Abstract in English:Among oysters, species of Crassostrea (Sacco, 1897) are the most attractive to aquaculture. In Brazil, the genus is represented by C. rhizophorae (Guilding, 1828) and C. brasiliana (Lamarck, 1819). Because the maturation and breeding technology is not well developed for these species, aquaculturists need a reliable method to decide the correct time to place spat collectors in the field, and to identify both species, which are morphologically similar. In this study a specific Multiplex PCR protocol was developed, using one pair of universal primers from 18S rDNA as a positive control and a pair of specific primers for each target species. The sensitivity and specificity of the protocol was evaluated. It detected C. rhizophorae DNA in low concentrations, and C. brasiliana DNA in even lower concentrations. Further, the Multiplex PCR proved efficient in detecting DNA in concentrations equivalent to that of a single larva of each species, either separated or combined, when mixed with total DNA extract of a plankton sample representing 1000 L of filtered water. Field tests confirmed the applicability of the protocol, which holds the promise to become an important tool for aquaculture or conservation programs, allowing for the continuous monitoring of the life cycle of C. brasiliana and C. rhizophorae, by detecting the right periods of larval release and settlement.
Abstract in English:The biology of Branchiura sowerbyi Beddard, 1892 has been the focus of many studies in temperate regions, where the species is exotic, according to literature data. Due to its high productivity and easy cultivation, B. sowerbyi is of great interest as a food source for fish farming. The present study reports information on the reproductive biology and growth of B. sowerbyi under laboratory conditions at 25 ± 1ºC. Weekly observations during 52 weeks indicated that the time between cocoon laying and young hatching was 14 to 16 days, the specific daily growth rate was 0.91 ± 0.04% (mean ± SD) and the time to reach sexual maturity was 40.83 ± 6.88 days. As reported by other authors, the hatching rate observed was low (33.08%), but the survival rate of young was high, approximately 96%. Laboratory observations showed that B. sowerbyi has two annual reproductive cycles, the first (between the 5th and 24th week) being more pronounced than the second (between the 31st and 51st week) concerning the number of cocoons.
Abstract in English:Phoneutria bahiensis Simó & Brescovit, 2001 is a large ctenid spider inhabiting the states of Bahia and Espírito Santo, Brazil. Considering that it is probably endemic, this species was included in the Brazilian red book of threatened species. Here, we predict the distribution range of P. bahiensis using 19 bioclimatic variables in the model design. The most septentrional record for this spider was indicated for northern Bahia. The model predicts that the distribution range covers the Atlantic Forest from the state of Paraíba to Rio de Janeiro, with the best suitable area in the Atlantic Forest of the state of Bahia. The bioclimatic variable with the best contribution to the model was precipitation in the driest quarter. Based on collected data, the species inhabits Ombrophilous Forests and Restinga vegetation, two ecosystems of the Atlantic Forest biome. In the best-predicted area of distribution, eleven Conservation Units were included. This information could be considered for future conservation plans of this species.
Abstract in English:This study records and analyzes the diversity and structure of a snake assemblage in a transition area between Cerrado and Caatinga, in the municipality of Castelo do Piauí, state of Piauí, comparing the distribution and similarity of the species composition with other open localities already studied in Brazil. We used three complementary sampling methods: time constrained search (TCS), pitfall traps with drift fences (PFT), and incidental encounters (IE). During the TCS and PFT, 912 hours/observer and 6,468 days/trap were used, respectively. We estimated 23 species of snakes for the locality, although only 19 species were recorded. Philodryas nattereri Steindachner, 1870 (n = 10), Liophis poecilogyrus (Schlegel, 1837) (n = 9), Liophis viridis Günther, 1862 (n = 8) and Thamnodynastes sp. (n = 8) were the most abundant species. Terrestrial, cryptozoic, and diurnal snakes predominated in the assemblage (Boidae = 2 species, Dipsadidae = 12, Colubridae = 2, Elapidae = 1, Viperidae = 2). The results indicate that the fauna of the locality is similar with that of other open formations, especially the Caatinga, corroborating previous floristic studies. Comparisons between snake assemblages analyzed by different authors suggest structural differences between the assemblages of the Cerrado and the Caatinga, contradicting the hypothesis of mixed composition of fauna in these biomes.
