Abstract in English:The Tropical Mockingbird Mimus gilvus (Vieillot, 1808) is a widespread species in the Neotropics, but its southernmost populations in Brazil are ecologically (and possibly taxonomically) distinct, occurring only along the coast in restinga vegetation. Once considered the most common bird in restinga, it is becoming increasingly rare, likely due to habitat loss and illegal capture of nestlings. We conducted field surveys to provide an up-to-date distribution of the Tropical Mockingbird in the southernmost portion of the species' range, in the state of Rio de Janeiro, supplying an estimate of its current regional population size and conservation status. We surveyed 21 restinga remnants in Rio de Janeiro, covering all major restinga areas in the state. For sites where the species' presence was confirmed through transect line surveys, we estimated the local population size. The species was found at only four sites. The mean local population density was 52 individuals per km-2. The estimated current and historical Extent of Occurrence (EOO) were 256 km2 and 653 km2, respectively. Combining the population size and EOO results, we estimated that the population of the state of Rio de Janeiro currently ranges from 2,662 to 13,312 individuals, corresponding to an estimated reduction of 61% to 92% in population size in the last 20 years. The species, therefore, can be considered "Endangered" in the state of Rio de Janeiro. We recommend that a taxonomic study of the southernmost populations is carried out in order to clarify whether they represent a different, likely threatened species. We also recommend that the environmental regulations that protect restingas are used towards the protection of these populations.
Abstract in English:In this study we evaluated how anuran species were distributed in riparian habitats along two large rivers. Sampling was carried out between January and March 2012 in the municipality of Cachoeiras de Macacu, state of Rio de Janeiro. We delimited 20 plots along each river, ten in portions inside the forest of the Reserva Ecológica de Guapiaçu (REGUA), and with comparatively greater amount of forest cover, and ten outside REGUA, with comparatively lesser forest cover surrounding the rivers. We recorded 70 individuals from 14 frog species in the Manoel Alexandre River and 63 individuals from 15 frog species in the Guapiaçu River. The most abundant species in both rivers was Cycloramphus brasiliensis (Steindachner, 1864), and it was more abundant in sections with greater amount of forest cover. This information, coupled with the occurrence of species that are more adapted to open and more disturbed habitats in river sections that harbor lesser riparian vegetation, help to explain differences in amphibian species composition between river sections with greater and lesser forest cover. The results of our study highlight the importance of preserving riparian vegetation associated with rivers in the Atlantic Forest for the conservation of amphibians.
Abstract in English:Mosquito control prevails as the most efficient method to protect humans from the dengue virus, despite recent efforts to find a vaccine for this disease. We evaluated insecticide resistance and genetic variability in natural populations of Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) from Colombia. This is the first Colombian study examining kdr mutations and population structure. Bioassays with larvae of three mosquito populations (Armenia, Calarcá and Montenegro) were performed according to the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines, using Temephos. For the analysis of the Val1016Ile mutation and genetic diversity, we sampled recently-emerged adults from four mosquito populations (Armenia, Calarcá, Montenegro and Barcelona). Following the WHO protocol, bioassays implemented with larvae showed resistance to Temephos in mosquito populations from Armenia (77% ± 2) and Calarcá (62% ± 14), and an incipient altered susceptibility at Montenegro (88% ± 8). The RR95 of mosquito populations ranged from 3.7 (Montenegro) to 6.0 (Calarca). The Val1016Ile mutation analysis of 107 genotyped samples indicates that 94% of the specimens were homozygous for the wild allele (1016Val) and 6% were heterozygous (Val1016Ile). The 1016Ile allele was not found in Barcelona. Genetic variability analysis found three mitochondrial lineages with low genetic diversity and gene flow. In comparison with haplotypes from the American continent, those from this study suggest connections with Mexican and North American populations. These results confirm that a continuous monitoring and managing program of A. aegypti resistance in the state of Quindío is required.
Abstract in English:The brachioradialis is an important muscle that acts in the external rotation of the forearm (supination). However, its occurrence is controversial and little studied in the order Carnivora. Thus, this study investigates the occurrence and anatomo-functional arrangement of this muscle in wild carnivorans species. Fifty-eight thoracic limbs of specimens from species of Canidae, Procyonidae, Mustelidae and Felidae were dissected. Measurements of the length of the muscle (ML), the length of the forearm (FL), latero-medial width of the muscle (MW) and the lateral-medial diameter of the forearm (FD) were obtained to establish the ratios MW/FD and ML/FL in order to investigate the relative proportion of the muscle in relation to the forearm of each species. The brachioradialis muscle was identified in all species, although it was unilaterally or bilaterally absent in some canid individuals. The ratios demonstrated significant differences in the anatomical proportions among the families, with greater functional importance in the mustelids, procyonids, and felids because of a set of elaborate movements in the thoracic limb of representatives of these families when compared to canids.
