Abstract in English:Stereotyped behaviors in captive primates are often caused by unsuitable conditions. Environmental enrichment has been used to reduce these behaviors, and also to increase the frequency of behaviors appropriate to the species. In this pilot study we evaluated whether behavioral enrichment influences food intake by the black tufted-ear marmoset, Callithrix penicillata (É. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1812), by calculating energy maintenance requirements. We evaluated 16 individually housed, healthy adult black tufted-ear marmosets, randomly divided into two treatment groups, one with behavioral enrichment and one without. The enrichment techniques included structural aspects, such as placing fixed and mobile objects in the cage and supplying dry foods in an enriched form, in order to stimulate cognition. Based on the metabolic weight of the animals, we calculated the energy requirements for their maintenance. The animals that received behavioral enrichment consumed more food than those that did not. We also observed that the animals that did not receive enrichment consumed 9.85% less food than had been calculated for energy maintenance requirements, while the animals that received enrichment consumed 24.97% more food than had been calculated. Results indicate that the use of behavioral enrichment items raised the energy requirements of the black tufted-ear marmoset and, therefore, the consumption of dry food, suggesting that environmental enrichment plays a role in stimulating food consumption. This conclusion should alert scientists, technicians and primatologists to the importance of controlling body weight of marmosets when introducing environmental enrichment to avoid overfeeding and obesity. To verify this conclusion, a study is needed with a longer time frame and more parameters, such as behavior observation and body weight.
Abstract in English:The Atlantic Forest is considered a biodiversity hotspot for conservation, because its fauna and flora are highly endemic and suffer from loss of natural habitats. This study assessed the composition and diversity of tiger moths (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) in two floristic formations of the southern Atlantic Forest (grassland and Araucaria forest) and in a transition zone (forest edge). The moths were attracted to UV light reflected onto a white sheet. A total of 3,574 tiger moths were collected, representing 121 species. The rarefaction curves showed that the tiger-moth assemblage collected in the grassland was more diverse than the assemblages from the Araucaria forest and the transition zone. The assemblages in the forest and forest edge resembled each other, whereas the grassland assemblage was distinct. The composition of the tiger-moth assemblages was related to the environmental characteristics [habitat type (grassland, edge, or forest), altitude, temperature, air relative humidity] and the location of the sites. The faunal similarity decreased in response to increasing environmental and geographical distances between the sites. The responsiveness of tiger moths to small-scale variation in environmental and geographical parameters indicates their good potential as environmental indicators.
Abstract in English:The aim of the present study was to describe the species composition and reproductive modes of an anuran community from a transition area between the Amazonia and Cerrado biomes. Data were collected in habitats exhibiting different degrees of anthropogenic degradation. The community (35 species) identified during the present study presented a larger number of reproductive modes when compared with those from Cerrado communities, but smaller than those of other sites in the Amazon. While all nine modes were recorded in the gallery forests of local rivers and streams, anthropogenic habitats (rubber tree orchards and soybean fields) were occupied only by species adapted to environments where humidity is low, typical of the Cerrado. Overall, the anuran fauna of the study area was characterized by species that depend on access to water bodies for their reproduction, with only a few specialized species able to reproduce in dry environments.
Abstract in English:In the present study, we describe the diets of the fish assemblages in two streams in the Maringá region of Paraná that are under the influence of different anthropic impacts. We also evaluate how the origin and use of food resources varies temporally and spatially and how the trophic organization of the fish assemblages differs between the two streams. Fish were collected every two months from October 2006 to October 2007 using sieves, seining and closing nets along two 50 m stretches of each stream. We used the volumetric method to analyze the stomach contents of 599 fish belonging to 15 species. We then employed ANOSIM, SIMPER, NMDS and cluster analyses (using the Bray-Curtis index) to examine how different factors (species, stream, sampling site and season) influenced the diets of the assemblages. The dietary analysis revealed a total of 21 types of items consumed, with the most common being detritus and immature Diptera. Spatial factors resulted in differences in diets between the two streams, with detritus representing the material consumed most often in the Morangueiro stream and immature Diptera being the most consumed item in the Queçaba stream. SIMPER analysis indicated a 76.33% dissimilarity between species' diets during the dry and rainy seasons, with detritus, immature Diptera and testate amoebae making the greatest contributions to this differentiation. In the Morangueiro stream, three trophic guilds were found: detritivorous, detritivorous/aquatic insectivorous, and aquatic insectivorous. In Queçaba stream, six trophic guilds were present: detritivorous, benthophagous, aquatic insectivorous, terrestrial insectivorous, herbivorous and carnivorous. Autochthonous items were generally the items most consumed by species, in particularly in the Queçaba stream. In the Morangueiro stream, food items of indeterminate origin were more relevant. The differences in the diets of fish species between the two streams support the conclusion that urbanization causes the disruption of aquatic environments and trophic organization.