Abstract in English:We tested experimentally the hypothesis that prevailing locomotion/feeding strategies and body morphology may lead to more active dispersal of free-living marine nematodes, besides passive transport. Neutral Red was applied to the sediment inside cores and the red plume formed during the flood tide was divided into near, middle, and distant zones. At 0.5 m and 1 m from the stained cores, sampling nets were suspended 5 and 10 cm above the sediment-water interface. Dispersion behaviors were defined as a function of a) the numbers of stained recaptured nematodes in comparison to their mean densities in the sediment, b) movement in the sediment or swimming in the water column, and c) body morphology. Tidal currents with average velocities of 9 cm/s resuspended the numerically dominant nematode taxa Sabatieria sp., Terschellingia longicaudata de Man, 1907, Metachromadora sp. and Viscosia sp. The recapture of stained nematodes as far as 2 m from the original stained cores showed that, despite their small body size, they can disperse through relatively large distances, either passively or actively, via the water column during a single tidal event. Recapture patterns in the sediment and in the water column indicate that nematode dispersal is directly influenced by their body morphology and swimming ability, and indirectly by their feeding strategies, which ultimately define their position in the sediment column. Besides stressing the role played by passive transport in the water column, our experiment additionally showed that mobility and feeding strategies also need to be considered as determinant of short-scale nematode dispersal.
Abstract in English:The anurofauna inhabiting higher montane Atlantic forest areas in southeastern Brazil, which often attain heights of more than 2000 m, is still insufficiently known. In this study, we present data on anuran species composition and abundances in two high-altitude (i.e. > 1000 m) sites within the Parque Estadual dos Três Picos (PETP), in the state of Rio de Janeiro. Field surveys were done at altitudes between 1100 and 1900 m above sea level. We recorded 35 species during our study, adding 22 records to the set of anuran species previously known to occur within the PETP. The stability of the species accumulation curve, as well as the richness estimations, showed that the sampling methodology employed and the total sampling effort were appropriate to inventory the anuran assemblages of both sites. Direct-developing frogs such as Ischnocnema parva (Girard, 1853) (at the 1100-1400 m altitude site), and Brachycephalus garbeanus Miranda-Ribeiro, 1920 (at the 1600-1900 m altitude site) were the most locally abundant species. None of the species recorded during the study is listed as threatened, though nine of them are currently considered endemic to the state of Rio de Janeiro. Furthermore, eight of the species recorded are likely restricted to high-altitude habitats. The relatively high diversity of anurans (some of them endemic to the state), the presence of species restricted to high-altitude habitats, and the occurrence of rare and presently undescribed species attest to the biological relevance of the studied areas within the PETP.
Abstract in English:This present study re-describes the megalopa stage and provides detailed morphological descriptions and main growth changes observed in stages I through VII of the juvenile instars of the dark shore crab Pachygrapsus gracilis (Saussure, 1858), from the Amazon region. The specimens in this study were reared in the laboratory and the megalopae were collected at Ajuruteua beach in northeastern Pará, Brazil. Previous studies had described the megalopa of P. gracilis from Mexican waters, as well as those of Pachygrapsus transversus (Gibbes, 1850) and Pachygrapsus marmoratus (Fabricius, 1787). A comparison between the Mexican and Amazonian populations of P. gracilis revealed significant morphological differences. The main difference is the presence of 3 elongated setae on the 5th pereiopods of individuals of the Amazonian population. The setal number and their arrangement in the appendages also differed. In P. gracilis, the male and female genital openings are observed from the juvenile instar III, whereas differentiation in male pleopods is observed only in juvenile instar V. In females, the pleopods undergo rapid differentiation during juvenile instar VI. These morphological comparisons and other observations on development are briefly compared and discussed with reports for other species.
Abstract in English:The intertidal sea-urchin Echinometra lucunter (Linnaeus, 1758) has been submitted to diluted sea water (SW) of salinity 25, or concentrated sea water of salinity 45. In addition, ionic challenges have been offered, supplementing 25 SW with Mg2+, Ca2+ or K+, until the concentration of each of these ions would reach the level of full-strength 35 SW (control). Perivisceral coelomic fluid has been sampled after six hours in these treatments for measurements of osmolality and concentrations of Na+, Cl-, Mg2+, Ca2+, and K+. Urchins have been further observed until five days. SW concentration (45) lead urchins to death after two days of exposure, while urchins tolerated five days in 25 SW without any sign of distress. Urchins displayed osmoconformation and ion-conformation for NaCl, and occasional small gradients with respect to the water for Mg2+ (~6% in full-strength SW), and K+ (8.5% in 25 SW), after six hours. These results are consistent with data compiled from the literature, for echinoderms, which frequently show positive gradients (often higher than 25%) for the most relevant ions, between the coelomic fluid and external SW. Supplemented cations have shown mutual interference, mostly affecting their own coelomic fluid concentrations. Under the protocol used here, urchins of the species E. lucunter held gradients for Mg2+, Ca2+, and K+, but not for Na+ or Cl- or osmolality. They were also able to tolerate at least a 30% reduction in sea water salinity for five days, showing reasonable euryhalinity. However, when compared to other echinoderms, E. lucunter is not especially capable of maintaining large ionic gradients with respect to external SW.
