Resumo em Inglês:The present study investigated the reproductive biology of Sciades herzbergii in the Paraíba do Norte River Estuary, Brazil. We aimed to characterize the reproduction of the species with respect to sex ratio, spawning season, condition factor and length at first maturity. Specimens were captured between August 2009 and July 2010 in a stretch of the main channel of the estuary. In the laboratory, they were measured, weighed and macroscopically classified with regard to sex and gonad development stage, and their gonads were weighted. The monthly distribution of the sexes and their respective stages of maturation were determined. The gonadosomatic index (GSI), condition factor (K) and the length at first maturity were calculated for males and females. The sex ratio was determined monthly and throughout the entire study period and the chi-square test was used to evaluate if the sex ratio differed from 1:1. The Pearson's correlation test was used to determine the correlation between GSI and K values. A total of 260 individuals were captured. It was impossible to determine the sex of 32 individuals, possibly due to their young age. The sex ratio did not differ throughout the overall study period, but significant differences were found in December and May, with a predominance of females, and in March, when males predominated. Spawning activities were concentrated between December and March, as determined by the greater incidence of mature females and higher GSI values. The spawning of the S. herzbergii population is characterized as staggered due to its long duration. For females, K values were not significantly correlated with the GSI, but the decrease in K values in the spawning period indicates that energy is being spent in reproduction. With regard to males, the distribution of developmental stages did not follow the same clear pattern as that seen with females. However, the GSI indicated a greater investment in gonads in October, with a decrease up to July (end of the data acquisition period). For males, K values exhibited a positive correlation with GSI, with a gradual decrease beginning in February up to July, indicating energy that energy was being consumed, which was certainly related to the mouth brooding of eggs and neonates. Mean length at first maturity was 212 mm for females and 240 mm for males. Sciades herzbergii completes its lifecycle in the estuary and exhibits post-spawning parental care. This species is abundant in the estuary studied and information on the reproductive biology of this resident is necessary to the management of the estuarine environment.
Resumo em Inglês:Lithobates catesbeianus (Shaw, 1802) is an invasive anuran introduced in Brazil that is associated with the displacement and the decline of populations of native species worldwide. There is evidence that biological invasions are facilitated by certain attributes of the invading species, for instance niche breath, and that invasive species have a broader ecological niche with respect to native ones. We designed a study to ascertain the temporal, ontogenetic, and sex differences in the niche dynamics of the American bullfrog. We sampled monthly from June 2008 to May 2009 in the state of Paraná, southern Brazil. For each individual, we gathered biometric and stomach content data. We then estimated the niche breath of the juveniles and adults, and compared it between the sexes. A total of 104 females and 77 males were sampled. Lithobates catesbeianus has a generalist diet, preying upon invertebrates and vertebrates. Even though the diet of the studied population varied seasonally, it did not differ between the sexes nor did it respond to biometric variables. Niche breadth was more restricted in the winter than in the autumn. The trophic niche of juveniles and adults did not overlap much when compared with the trophic niche overlap between males and females. Adult males and females had a considerable niche overlap, but females had a broader trophic niche than males in the winter and in the spring. These niche characteristics point to an opportunistic predation strategy that may have facilitated the process of invasion and establishment of this species in the study area.
Resumo em Inglês:Geographical variation in biophysical conditions may strongly influence the life history characteristics of widely distributed species, such as the Brazilian sharpnose shark, Rhizoprionodon lalandii (Müller & Henle, 1839). Here, we use original and secondary data of reproductive traits of R. lalandii to identify population differences among northern/northeastern and southern Atlantic waters of South America. In the southeast region, birth occurs between December and March, and the young become frequent along the coast between April and September. Mating occurs mainly between March and June, when females with bite marks are common. Females in early pregnancy occur between March and September. The reproductive cycle of R. lalandii in the northern/northeastern region was approximately six months ahead of the cycle described for the southeastern region. These results support the hypothesis that environmental conditions in the North-Northeast and Southeast generate differences in life history traits, resulting in at least two distinct populations along the Brazilian coast.