Abstract in English:The Port of Salvador (12°58'S, 38°30'W) receives cargo ships from different regions such as southeast Asia, North Atlantic, Mediterranean, Africa, North and South America. Thus, the presence of this port enhances the probability of new species arriving and establishing in Todos os Santos Bay (TSB), in which the port is located. Ascidians are sessile filter-feeding invertebrates with short lived larvae and thus are good indicators of bioinvasion. We surveyed the ascidian fauna on three different occasions: August 1999, June 2004 and December 2007. Nineteen species were identified belonging to the following families: Ascidiidae (Phallusia nigra, Ascidia cf. multitentaculata, A. nordestina, A. papillata, A. scalariforme, A. cf. tapuni, A. tenue), Corellidae (Rhodosoma turcicum), Pyuridae (Microcosmus anchylodeirus, M. exasperatus, M. helleri, Pyura vittata, Herdmania pallida), and Styelidae (Polycarpa cf. reviviscens, P. spongiabilis, P. tumida, Polycarpa sp., Styela canopus, Cnemidocarpa irene). Only A. nordestina, A. papillata, A. scalariforme and P. spongiabilis are possibly native to this region, while P. tumida and C. irene were classified as introduced. Microcosmus anchylodeirus, H. pallida, P. vittata, M. exasperatus, M. helleri, S. canopus, A. cf. multitentaculata, A. tenue and P. nigra were classified as cryptogenic. Most are widely distributed in all oceans and their native geographic distribution is unknown, while A. cf. multitentaculata and A. tenue occur only in the Atlantic, with disjunct distributions. Polycarpa cf. reviviscens, P. tumida and M. anchylodeirus are registered for the first time on the coast of Brazil. Colonial ascidians from this collection are still being studied. The large number of cryptogenic and introduced species indicates the necessity of monitoring TSB for expansion of these populations and the need for the establishment of control programs.
Abstract in English:We studied the trophic ecology and microhabitat use of the Asiatic toad, Bufo gargarizans Cantor, 1842; Guentheri frog, Rana guentheri (Boulenger, 1882); and the Ricefield frog, Rana limnocharis (Boie, 1834). These three species are common around Nanchong City, in southwestern China, where they live in the same habitat before hibernation. The main objective of this study was to analyze the diets and patterns of coexistence relative to the microhabitat of each species. In the Asiatic toad, based on index of relative importance, the diet was dominated by adult Coleoptera, Isopoda, and Hymenoptera (29.53%, 22.07%, and 15.20%, respectively), while the Guenther's frog and Ricefield frog ingested predominantly Orthoptera (67.44% and 40.94%, respectively). The standardized feeding niche breadth of the Asiatic toad (0.277) was wider than that of the Guentheri frog (0.177) and Ricefield frog (0.269). The overlap in the trophic niche (prey proportion) between the toad and two species of frog was low (toad vs. Guentheri frog, C H = 0.526; toad vs. Ricefield frog, C H = 0.521), while this was high for the two species of frogs (C H = 0.942). The three species also differed in microhabitat use. Asiatic toads showed strong preference for small roads close to shrubs or pre-harvest corn, while Guenther's frogs preferred bare surfaces on habitat edges, and Ricefield frogs showed a preference for bare surfaces as feeding sites in the middle of habitat. The difference in diet observed during three species seems to be explained by the difference in microhabitat use and body size of three species.
Abstract in English:This study assessed the coexistence of three species of thraira present in the Upper Paraná River floodplain, using population structure as an investigation tool. The species were designated as: Hoplias sp. 1, introduced after the construction of the Itaipu reservoir, and Hoplias sp. 2 and Hoplias sp. 3, native species that have been identified as Hoplias aff. malabaricus. We tested the hypothesis that those species in fact differ from each other in respect of population abundance, sex ratio, relative frequency of adults and juveniles, length structure and weight-length relationship. Additionally, possible effects of the flood pulse on the first four of these parameters were investigated. Samples were collected quarterly from March 2006 to December 2007 from nine collection sites on the floodplain. Hoplias sp. 1 presented a greater balance of sex ratio and length structures over the seasons, as well as a higher allometric coefficient. The population attributes of Hoplias sp. 2 and Hoplias sp. 3 showed a high responsiveness to hydrological seasonality, indicating that these species exploit available resources in a conspicuous flood period with greater efficiency. These differences, beyond reflecting possible mechanisms that allow closely related species to coexist, indicate the importance of understanding the life strategies adopted by each species which, as part of a complex system, are considered key elements of the aquatic community structure in the region, providing important information for habitat management and biodiversity conservation.