Abstract in English:The blood supply in the small intestine of seven Tamandua tetradactyla (Linnaeus, 1758), was studied. The method included preparation of the macroscopic collection report, perfusion of the arterial network with water (40ºC), injection of colored latex (Neoprene 650®, 2350-0003 Suvinil® dye), fixation in formaldehyde (10%), and preservation in ethanol (50%). For description and analyzes, dissection under mesoscopic light and photo documentation were performed. The small intestine of T. tetradactyla is irrigated by the cranial mesenteric artery, the ventral visceral branch of the abdominal aorta. The artery emerges from the retroperitoneum and disperses between the layers of the common mesentery, parallel to the caudal mesenteric artery. The primary cranial collateral branches irrigate the pancreas, duodenum, jejunum (13 arteries), ileum (14 vessels), and the cecocolic region. The arteries anastomose with adjacent vessels to form arches. Terminal branches are derived from these peri-intestinal arcs that reach into the intestine through the mesenteric boundary and form capillaries within the lining. The vascular pattern of the lesser anteater differs from those of other previously described vertebrates, but is similar to the pattern found in fetuses of domestic mammals during early intestinal development.
Abstract in English:Three complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control regions (CRs) of Chelodina rugosa (Ogilby, 1890), Chelus fimbriata (Schneider, 1783), and Podocnemis unifilis (Troschel, 1848) were firstly determined using Long-PCR method and the length were 1,016 bp, 1,149 bp, and 985bp, respectively. Together with CRs of Pelomedusa subrufa (Bonnaterre, 1789) and nearly complete CR of Podocnemis expansa (Schweigger, 1812) obtained from GenBank, the structural and evolutionary characteristics of mtDNA CRs in pleurodiran turtle were analyzed in this study. We identified three functional domains (TAS, CD, and CSB domains) as well as their conservation sequences (TAS, CSB-F, and CSB-1) according to their homology to those of other turtles. Within the TAS domain, an interrupted poly-C stretch was found in C. rugosa, C. fimbriata, and P. subrufa, which also exists in the published mt DNA CRs of Chrysemys picta (Schneider, 1783), Trachemys scripta (Thunberg in Schoepff, 1792), and Trionyx triunguis (Forskål, 1775). The analysis of the origin for the poly-C sequences in TAS domain from six turtles suggested that the poly-C sequences are more related to "goose hairpin" in birds rather than CSB2 in CSB domain. In the CSB domain, CSB2 and CSB3, which were determined in CRs of Cryptodira, were absent in Pleurodira CRs, indicating the regulative mechanisms of transcription may be varied in both two suborders and the lack of CSB2 and CSB3 could be proposed as one of diagnostic characters between Pleurodira and Cryptodira at molecular level. As for CR of other cryptodiran turtles, variable number of tandem repeats (VNTRs) in the 3' end of the CRs was found in the five pleurodiran turtles. Interestingly, the long repeated motifs from each species could form stable stem-loop secondary structures, suggesting that the repeated sequences may play an important role in regulating replication of the mitochondrial genome in Pleurodiran, and the secondary structures of VNTRs may provide some potential information in phylogenetic inference.
Abstract in English:Species of the shore-fly Parydra Stenhammar, 1844 from Brazil are reviewed with an emphasis on the fauna from southern Brazil, where one new species, Parydra arcuata sp. nov. - state of Paraná, municipality of Castro (8 km N, 24º45.3'S, 49º58.9'W) -, has been discovered and is herein described. To facilitate identification of species, we have included a diagnosis of the genus. We have also provided illustrations of structures of the male terminalia for all included species.
Abstract in English:Sisimitalia henriquei sp. nov. is described and illustrated based on specimens collected in Boquete, Panama. This new species can be easily distinguished from other congeneric species based on the external coloration and shape of the paraphyses. A key to the species of the genus is also presented.
Abstract in English:Egg and pupa of Lobeza dentilinea Schaus, 1901 are described and illustrated for the first time. Eggs are smooth, dome-shaped, and greenish at oviposition. Last instar larvae have an aposematic coloration and the chaetotaxy is very similar to other notodontines, except for the number of lateral setae: L. dentilinea has three instead of four lateral setae on abdominal segments A3-A6. Pupae are light brown and typical of the family, with the last abdominal segments broadly round. Evidence from the adult morphology supporting the placement of the genus in Notodontinae includes proboscis smaller than the length of the head, epiphysis with more than half the length of tibia, tarsal claws simple, and labial palpi short. Male and female are confidently associated, and a redescription of the species is presented based on both sexes. Larvae of L. dentilinea are here recorded feeding on a Melastomataceae.