Abstract in English:A new amphipod species of Metharpinia Schellenberg, 1931 is described from Campos Basin, southeastern Brazilian coast. The material was collected with van Veen grab from unconsolidated substratum, off the mouth of the Paraíba do Sul River. The new species can be distinguished from its congeners by presenting a strongly constricted rostrum and a slender palp of maxilla 1. There are four species in Metharpinia from the South Atlantic: M. dentiurosoma Alonso de Pina, 2003, M. grandirama Alonso de Pina, 2003 and M. iado Alonso de Pina, 2003, and Metharpinia taylorae sp. nov. This is the first record of a species of the genus from Brazilian waters.
Abstract in English:Kingsleya castrensissp. nov., a pseudothelphusid crab is described and illustrated from the Xingu River, state of Pará, southern Amazon region, Brazil. The new species is characterized by the male first gonopod bearing a large, well-developed apical plate, with a broadly rounded, thick distal lobe. New records of Kingsleya junki Magalhães, 2003 extend the distribution of this species eastward to the Tocantins River basin, in the state of Pará, Brazil.
Abstract in English:A new genus of spittlebug is described to include Gervasiella oakenshieldi sp. nov. (holotype male from Brazil, state of Paraná, municipality of Piraquara, Mananciais da Serra at 25°29'46"S, 48°58'54"W, 1000 m a.s.l., 15.XI.2008, P.C. Grossi leg., deposited in DZUP). In addition, Aeneolamia bucca Paladini & Cavichioli, 2013 is transferred to Gervasiella gen. nov. based on the results of a cladistic analysis. Gervasiella gen. nov. can be distinguished from the other cercopid genera by the following: postclypeus inflated with upper portion black and basal one yellowish; color of tylus distinct from color of head and rostrum, barely reaching mesocoxae. Gervasiella oakenshieldi sp. nov. is diagnosed by having the head black with tylus white, postclypeus in profile inflated and convex with a prominent longitudinal carina; tegmina black with two elongate white maculae near costal margin, one on anterior third and the other on posterior third.
Abstract in English:Trogolaphysa formosensissp. nov. (holotype male deposited in DBEZ from Brazil, state of Rio Grande do Norte State, municipality of Bani Formosa), a new springtail from the Atlantic Forest domain, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, is described and illustrated. This species is diagnosed by unique coloration pattern, presence of 8+8 eyes, reduced number of setae on metatrochanteral organ, unguiculi truncated and dorsal chaetotaxy. Trogolaphysa formosensis sp. nov. is the first species of the genus from Brazil with all eye lenses. All other Brazilian species present 0+0 or 2+2 eyes. It is also the first species of Trogolaphysa described from the Northeast Region of Brazil.
Abstract in English:A new species of Masteria L. Koch, 1873 from iron ore caves at Caeté and Santa Bárbara, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, Masteria emboaba sp. nov., is described. It was collected inside caves and in the litter of nearby dry forests. It is the first masteriine species described from southeastern Brazil and the second masteriine species for the country. The new species is the only known Masteria with only two eyes. Additionally, the male of M. emboaba sp. nov. has only two regular, thin spines at the apex of tibia I, lacking the tibial apophysis found in most other Masteria species. The only other described Masteria species that has spines in the place of tibial apophysis is M. aimeae (Alayón, 1995) from Cuba; however, the last species has a longer and sinuous embolus, contrasting the embolus of M. emboaba sp. nov., which is much smaller, less sinuous and transversally placed. The only other described Brazilian species, M. manauara Bertani, Cruz & Oliveira, 2013, has a double tibial apophysis, with both ends tipped by a strong, short spine, and a very long embolus, parallel to the bulb.