Resumo em Inglês:Dolphin interactions with fishermen have increased significantly and pose potential risks to the boto, Inia geoffrensis (Blainville, 1817), and the tucuxi, Sotalia fluviatilis (Gervais & Deville, 1853). The main objective of the present paper was to describe the existing conflicts between river dolphins and fishermen in the municipality of Manacapuru region. Sixteen fishermen were interviewed in Manacapuru, state of Amazonas, Brazil who described a situation of ongoing conflict that may be unsustainable. Two merchants from Manacapuru made unconfirmed reports on a boto carcass trade. Data collection for this study occurred between April 20th and April 25th, 2009, but the first author had been conducting research on river dolphins and fisheries in Manacapuru and nearby cities since the beginning of 2008, in order to gain the trust of the fishermen interviewed. The hunting and deliberate killing of the species is probably more threatening to botos than their incidental capture in fishing gears in the Manacapuru region. This practice may result from the fact that dolphins are prone to damaging fishing equipment, and stealing (and possibly damaging) fish from the nets. They are portrayed negatively in numerous myths and superstitions of traditional Amazonian folklore, making them extremely undesired or even hated, seen as pests, and used in the piracatinga, Calophysus macropterus (Lichtenstein, 1819) fishery as bait. For tucuxis, incidental capture still represents the major threat to their conservation in the region evaluated here.
Resumo em Inglês:The Brazilian Atlantic Forest harbors the world's richest areas of land planarians (Platyhelminthes: Tricladida). Nevertheless, the number of undiscovered species from this biological unit remains seemingly high. Herein we describe Geoplana piriana Almeida & Carbayo, sp. nov. from the state of Rio de Janeiro, and Geoplana tingauna Kishimoto & Carbayo, sp. nov. from the state of Santa Catarina. Each species shows a dorsum with a unique color pattern among Geoplaninae species. Their internal morphology also differs: G. piriana sp. nov. shows a unique combination of features, including an extrabulbar, non-bifurcated prostatic vesicle, a non-folded male atrium, a horizontal, cylindrical penis papilla, a female atrium anteriorly narrowed, and lined with an epithelium with multilayered aspect. Geoplana tingauna sp. nov. possesses a prostatic vesicle constituted of a pair of branches opening into the very distal portion of a tubular, unpaired portion, a feature not seen in other Geoplaninae species.
Resumo em Inglês:Four new species of the pyramidellid Odostomiinae from Brazil are described: Chrysallida conifera sp. nov., characterized by a small and regularly conical shell with prominent nodules; Parthenina biumbilicata sp. nov., characterized by a deep and wide umbilicus and a regularly increasing aperture diameter at the protoconch, which bears a small circular umbilicus; Eulimastoma franklini sp. nov., which is very similar to Eulimastoma dydima (Verrill & Bush, 1900) but has a prominent helicoid protoconch; Eulimastoma exiguum sp. nov., similar to Eulimastoma weberi (Morrison, 1965) but without spiral ridges. Fargoa diantophila (Wells & Wells, 1961) and Chrysallida nioba (Dall & Bartsch, 1911) are reported from the southwestern Atlantic for the first time.
Resumo em Inglês:Campylothorax Schött, 1893 is a genus of Paronellidae known only from the Neotropical and Ethiopian zoogeographic provinces. Herein a new species of this genus is described and illustrated. Campylothorax mitrai sp. nov. was found in remains of Atlantic Rainforest at Rio Largo municipality, state of Alagoas, Brazil. It is the ninth described species of Campylothorax and the third recorded from Brazil. Campylothorax mitrai sp. nov. can be distinguished from other species of the genus by its peculiar dark blue color pattern associated to a unique set of setae in the labial triangle, where there is a large distinct seta 'E'. This condition is unique among Campylothorax species. Campylothorax mitrai sp. nov. is the first record of Collembola from Alagoas.
Resumo em Inglês:Nine Neotropical species of Bruchomyia Alexander, 1920 have been previously described, all from South America. A new species of this rare genus, collected in caverns of the state of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil, is described and named Bruchomyia mineira sp. nov. The new species is morphologically similar to B. argentina Alexander, 1920, but they can be differentiated from each other by characters of the eyes, M2 vein and base of gonostylus.
Resumo em Inglês:This paper deals with two species of Scoposcartula Young, 1977 that are very similar to each other externally (form and color pattern): S. frontaliana (Metcalf, 1955) comb. nov. (from the state of Bahia, NE. Brazil) and S. talitae Leal, Mejdalani & Cavichioli, 2005 (from the state of Espírito Santo, SE. Brazil). The former species, previously positioned in Amblyscarta Stål, 1869, is redescribed and a male specimen is selected as the lectotype. The previously unknown female of the latter species is described for the first time. Scoposcartula frontaliana can be distinguished from S. talitae by features of the male and female genitalia. The most remarkable difference is in the male pygofer, which has a conspicuously concave posterior margin in S. frontaliana, whereas it is convex in S. talitae. The posterior margin of the female sternite VII is convex in S. frontaliana, whereas in S. talitae it has a pair of shallow concavities and a median dentiform projection.