Abstract in English:Acanthoscurria natalensis Chamberlin, 1917 is redescribed. The following species are considered junior synonyms of A. natalensis: A. cursor Chamberlin, 1917, A. fracta Chamberlin, 1917, A. rondoniae Mello-Leitão, 1923, A. chiracantha Mello-Leitão, 1923, and A. parahybana Mello-Leitão, 1926. All examined specimens, including the types, share the same general aspect, morphology of the sexual organs, color, and measurements. Acanthoscurria natalensis resembles A. paulensis Mello-Leitão, 1923 and A. chacoana Brèthes, 1909 in the general aspect, size, and by the morphology of the sexual organs: male palpal bulb with embolus ending like a shell, due to the prolateral and superior keels. It can be distinguished from these two species by the less developed keels and the longer embolus. The female resembles A. paulensis and A. chacoana by the fused base of the spermathecae and differs by the more evident lobes, projected from base. The distribution of A. natalensis is expanded to Brazilian states covering the Caatinga and the Cerrado biomes
Abstract in English:Two new species of Thaumastus (Thaumastus) from the state of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil, are described. They are diagnosed and characterized by the morphology of the shell and soft parts and compared with Brazilian species of the subgenus Thaumastus s.s. Martens, 1860. Thaumastus (T.) parvus sp. nov. is similar to T. (T.) baixoguanduensis Pena, Coelho & Salgado, 1996 but can be distinguished by the smaller size, smaller number of plates in the jaw, different number of follicle groups in the ovotestis and form of the fertilization complex. Thaumastus (T.) caetensis sp. nov. is similar to T. (T.) largillierti (Philippi, 1845) but differs by the width and the contour of the parietal side of the shell aperture. T. (T.) caetensis is also closer to Thaumastus (T.) baixoguanduensis but can be distinguished by the smaller dimensions (height, width and number of protoconch whorls), the lack of a transversal light band on the body whorl, the jaw with smaller number of plates, and the radula with 35 teeth. In the soft parts, this new species differs also in the number of follicle gatherings in ovotestis, fertilization complex with globose shape, and penian retractor muscle terminally and laterally attached to flagellum
Abstract in English:The mosquito Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) is the main vector of dengue and yellow fever viruses. Different methods have been used to control A. aegypti, including chemical and biological tools. However, chemical control can lead to a subsequent increase in the mosquitoes' insecticide resistance, and biological control represents an important method as an alternative to insecticide usage. Larvae from the Toxorhynchites genus (Diptera: Culicidae) are predators of other mosquitoes and represent a potential natural biocontrol agent of A. aegypti larvae. In the present work, A. aegypti larval survival was studied in the presence of the neotropical Toxorhynchites violaceus (Wiedemann, 1821) fourth instar larvae. Toxorhynchites violaceus consumption of A. aegypti increased during the 192 hours of the experiment and was more marked in the intervals between 96 and 120 hours and between 168 and 192 hours, when the A. aegypti survival reached 0%. During the fourth instar, T. violaceus increased its predation on A. aegypti larvae, possibly in order to increase its nutrient storage prior to pupation. Otherwise, low prey consumption can lead to a nutritional deficit for the larvae, delaying the adult's sexual development and reducing its egg production. Here we show that A. aegypti survival can be reduced by the T. violaceus fourth larvae predation under laboratory conditions
Abstract in English:Taunayia bifasciata (Eigenmann & Norris, 1900) is a small catfish that inhabits headwater streams of the Tietê and Paraíba do Sul river basins, southeastern Brazil, being restricted to the Atlantic rain forest. The species is found on lists of threatened species of Brazil and the state of São Paulo. Despite that, there is no literature information about the biology of the species. In the present study we endeavored to collect data on the biology of T. bifasciata. A total of 37 specimens were captured in two streams, Piracuama and Oliveiras. Of those, 22 were females, 14 were males and 1 specimen was immature. Adults with mature gonads were captured in all samples excepting the last, suggesting that T. bifasciata has a long reproductive season. The average fecundity was 319 oocytes/female (range 173-504), with diameters ranging from 0.183 to 2.135 mm. Seven different food items were found in the stomach contents of our subjects. Terrestrial insects and immature Plecoptera were the most frequent and most important food items in the diet of T. bifasciata
Abstract in English:New records of Hemigrammus ora Zarske, Le Bail & Géry, 2006, previously believed to be endemic to the French Guiana drainages, are confirmed for Brazilian drainages. The species is reported from the Tocantins-Araguaia system and lower Amazon River. Morphometric and meristic data, previously undescribed morphological traits related to caudal-fin squamation and anal-fin hooks, and geographic variation are presented for the species.