Abstract in English:It is time for an expansion and enrichment of evolutionary theory. The "back to the future" proposal contained herein is based on three postulates: 1) Neo-Darwinism is too impoverished for this task; 2) its predecessor, Darwinism, contained the necessary breadth of vision and metaphor to be the basis for an inclusive and unifying theory of biology; and 3) the necessary framework for this new stage in the evolution of evolutionary theory is largely in place. We make our case through the use of a number of metaphorical dualisms designed to help focus discussions toward a more cooperative and productive approach to the study of living systems. Along the way, we suggest a number of self-induced paradoxes in neo-Darwinian accounts of evolution that are resolved by our perspective.
Abstract in English:Arthropods are the most diverse and abundant group of animals found in tropical lowland forests, and in light of ongoing global change phenomena, it is essential to better understand their responses to anthropogenic disturbances. Here we present a review of arthropod responses to forest deforestation and fragmentation based on studies conducted at the Biological Dynamics of Forest Fragments Project (BDFFP), located in central Amazonia. These studies involved a wide range of arthropod groups. All but one of the studies evaluated changes in total species number or species density in relation to fragment size, (i.e. area effects), and one-third also evaluated edge effects. Our review indicates that almost every arthropod group studied showed some kind of response to reduction in forest area, including altered abundances, species richness or composition in comparisons of different-sized fragments, fragmented and non-fragmented areas, or comparisons of forest edges and forest interiors. These responses tended to be idiosyncratic, with some groups showing predicted declines in abundance or diversity in the fragments while others show no response or even increases. However, some of the observed effects on arthropods, or on the ecological processes in which they are involved, were transient. The most likely explanation for this was the rapid development of secondary growth around fragments, which greatly increased the connectivity between fragments and the remaining forest. Although the BDFFP has provided many insights regarding the effects of forest fragmentation on arthropod assemblages, many diverse groups, such as canopy arthropods, have received scant attention. For those that have been studied, much remains to be learned regarding the long-term dynamics of these assemblages and how landscape context influences local biodiversity. The BDFFP remains an exceptional site in which to investigate how the ecological interactions in which arthropods are engaged are altered in fragmented landscapes.
Abstract in English:Limnoperna fortunei (Dunker, 1857), during its invasion process in South America, has caused severe impacts both on natural environments altering native biodiversity, ecosystem structure and function-, and on man-made structures causing economic looses. Twenty-one samples were taken from the right bank of the Uruguay River, from tributaries of the Uruguay and Paraná Rivers, the drainage of the Esteros del Ibera Wetland. Based on this fieldwork, the presence of larvae and adults of L. fortunei was determined. Also, through the comparison of environmental characteristic with the known tolerance limits for the species, the possibility of its establishment in environments not yet invaded was determined. Most of the sampling stations have features that allow the development of stable populations L. fortunei, including the rivers that drain the Esteros del Ibera, allowing access of this invasive species to this important wetland.
Abstract in English:The genetic variability of populations of Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) is often low due to the intense selection pressure caused by chemical control measures. In this study, we evaluated the susceptibility of larvae and adults of this mosquito to chemical insecticides, the frequency of the Val1016IIe mutation, and the genetic variability of the mitochondrial ND4 gene fragment in the urban area of Foz do Iguaçu, Paraná. The populations of A. aegypti in the southern and central regions of the city were resistant to the diagnostic dose of temephos 0.0162 ppm. Additionally, we detected difference in susceptibility in the northern population. The resistance ratios (RR95) were 3.8, 4.1, and 4.6 for the populations in the north, central, and south of the city, respectively. The entire population of A. aegypti in Foz do Iguaçu is resistant to pyrethroids. The mortality rates are as follows: 72.2% for cypermethrin (CD: 146 mg i.a./m²) and 57% for deltamethrin (CD: 18 mg i.a./m²). These results corroborate the hypothesis that the mutated 1016Ile allele is present in all analyzed strata. Out of the 234 samples genotyped for the Val1016Ile mutation, 15% were homozygous dominant for the wild allele (Val/Val), 62% were heterozygous (Va/Ile) and 23% were homozygous for the recessive mutation (Ile/Ile). With respect to the genetic variability of the mitochondrial ND4 gene fragment, 93% of the sequences analyzed belonged to haplotype 1, and 7% belonged to haplotype 2. The genetic diversity was low, the fixation index was not significant, and gene flow was high. The control of A. aegypti in Foz do Iguaçu using temephos and pyrethroids may be compromised because of the reduced vector susceptibility. Populations of A. aegypti, that undergoes a sudden reduction in effective population size and become resistant to pyrethroids may differ from the original population in vector capacity.
Abstract in English:We describe a new species of Cyrtoneuropsis Malloch, 1925 (Diptera, Muscidae) from Brazil. The new species is included in a previously published key to species. Additionally, we review a previously published matrix to Cyrtoneurina Giglio-Tos, 1893 and Cyrtoneuropsis. A total of 52 character states were modified and the new species was added to it. The modified matrix was analyzed under equal and implied weights. In all topologies, Cyrtoneuropsis spiloptera (Wiedemann, 1830) came up as the sister group of the new species. The monophyly of Cyrtoneurina and Cyrtoneuropsis were recovered, but the relationships among their species, in our data, differ from those obtained in the past.