Abstract in English:Triplectides, with about 70 extant species, is the most diverse genus within the Triplectidinae. In the Neotropical Region there are 14 species distributed from southern Mexico to Patagonia. Two new species of Triplectides from the Neotropics are described and illustrated based on the male genitalia: Triplectides ciposp. nov., from state of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil, and Triplectides qosqo sp. nov., from province of Cuzco, southern Peru. The news species can be distinguished by the male genitalia: Triplectides ciposp. nov. can be recognized by having the inferior appendages with mesal lobes subacute and apical lobes short, and the tergum X robust, with a subtruncate apex and deep mesal notch; Triplectides qosqo sp. nov. can be recognized by the first article of inferior appendages long and narrow when compared to the others Triplectides species and by the tibial spur formula 2,2,4.
Abstract in English:The Neotropical lizard Mabuya agmosticha Rodrigues, 2000 is a habitat-specialist of thorny bromeliads in rocky outcrops of northeastern Brazil. Its distribution in the Caatinga Domain is most likely relictual. In recent years, new surveys conducted in northeastern Brazil have revealed new records of the species in the Caatinga and also in the Atlantic Forest Domain. In this study, we add four new records for M. agmosticha, extending its known geographic range in the states of Rio Grande do Norte and Paraíba. In addition, we investigated the potential geographical distribution of the species using ecological niche modeling (ENM), which combines the available occurrence records with environmental variables. Our model revealed a continuous range of areas with suitable climatic conditions for the species, from the state of Rio Grande do Norte to the northeast portion of the state of Bahia, plus some relictual distribution spots, mainly in the states of Bahia, Pernambuco, Ceará and western Rio Grande do Norte. Based on the model, we suggest that the distribution of M. agmosticha is continuous on a large geographic scale. On a smaller spatial scale, however, it is clear that its distribution is clumped, reflecting its specialist habits associated with rupicolous bromeliads.
Abstract in English:The microscopic characters of the hair can be used to indirectly identify species that are either uncommon or are difficult to see, for instance small Neotropical felids of the southern Brazilian Atlantic Forests. This widely used technique, which has not yet been standardized, involves the identification of hairs collected from feces. We tested the hypothesis that this tool is effective to identify four species of small Neotropical felids: Leopardus guttulus, Puma yagouaroundi, L. wiedii and L. pardalis. To accomplish that, we used measurements of the length, width and area of the cuticular scales in the guard hairs and calculated the relationship between width and length (quotient) for each species. A multiple discriminant analysis was conducted on the measurements and the percentage of correct identification was obtained. We found a high overlap in the quotients of these species, which indicates that this technique does not identify Neotropical felids accurately. This inefficiency was also confirmed by the multiple discriminant analysis, where only 74% correct identifications were obtained. Therefore we recommend that hair analysis is used only in combination with other sources of evidence, for instance molecular tools.
Abstract in English:Body size is highly correlated with metabolism, which in turn influences physiological rates such as heart rate. In general, heart rate is negatively influenced by the size of animal's body, but there is insufficient data corroborating this pattern in snakes. This study evaluated how body size affects heart rate in captive Boa constrictor Linnaeus, 1758. We measured the heart rate of 30 snakes using digital palpation and evaluated how this rate is influenced by body mass and sex using Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA). The heart rate of the snakes was 58.8 ± 6.7 bpm (beats per minute). Body size, estimated as log-transformed body mass, negatively influenced heart rate (F1,28 = 10.27, p = 0.003, slope = -0.00004, R2 = 0.27), but sex had no effect (F1,27 = 0.07, p = 0.80). In conclusion, this result corroborates the negative relationship between body size and heart rate for snakes and reinforces the influence of related metabolic characteristics, such as body size, on the physiological parameters of snakes.
Abstract in English:The reproductive cycle of Squamata reptiles is often associated with environmental conditions, such as rainfall. In this respect, seasonal variations may affect the morphology of the ovarian follicles, which are associated with vitellogenesis. The present study describes histological alterations in the ovarian cycle of two lizard species, Tropidurus hispidus (Spix, 1825) and Tropidurus semitaeniatus (Spix, 1825), which inhabit a caatinga region in the state of Rio Grande do Norte. Our goal was to identify morphological differences in the ovarian follicles at each phase of vitelloge nesis and to ascertain if they are associated with rainfall. Three follicular phases were identified in both species: pre-vitellogenesis, vitellogenesis and follicular atresia. An additional phase, the luteal, was found only in T. hispidus. During the development of these phases, vitellus was deposited inside the oocyte and there were identifiable alterations in the granulosa and thecal layers. Rainfall was found to influence the gonadal cycle.