Abstract in English:The last-instar nymph of Alcmeone robustus (Butler, 1877) (Membracidae, Darninae, Darnini) is described and illustrated, and some biological and behavioral notes are provided. The nymphs were observed on Pera sp. (Euphorbiaceae) in the locality of Jacareí, state of São Paulo, Brazil, until they became adults. The newly emerged adults, male and female, are also briefly re-described.
Abstract in English:We obtained data on time of sexual maturity, dimorphism, fecundity and on the reproductive cycle of Mastigodryas boddaerti (Sentzen, 1796) through the examination of 321 preserved specimens, of which 221 were collected in the Brazilian Amazon region and 100 in the Cerrado savannas of Central Brazil. The degree of sexual size dimorphism (snout-vent length, SVL) was significantly greater in the specimens from the Cerrado in comparison with those from the Amazon. Females had a significantly larger number of ventral scales, on average, whereas males had more sub-caudal scales. However, there was no intersexual difference in tail length or head width, although the heads of the males were significantly longer, which may reflect dietary differences. Breeding females from the Amazon region contained between one and six eggs (N = 12, mean = 3.0), whereas two females from the Cerrado had four to six eggs (N = 10, mean = 5.0). No relationship was found between the SVL of the Amazonian females and the number of eggs or vitellogenic follicles they contained (Cerrado females were not analyzed here due to small sample size). Males are smaller than their female counterpart when they reach sexual maturity. Even though females from the Amazon reproduce throughout the year, females from the Cerrado breed seasonality.
Abstract in English:Human expansion has drastically affected wildlife species across Amazonian waterways and the continued increase in rural populations across Amazonia is likely to increase pressure on widely exploited chelonian species. The lack of information evaluating determinants of human consumption patterns limits the effective implementation of conservation strategies. Our objective was to determine the relative importance of social, economic, and spatial variables on human exploitation of Podocnemis unifilis Troschel, 1848 around a sustainable-use protected area in the eastern Brazilian Amazon. We conducted interviews with 51 riverine residents to evaluate attitudes towards and exploitation of P. unifilis. We used multimodel inference to evaluate 12 working hypothesis predicting social, economic, and spatial influences on the occurrence and intensity of P. unifilis egg consumption. None of the respondents reported catching and/or eating adult P. unifilis and none sold adults or eggs during the previous year. Although the majority (58.8%) of respondents had eaten P. unifilis eggs during the previous year and the species was occasionally caught in fishing nets, P. unifilis was rarely cited as a liked or disliked species. Our information theoretic analysis showed that spatial hypotheses were the most strongly supported whereas social and economic hypotheses were only weakly supported in explaining if and how many P. unifilis eggs had been consumed by riverine residents during the previous year. Our findings suggest that current Amazonian development patterns may be associated with reduced consumption of adult P. unifilis, but consumption of eggs together with other indirect anthropogenic perturbations continue to threaten remaining P. unifilis populations.
Abstract in English:Few studies have focused the vertical structure of bat assemblages, and how it influences community composition. The goal of this study was to analyze the vertical structure of an assemblage of bats in a forest fragment in southern Brazil. Bats were sampled using mist-nets placed at three heights (understory, below-canopy, and canopy). Forest strata were compared with respect to their species richness and diversity. The latter was estimated using the Shannon-Wiener index (H'), and the statistical significance of differences among strata was assessed using t tests. We used an index of Constancy (C) to determine the frequency of a given species in each vegetation stratum, such that a species was considered as "frequent" (C > 50), "less frequent" (25 < C < 50) and "occasional" (C < 25). We captured 485 bats belonging to two families and 24 species. In the understory layer, we captured 173 individuals in 13 species, which resulted in a diversity index of H' = 1.981. In the under-canopy, 153 individuals were caught in 18 species and the resulting diversity index was H' = 2.509. Finally, in the canopy, 159 bats were caught, in 22 species, with the resulting diversity index of H' = 2.442. In the understory and in the canopy, only one species Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818) was classified as "frequent." Four species A. lituratus, Sturnira lilium (É. Geoffroy, 1810), Anoura geoffroyi Gray, 1838, and Eptesicus diminutus Osgood, 1915 were classified as "less frequent" in the under-canopy stratum. All other species recorded in each stratum were classified as "occasional." The studied bat assemblage showed vertical stratification, with the higher strata harboring increased diversity. Our study shows how important it is to sample the upper levels of a forest fragment to obtain a more representative understanding of the use of space by a bat assemblage.
Abstract in English:The present study compares fish species composition, dominance, and size-structure patterns at an open sand beach area (32°15'S, 52°46'W) in Mirim Lake, RS, Brazil, estimated from samples collected with two distinct beach seine nets. The BS-9m net is 9 m long and 1.5 m high, and is made with a 5 mm multifilament mesh on its central portion and 12 mm on the side wings. The BS-30m net is 30 m long and 1.8 m high, with a 12 mm monofilament nylon mesh all over the net, except for a 30 cm strip made with a 12 mm multifilament mesh on the lower portion. Thirty hauls were performed with both nets resulting in a total of 849 fish captured, comprising 34 species. BS-9m was selective for individuals smaller than 60 mm TL and BS-30m for individuals larger than 60 mm TL. Low values of the faunal similarity (JI = 0.41, ANOSIM R = 0.2309, p < 0.0001) and numeric dominance (PSI = 0.46) indexes were revealed. We suggest that the concurrent use of both samplers provide a better description of the fish fauna of shallow areas. However, due to their robustness, rusticity, and ease of use and maintenance, small multifilament seines are indicated for regular work in environments without obstacles and with little open sand area available for sampling.