Abstract in English:The following new species are described - Cerambycinae, Sydacini: Sydax flechtmanni sp. nov. from Brazil (São Paulo); Eburiini: Ebrodacrys biffipradorum sp. nov. from Brazil (Roraima); - Lamiinae, Pteropliini: Ataxia piauiensis sp. nov. from Brazil (Piuaí); Calliini: Amucallia carbonaria sp. nov. from French Guiana; A. citrina sp. nov. from Guiana. Also in Lamiinae, two new genera of Onciderini are proposed. Ubytyra gen. nov., type species U. tuberosa sp. nov. from Peru (Junin) e Japi gen. nov., type species J. duartei sp. nov., from Brazil (São Paulo); Ubytyra gen. nov. can be distinguished by the sides of prothorax with long central spine rounded at apex, and this new feature among Onciderini is discussed. Japi gen. nov., is characterized by a fringe of long hairs on the inner side of antennomere III, present only in species from North and Central America, and gender comparison of these species is done and discussed. In Hemilophini, Pseudotacocha gen. nov., type species P. magnifica sp. nov. from Peru (Cuzco), are described. The new genera can be distinguished by eyes well developed, elytra with two carinae and the apices outer with short spine; a comparison with related genera is done.
Abstract in English:The tribe Talipedini Deitz is redefined and its boundaries are expanded with the inclusion of the following taxa: Erechtia Walker, 1858 (formerly placed in Membracini), Pseuderechtia gen. nov. (type species: Leioscyta neivai Fonseca, 1941), and Talipes Deitz, 1975 gen. reval. (formerly junior synonym of Trinarea Goding, 1926, the latter herein considered new synonym of Erechtia). Along with these taxonomic rearrangements, some nomenclatural changes are also introduced. The species treated in this paper are: Erechtia gibbosa (DeGeer, 1773), E. carinata (Funkhouser, 1922) comb. nov., E. cristalta sp. nov. (type locality: French Guyana, Saül), E. diminuta sp. nov. (type locality: Brazil, Pará, Marituba), E. elongatula sp. nov. (type locality: French Guyana, Montagne des Chevaux), E. sallaei (Fowler, 1894), and E. sanguinolenta (Fairmaire, 1846); Pseuderechtia neivai (Fonseca, 1941) comb. nov. = Leioscyta similis Fonseca & Diringshofen, 1969 syn. nov.; Talipes appendiculatus (Fonseca, 1936) comb. rest. and T. fenestratus (Strümpel, 1974) comb. nov. Due to the inclusion of Erechtia in Talipedini, Tropidoscyta Stål, 1869 is reinstated (in Membracini), and 24 species previously included in Erechtia are considered as incertae sedis within Membracini. A key to genera and new distribution records of the treated taxa are also provided.
Abstract in English:Libinia spinosa H. Milne Edwards in Guérin, 1832 and L. ferreirae Brito Capello, 1871, inhabit very similar environments, and their geographic and bathymetric distributions overlap for about 3000 km along the southwestern Atlantic. Both species are commonly caught in the same haul and differentiating between them can often be difficult. Traditionally, morphological differentiation between L. spinosa and L. ferreirae has been based exclusively on the number of spines along the median, longitudinal line of the carapace and the development of a process at the anterolateral angle of the basal segment of the antenna. Because Libinia spinosa and L. ferreirae share similar numbers of median spines (7 and 6, respectively), and the number of median spines of the carapace and the process at the anterolateral angle of the basal antennal segment are variable, they are of little value in separating these species. It is shown herein that unequivocal identification can be easily achieved based on features of the male and female thoracic sternum, pereiopod dactyli, and infraorbital notch. A lectotype is designated for L. spinosa and its authorship and date are corrected. Libinia gibbosa A. Milne-Edwards, 1878, is demonstrated to be a junior synonym of L. ferreirae. The holotype of L. gibbosa is figured for the first time.
Abstract in English:Four new species, Daedaloscarta erwini sp. nov. (Peru: Loreto), D. maculata sp. nov. (Brazil: Amazonas), D. mene sp. nov. (Ecuador: Orellana), and D. redacta sp. nov. (Brazil: Amazonas) are described and placed in the new genus Daedaloscarta gen. nov. Species of the new genus can be readily distinguished from other Cicadellini genera by their: (1) dark brown to black dorsal coloration with contrasting large ivory spots; (2) crown produced and round anteriorly (Figs 1-8); (3) pronotum narrower than transocular width of head, with lateral margins parallel; (4) male pygofer with pair of acute finger-like processes arising at dorsal margin directed inwardly and ventrally; (5) subgenital plates with apical two-thirds very slender; (6) aedeagus very large with shaft elongate, with an unpaired basidorsal, elongate bifurcate basiventral, and paired retrorse lateral processes at midlength of shaft; and (7) paraphyses bifurcate and slender. All known specimens are associated with terra firme or flooded Amazonian forests and were collected by light trapping or insecticidal fogging.
Abstract in English:Ischnura mahechai sp. nov. is described and illustrated based on specimens collected at the Eastern Andean mountain range of Colômbia. The species is close to Ischnura cruzi De Marmels, 1987 but differs from it by the structure of male anal appendages and female hind prothoracic lobe. The specimens were collected on a small Andine lake at 3,600 m, the 4th altitudinal record for a resident odonate.