Abstract in English:This study characterized the morphology of the digestive tube of five species of sea turtles. We used specimens found dead along the coast of the state Rio Grande do Norte, as well as specimens accidentally killed as a result of pelagic longline fishing. Nineteen animals of the following species were analyzed: Chelonia mydas (Linnaeus, 1758) (n = 9), Lepidochelys olivacea (Eschscholtz, 1829) (n = 6), Caretta caretta (Linnaeus, 1758) (n = 2), Eretmochelys imbricata (Linnaeus, 1766) (n = 1) and Dermochelys coriacea (Vandelli, 1761) (n = 1). After opening the plastron, we removed the digestive organs and described the external and internal morphology of each organ. The esophagus of all species had pointed papillae on the mucosa. The stomach varied in shape among species. Differences were found in the mucosa of the small intestine. It was reticular in the duodenum, and longitudinal rectilinear in the jejunum/ileum. In all species an alternation of saccular and narrow regions was observed in the large intestine. The exception was D. coriacea, in which the mucosa of the entire large intestine had irregularly distributed folds. The pattern of the esophagus was the same in all species. The morphology of the stomach differed among species, and these differences reflect their diets. In addition, the distribution pattern of the folds on the mucosa of the small intestine varied between regions of the intestine and among species.
Abstract in English:Fingeriana reflexa sp. nov. is described and illustrated based on specimens collected in Camacan (Bahia) and Santa Teresa (Espírito Santo), Brazil. The new species can be distinguished from F. dubia Cavichioli, 2003 by the aedeagus narrowed towards the apex, with an apical pair of small triangular projections, and with a basal process laterally flattened and bent anteriorly on the apical portion. Notes comparing Fingeriana Cavichioli, 2003 to the similar Nielsonia Young, 1977 are provided.
Abstract in English:A new species of Tyrannoseira Bellini & Zeppelini, 2011 (Entomobryidae) is described and illustrated. Specimens of T. diabolica sp. nov. were collected in Barreira do Inferno, state of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. This is the fourth described species in the genus. All males of Tyrannoseira have the femora of the first pair of legs enlarged and slender tibiotarsi, both bearing several spine-like setae. Probably the closest species to T. diabolica sp. nov. is T. sex Bellini & Zeppelini, 2011. They share many similarities in their color pattern and dorsal chaetotaxy.
Abstract in English:Wolfniana viridis sp. nov. is described and illustrated based on specimens collected in the municipality of Ipixuna (along Liberdade and Gregório rivers), state of Amazonas, Brazil. The new species can be distinguished from the type-species, W. limbatula (Osborn, 1926), by the color pattern which lacks conspicuous orange markings on head, pronotum, and forewing commissure; and aedeagal shaft with apex broadly expanded. Based on specimens of Rotigonalia concedula Melichar, 1926 and R. curvula Cavichioli, 2000, collected along with W. viridis, Rotigonalia Young, 1977 is firstly recorded from the state of Amazonas and R. concedula is firstly recorded from Brazil.
Abstract in English:We make a historical review of the rates of descriptions of adult and larval forms of frogs of the three genera of Hylodidae: Crossodactylus Duméril & Bibron, 1841; Hylodes Fitzinger, 1826; and Megaelosia Miranda-Ribeiro, 1923. We analyze and compare the evolution of the number of descriptions of adults and tadpoles of the 42 species presently known in the family. There has been an increase in the number of descriptions of both adult and larval forms in the last decades. Nevertheless, the number of descriptions of tadpoles still does not match the number of adult forms described in Hylodidae. The great number of Hylodidae recent described and the continuous process of deforestation in Atlantic forest remnants emphasize the need to improve research efforts for this group.
Abstract in English:We studied the feeding habits and similarities in the diet of two sympatric and syntopic Amazonian frog species, Anomaloglossus stepheni (Aromobatidae) and Leptodactylus andreae (Leptodactylidae) in a forested area in Central Amazonia. The breadth of the trophic niche of these species was 5.89 and 3.75, respectively, and approximately 85% of their diets were similar. Ants were main food item in the diets of both frog species. The coexistence between these frog species may be facilitated by the significant differences in the size of their mouths. This difference allows them to consume preys items of different sizes.