Abstract in English:The Atlantic Forest is an excellent case study for the elevational diversity of birds, and some inventories along elevational gradients have been carried out in Brazil. Since none of these studies explain the patterns of species richness with elevation, we herein review all Brazilian studies on bird elevational diversity, and test a geometric constraint null model that predicts a unimodal species-altitude curve, the Mid-domain Effect (MDE). We searched for bird inventories in the literature and also analysed our own survey data using limited-radius point counts along an 800 m elevational gradient in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. We found 10 investigations of elevational diversity of Atlantic Forest birds and identified five different elevational patterns: monotonic decreasing diversity, constant at low elevations, constant at low elevations but increasing towards the middle, and two undescribed patterns for Atlantic Forest birds, trough-shaped and increasing diversity. The average MDE fit was low (r² = 0.31) and none of the MDE predictions were robust across all gradients. Those studies with good MDE model fits had obvious sampling bias. Although it has been proposed that the MDE may be positively associated with the elevational diversity of birds, it does not fit the Brazilian Atlantic Forest bird elevational diversity.
Abstract in English:We studied the feeding ecology of a population of Coleodactylus natalensis Freire, 1999, an endemic gecko of Atlantic Forest fragments in the state of Rio Grande do Norte, northeastern Brazil. Lizards (N = 49) were collected manually through active search in the four habitats of Parque Estadual Dunas de Natal, type locality of the species. In the laboratory, we measured the lizards and registered the number of consumed prey items identified to Order, its dimensions and frequencies. We also collected samples of leaf litter in each habitat to determine prey availability. Females were significantly larger than males, but head size did not differ between the sexes. The most important prey categories in the diet of C. natalensis based on number, volume and frequency were Isopoda and Araneae. Prey categories with highest importance indices in the diet were Isopoda, Araneae, Homoptera and Gryllidae. The diets of adult males and females were similar with respect to prey size, but differed qualitatively, mainly due to the larger trophic spectrum of females. We found some variations on trophic niche breadths and food preferences of lizards between habitats, but in general niche breadths were intermediate, and the most elected prey categories were Isopoda, Araneae, Homoptera and Thysanoptera. High electivities for Isoptera and Gryllidae occurred only in the open habitats (restinga and dunes), and for Mantodea in the forested habitats (high and low forest). Collembola was consumed in the same proportion of the environment, and Acarina and Formicidae had negative values of electivity, indicating rejection. We conclude that the population studied seems to have a selective diet, preferring relatively large prey items that are less abundant in the leaf litter, and possibly avoiding potentially toxic prey.
Abstract in English:The present study has assessed spatial and temporal variations in the length structure of Hemigrammus marginatus Ellis, 1911 and estimated growth parameters for the species. Sampling was carried out in five streams in the Vitória and Piravevê sub-basins of the Ivinhema River from January to December 2002. A total of 933 specimens of H. marginatus were caught (97 in the Vitória sub-basin and 836 in the Piravevê sub-basin). Mean length of the individuals caught in the Piravevê sub-basin was shorter (21.58 mm, SD = 4.67) than that of individuals caught in the Vitória sub-basin (29.24 mm, SD = 4.42). Analysis of condition factor calculated from the weight/length relationship revealed that the values were constant both spatially (between sub-basins) and temporally (throughout the year). In the Piravevê sub-basin, the theoretical maximal length estimated for this species was 37.26 mm, with natural mortality rate of 1.22 year¹, growth rate (k) of 0.66 year-1, and growth performance index (w) of 3.80 and 4.25 years of longevity. The input of new individuals in the population occurs twice per year, with greater recruitment at the peak of the rainy season (May) and the peak of the dry season (August).
Abstract in English:This study investigates the species richness and abundance of Drosophila Fallén, 1823 attracted to dung and carrion baited pitfall traps in natural areas with heterogeneous habitats at the Sierra de Minas, Eastern Serranías, southeastern Uruguay. Collecting was carried out on a monthly basis (May 2002 through April 2003). Drosophilids accounted for 0.84% (n = 131) and 3.61% (n = 158) of the Diptera collected from dung (n = 15,630) and carrion (n = 4,382) pitfall traps, respectively. A total of 12 species were identified, 11 of which belong to the subgenus Drosophila (the richest) and one to the subgenus Sophophora Sturtevant, 1939. Over 90% of the Drosophila specimens collected belong to five species of the subgenus Drosophila, namely D. gaucha Jaeger & Salzano, 1953, D. immigrans Sturtevant, 1921, D. mediovittata Frota-Pessoa, 1954, D. aff. nappae Vilela, Valente & Basso-da-Silva, 2004, and D. ornatifrons Duda, 1927. Drosophila cardini Sturtevant, 1916 is recorded for the first time from Uruguay. Drosophila abundance and species richness in the four habitats sampled in the Uruguayan Eastern Serranías, namely woodlands sierra, riparian forest, pine plantation and grazing grassland, were considered to be a function of habitat conservation. Diversity indices were low in all habitats. Different habitats supported particular coprophilous and necrophilous Drosophila species. The woodland sierra represents the most preserved habitat, and contributed with the highest species richness observed. Drosophila ornatifrons was the dominant species, with a restricted habitat distribution. On the other hand, grazed grassland, an environment modified by livestock management, had the lowest species richness: only a few specimens of D. repleta Wollaston, 1858. Regarding species composition, significant differences were found in some pairwise comparisons of groups of Drosophila species that included D. ornatifrons. Fly attraction to dung can be exploited as an alternative and/or complementary collecting method in ecological studies of Drosophila assemblages in natural areas.