Abstract in English:Results of previous investigations trying to ascertain which physiological factors are more important to the mating success of medfly males are controversial. In part, this controversy owes to the fact that each factor was evaluated by an independent study using different experimental designs and populations. In the present study we compare the roles of age and nutritional status (immature and adult phases) on the mating competitiveness of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824) males. Three parameters were used to evaluate the male mating success: calling behavior (pheromone emission), lek participation and copulation (ability to be chosen by a female). Females gave preference to the males that were given a high protein diet in the larval phase. By contrast, females did not give preference to males that had been well-nourished in the adult phase only. The other parameters evaluated followed the same pattern: young males and males that had been fed a high protein diet during their immature phase had a greater participation in leks and called more often than older males and males that had been fed a diet poor in protein during their larval phase. Therefore, we conclude that the mating success of C. capitata males is determined both by age and nourishment during the immature stage.
Abstract in English:Investigating the Myotis levis complex is important for understanding the taxonomic status of the two subspecies currently recognized in it: Myotis levis levis (I. Geoffroy, 1824) and M. levis dinellii Thomas, 1902. Both M. levis levis and M. levis dinellii have been recently observed in sympatry in Argentina. This finding suggests that these populations might in fact correspond to distinct species rather than subspecies, as they have traditionally been designated. By using a multivariate morphometric approach, we demonstrate that M. l. levis has secondary sexual dimorphism in several measurements, with females being larger than males; sexual dimorphism was not detected in M. levis dinellii. However, we found morphometric differences between the two taxa. These differences exceeded those documented for other Neotropical Myotis. Based on their sympatry, morphological, and morphometrical differences, we propose a change in the status of both subspecies to M. levis and M. dinellii.
Abstract in English:The fauna of Typhlocybini (sensu stricto, excluding Empoascini) endemic to South America is reviewed and comprises seven closely related genera, five described herein as new, and 55 species, 52 here described as new. The genera and species are described and keys and illustrations are provided to aid in their identification. Columbonirvana Linnavuori comprises 17 species, 16 new. Eualebra Baker comprises 19 species, 17 new. Euzyginella gen. nov., comprises four new species. Neozyginella gen. nov., comprises six new species. Pseudhadina gen. nov., comprises one new species. Pseudozyginella gen. nov., comprises three new species. Tahurella gen. nov., comprises five new species. One new synonym is recognized: Eualebra smithii Baker, 1899 equals Dikraneura (Hyloidea) reticulata Osborn, 1928, syn. nov. One previously described species placed in Eualebra belongs in tribe Dikraneurini; thus, a new combination is proposed: Alconeura (Hyloidea) rubra (Van Duzee), comb. nov. Most of the specimens available for this study were from Malaise trap and canopy fogging samples obtained at very few localities in Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru, suggesting that further sampling in South America, particularly in the Amazonian rainforest and eastern foothills of the Andes Mountains, will reveal large numbers of additional species.
Abstract in English:Roquettea decioi sp. nov. is described from Carolina, in the Brazilian state of Maranhão. It is the seventh species in Roquettea Mello-Leitão, 1931 and the eighth species of Opiliones recorded from the state. Roquettea decioi sp. nov may be characterized by ocularium low, with median depression, pedipalpal tibia without pseudo-finger forming chela and massive divergent protuberances on scutal area III.
Abstract in English:The activity of vertebrates that feed on corpses can modify the chronology of the decomposition process and interfere with postmortem interval estimates. Further, by destroying the soft parts of the cadaver, scattering, burying or causing the disappearance of bones, it can entirely change the crime scene. In this study, we simulated a clandestine cemetery in an area of Cerrado located inside a farm in Brasília, Distrito Federal. Three domestic pigs of the size of a human of about 60 kg were placed on the ground in different periods of 2010 and 2011. We recorded four species of birds and one of mammal eating the carcasses: 1) Cathartidae: Coragyps atratus (Bechstein, 1973), Cathartes aura (Linnaeus, 1758), Sarcoramphus papa (Linnaeus, 1758); 2) Falconidae: Caracara plancus (Miller, 1777); and 3) Felidae: Leopardus pardalis (Lund, 1840). The behavior of these animals interfered in the decomposition process and resulted in the dispersion and loss of bony parts.
Abstract in English:When two similar species co-occur in time and space, strong mechanisms isolating them from each other are expected. Acanthoscurria suina Pocock, 1903 and Eupalaestrus weijenberghi (Thorell, 1894) are two sympatric and synchronic tarantulas that inhabit burrows in Uruguay's meadows. Here we test how and when reproductive isolation operates between these species. We exposed females of each species simultaneously to two males: either one male of each species, or two males of the same species. Males courted females of both species. Contrary to expectations, however, females of A. suina responded more effusively to heterospecific than to conspecific males, whereas females of E. weijenberghi only responded to conspecific males. Clasping (prelude of mating) was only recorded for couples of the same species. Females of A. suina at first seem to prefer the stronger body vibrations performed by heterospecific courting males than by males of their own species.