Resumo em Inglês:The male holotype of Hapalopus nondescriptus Mello-Leitão, 1926 is redescribed, illustrated and compared with freshly collected specimens from the type locality. The only difference noted among the holotype and the new material concerns the development of the subapical keel. Its taxonomic position is reinterpreted and discussed, resulting in its transfer to the genus Vitalius Lucas, Silva Junior & Bertani, 1993, and thus making the new combination Vitalius nondescriptus (Mello-Leitão, 1926) comb. nov. The female is described for the first time and the morphological variations in two males, born from the female used in the description, is presented and illustrated. The male differs from those of other Vitalius species by the palpal bulb with short apical keel and bifid tibial spur with narrow prolateral branch and almost straight retrolateral branch. The female differs from those of other Vitalius species by urticating hair of 'type I' having the region 'a' shorter than region 'b'. Hapalopus nondescriptus has a confusing taxonomic history, since the holotype specimen was also used to describe another theraphosid species (Cyclosternum melloleitaoi Bücherl, Thimoteo & Lucas, 1971) which was, consequently, considered its objective synonym. Thus, we consider it a clear example of theraphosid taxonomical chaos.
Resumo em Inglês:Cryptocellus canga sp. nov. is described from specimens collected in several caves at Carajás National Forest, Pará, Brazil. The new species differs from other species of the genus by the morphology of copulatory apparatus of the male leg III.
Resumo em Inglês:A new species of Tipuana Melichar, 1926, T. similis sp. nov., is described and illustrated based on specimens from the state of Amazonas, northern Brazil. The new taxon is externally very similar to T. chirensis Young, 1977. It can be distinguished from the latter and from the other known species of the genus mainly by the aedeagus with a triangular, posteriorly directed projection between the basidorsal apodemes, and with shaft not expanded apically and bearing two sharp, short apical processes curved dorsally. Diagnostic features of the new species are also found in the paraphysis, which is symmetrical, expanded towards the apex and with a round apical excavation. A key to the species of Tipuana (males) is added.
Resumo em Inglês:A new genus of Neocoelidiinae, Placoscopana gen. nov. is proposed and its type-species Placoscopana nigrilinea sp. nov. is described and illustrated based on a male specimen from Ecuador (Orellana Province). Placoscopana gen. nov. is very similar externally to Coronalidia Marques-Costa & Cavichioli, 2007, but differs mainly by the male genitalia: pygopher short with posterior margin approximately truncated; subgenital plates, in dorsal view, with a tuft of setae at apex; and aedeagus with two parallel ventral rows of small spines on the apical half of the shaft.
Resumo em Inglês:In eusocial bees, workers and queens are diploid (2n), whereas males are haploid (n). However, in some species, including the stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides Lepeletier, 1836, 2n males arise from fertilized eggs resulting from the crossing between a queen and her brother. In the present study, we provide a comparative analysis of the digestive and regenerative cells in n and 2n pupae and adult males of M. quadrifasciata anthidioides. In n and 2n pupae and adult males, the number of regenerative cells/nest was similar. In n and 2n pupae, the mean number of digestive cells/midgut area was 2076 ± 0.60, whereas in adults it was 1234 ± 1.42 digestive cells/midgut area. The nuclear area of the digestive cells was also similar in both n and 2n adult males (~154 µm²) and smaller in pupae (~91 µm²); this variation might be a result of DNA amplification in digestive cells during bee development. The results from our current study provide further understanding of the morphological and physiological aspects of the digestive tract of bees and show that the ploidy difference between n and 2n male stages does not affect the number of digestive and regenerative cells in the midgut of M. quadrifasciata anthidioides.
Resumo em Inglês:The monotypic diplurid Metriura Drolshagen & Bäckstam, 2009 is placed in synonymy with Fufius (Cyrtaucheniidae) syn. nov. since Metriura lacks two of three diplurid synapomorphies (elongate posterior lateral spinnerets and the widely separated posterior median spinnerets) and shares synapomorphies with both aporoptychine cyrtaucheniids (subquadrate maxilla and a longer than wider labium) and Fufius (recurved and broad fovea, the typical incrassate tibia I of the male, with the spur having a single short branch and an apical megaspine, the basally curved metatarsus I and provided with a ventral tubercle). The type species of Metriura, M. striatipes Drolshagen & Bäckstam, 2009 is considered valid, and due to the synonymy of Metriura with Fufius, Fufius striatipes (Drolshagen & Bäckstam, 2009) comb. nov. is established.