Abstract in English:We evaluated geographic variation in New World porcupines of Coendou (Erethizontidae) from eastern Brazil by analyzing morphological data from museum specimens we identified as Coendou insidiosus and C. spinosus. Coendou insidiosus ranges from the states of Bahia to Espírito Santo, reaching the state of Minas Gerais in Brazil; C. spinosus extends from the states of Minas Gerais and Espírito Santo to the state of Rio Grande do Sul, in Brazil, extending into Paraguay, Uruguay, and northeastern Argentina. Our results indicate that there are three spatially coherent, morphologically distinct groups, which can be diagnosed using a combination of discrete morphological characters, and which are supported by univariate and multivariate statistical analyses. We classified members of the Northern group as C. insidiosus, which usually have several pale to light-brown unicolor thin hairs covering the dorsal and lateral quills. They are cranially and externally smaller than the other two groups, and have shorter hairs and quills. Specimens of the Central group are intermediate in terms of body size, and fit the description of C. spinosus, which have thick hairs covering the dorsal and lateral quills. These hairs are dark-brown at the base, and grayish, orange, yellow or light brown at the tip. The Southern group has the largest size and we classified it as a geographic variant of C. spinosus based on the conspicuous presence of large quills on the dorsal surface, which vary from yellowish or orange to blackish.
Abstract in English:The macroscopic anatomy of the stomach of the adult pampas deer, Ozotoceros bezoarticus (Linnaeus, 1758), a cervid species considered to ingest high quantities of grass in its natural diet, was described. Fourteen deceased adult pampas deer of both sexes from a captive breeding station were used for this study. There were no differences in the absolute or relative size from the different compartments of the stomach in relation to gender. Compared to measurements in other ruminants, pampas deer appeared anatomically capable of feeding on a variety of diets as an 'intermediate feeder'.
Abstract in English:A new species of beaked toad, Rhinella, is described from Itacaré (14°17'S, 38°60'W; 13 m altitude), State of Bahia, Northeastern Brazil. Rhinella skuki sp. nov. is related to R. boulengeri and distinguished by the size small (SVL 26.2 mm in male); head longer than wide; snout, viewed from above, long, narrow, spatulate, with lateral borders parallel and rounded tip; in profile, long, strongly acute; parotoid glands large, rounded; tympanum concealed; dorsum rugose, with rounded tubercles uniformly distributed; vocal sac and vocal slits absent; fingers slender, not webbed nor ridged; first finger hypertrophied, with a rounded nuptial pad on the inner surface; toes slender, slightly fringed; webbing absent; ground color of dorsal surfaces dark brownish gray with an interorbital bar and dorsolateral blotches clear brownish gray, leaving an apparent pattern of arrows on dorsum; venter and ventral surfaces of arms and thighs cream with diffuse gray stains and dots; gular region and chest dark brownish gray.
Abstract in English:The species of Euglossa Latreille, 1802 of the analis group inhabiting the Brazilian Atlantic forest are revised and identification keys for males and females are provided. Five species are recognized in the Atlantic forest: Euglossa cognata Moure, 1970, Euglossa marianae Nemésio, 2011, Euglossa roderici Nemésio, 2009 and two new species described here, Euglossa botocuda sp. nov. and Euglossa calycina sp. nov. These two new species have been misidentified by previous authors as Atlantic forest populations of, respectively, Euglossa iopyrrha Dressler, 1982 and Euglossa mixta Friese, 1899. Relevant morphological features are illustrated and distribution maps are also provided. Notes on the analis group are included and an additional available name, Euglossa aureiventris Friese, 1899, is placed in this species group.
Abstract in English:The type species of the Neotropical Actinopus, A. tarsalis Perty, 1833, is redescribed based on material from the type locality, the state of Piauí, Brazil. The species appears to be restricted to northeastern Brazil and is newly recorded from the state of Sergipe. An old record from the state of Rio Grande do Sul is rejected. Actinopus tarsalis differs from other species of the genus by details of the male copulatory bulb: tegular apophysis absent, robust embolar base, inserted basally at a right angle (90°); embolar apices apex flattened and expanded, arrow-shaped in dorsal view.
Abstract in English:Petrichus athleticus Mello-Leitão, 1944 was described from Punta Piedras, Argentina, based on male and female specimens. The species was originally wrongly assigned to Petrichus Simon, 1886 because it has the cephalic region more elevated than the carapace region. However, examination of the holotype has revealed the presence of lateral eye tubercles, and legs I and II longer and stouter than legs III and IV. These characteristics are considered synapomorphic for the Thomisidae. Furthermore, the presence of an epigynal hood (type "hood pocket"), RTA long with simple base and modified apex, absence of tutaculum, and short setae on the surface of the carapace and abdomen corroborate that P. athleticus belongs to Misumenoides F.O.P.-Cambridge, 1900. In this paper, we assign P. athleticus to Misumenoides, redescribe the species, illustrate it for the first time, and extend its known distribution.
Abstract in English:Five species of Scolelepis have been reported for the Brazilian coast. This study raises this number, with two new records: S. acuta Treadwell, 1914, originally from Eastern Pacific, and Scolelepis andradei Delgado-Blas, Díaz & Liñero-Arana, 2009, from the Caribbean Sea. Furthermore, two species were found to have an expanded geographic range along the Brazilian coast: Scolelepis lighti Delgado-Blas, 2006 and Scolelepis goodbodyi Jones, 1962.