from Brazil. In this paper, two new species of this genus are described from the Atlantic Rainforest of the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. Lepidiella robusta sp. nov. can be distinguished from all known species by the relative size of the first flagellomere, twice as long the second. Lepidiella flabellata sp. nov. can be distinguished from all known species by the absence of cornicula, cercus with 17 tenacula and pair of inner parameres apically bifurcated. A diagnosis of Lepidiella (species with flagellomeres 1-11 barrel-shaped, bearing simple, unbranched ascoids; flagellomeres 12-14 smaller, without ascoids; wing with acute apex and R4 ending at tip; Rs not pectinated) and an identification key to males of the genus are provided.
Abstract in English:Eighteen species from seven genera are recorded from the Amazon River floodplain, Brazil. An identification key, diagnoses, drawings, and taxonomic and biological notes are given for these species. The main features used in the identification key and diagnoses are: body and leg segments proportions, coloration patterns, presence and distribution of setae, and modifications of the apical abdominal segments and external genitalia of the male. Based on material collected in the floodplain streams and lakes, Cylindrostethus bassleri Drake, 1952 is recorded for the first time from Brazil, and new municipality records are presented for Brachymetra lata Shaw, 1933, B. shawi Hungerford & Matsuda, 1957, C. erythropus (Herrich-Schäffer, 1850), C. linearis (Erichson, 1848), C. Palmaris Drake & Harris, 1934, C. regulus (White, 1879), Neogerris lotus (White, 1879), N. lubricus (White, 1879), N. visendus (Drake & Harris, 1934), Ovatametra obese Kenaga, 1942, Rheumatobates crassifemur esakii Schroeder, 1931, R. klagei Schroeder, 1931, and Trepobates taylori (Kirkaldy, 1899). Additional new records from the Brazilian Amazon are presented for B. lata and O. obesa.
Abstract in English:Scat analysis is a valuable tool for the description and quantification of mammal diets. However, estimating the number of prey eaten using prey remains found in feces is difficult mainly due to differential digestibility of prey. In this context, we performed feeding trials with captive ocelots, Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus, 1785), to evaluate the time needed until complete elimination in feces of different prey such as rodents and birds. Rodents took up to five days and birds two days until complete elimination. Our results are consistent in showing that elimination time differs for different prey and some prey may take a long time to be expelled, inducing errors in dietary studies.