Abstract in English:In state of Acre, most anuran research has been carried out in areas of terra firme, whereas alluvial forests remain relatively unexplored. We document the richness, breeding environments and calling season of the anurans of the Lower Moa River in the Alto Juruá (state of Acre), a region considered to harbor high biodiversity. Sampling was conducted in two main areas with different forest typologies (Terra firme forest and Alluvial forest), totaling 256 ha. The diversity of anurans was analyzed using the Shannon-Wiener index, evenness and Berger - Parker dominance. The anurans were sampled from October 2008 to September 2009, using the following sampling methods: sampling at breeding sites, pitfall traps, time constrained visual search during the day (TCVSD); at night (NVTCS) and active search (AS). Fifty anuran species, belonging to eight families, were recorded: Aromobatidae (2), Bufonidae (5), Hemiphractidae (1), Hylidae (25), Leptodactylidae (9), Microhylidae (4), Ranidae (1) and Craugastoridae (3). Pitfall traps totaling 1440 day-buckets in the year. DVTCS had a total sampling effort 72 hours/person/year; NVTCS - 72 hours/person/year and AS - 24 hours/person/year. Greater richness (35 species) was recorded in the alluvial forest, low diversity index and high dominance (H' = 1.69, J' = 0.51, d = 0.62). Most likely, these values were influenced by the high relative abundance of Rhinella margaritifera in this area. The richness of the alluvial forest may be associated with environmental heterogeneity according with the theory of intermediate disturbances. The breeding activity of most species occurred in lentic environments (lakes and temporary ponds) and during the rainy season. When sampling anurans in the Amazon it is important to use two or more sampling method and to consider the different forest typologies of this biome for a better characterization of its richness.
Abstract in English:We analyzed the geographic variations in the shape and size of the cranium and mandible of two woolly opossums, Caluromys derbianus and Caluromys lanatus. Using geometric morphometrics we analyzed 202 specimens of C. derbianus and 123 specimens of C. lanatus, grouped in 7 and 9 populations, respectively. We found sexual dimorphism in shape variables only in the dorsal view of the cranium of Caluromys derbianus, which is not associated with geographical origin. We detected geographic variation in the size of the mandible in two populations (Nicaragua and Northern Panama), but no geographic variation in shape. The size of the cranium of C. lanatus varies significantly, with clinal variation in peri-Amazon populations, with a break between two populations, Bolivia and Paraguay. Shape analyses also revealed some separation between the Paraná population and all other populations. Our results suggest that the available name, Caluromys derbianus, should be maintained for all individuals throughout the geographic range of the species. The same is true for Caluromys lanatus, which can be separated into two distinct morphologic units, Caluromys lanatus ochropus, from the Amazon and Cerrado, and Caluromys lanatus lanatus, from the Atlantic forest.
Abstract in English:Two new Nemesiidae species from Reserva Biológica do Tinguá, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil are described. Acanthogonatus minimussp. nov. differs from the remaining species of the genus by the male palpal bulb, which has very long and twisted embolus, ca. 2/3 the length of the palpal tibia, long and twisted spermathecae, anterior eye row recurved and fovea T-shaped. Chaco tinguasp. nov. differs from the remaining species of the genus by the retrolateral megaspine on tibia I, palpal embolus tip hook-shaped, inferior tarsal claw on all legs, absence of pubescence on the carapace and legs. Both species were collected with Winkler extractors in leaf litter. They are the smallest specimens in their respective genera and also among the world Nemesiidae described to date. The smallest male of A. minimussp. nov. measures 4.22 mm and of C. tinguasp. nov. measures 3.85 mm. Data on the phenology of C. tinguasp. nov. is presented.
Abstract in English:Gypona (Marganalana) masamunesp. nov. is described and illustrated based on specimens from Brazil, state of Paraná. This species can be distinguished from the others of the genus by the following combination of characters: 1) connective with stalk apex oriented anteriorly; 2) style, in lateral view, L-shaped and broader subapically; apex tapered and acute; 3) aedeagus slender, curved dorsally, with long and slender processes arising on each side of shaft near the base, as long as aedeagus shaft; shaft without apical processes. A key to the six subgenera of Gypona is provided.
Abstract in English:Emersonella Girault, 1916 is a wasp genus including species that parasitize Chrysomelidae (Coleoptera) eggs, mainly Cassidinae. It occurs only in the Americas, and is primarily distributed in the Neotropical Region. In this paper two new species of Emersonella from the Atlantic Forest of southeastern Brazil are described and compared to similar species. Emersonella appendigastersp. nov. is characterized by an elongate last gastral tergite in female, thoracic dorsum flat, femora and tibiae yellowish in female, malar sulcus absent, frontal suture slightly down-curved laterally, eyes with scattered hairs, frons and vertex smooth, and propodeum smooth with small anteromedian foveae. Emersonella frieirocostaisp. nov. is characterized by an elongate gaster in the female, at most 1.3 times as long as mesosoma and pointed at apex, propodeum with two large anterolateral foveae, pronotum hardly visible in dorsal view, with posterior part smooth, transverse pronotal carina present and malar sulcus absent. Both species are egg parasitoids of Metriona elatior (Klug, 1820) (Chrysomelidae) which feeds on Solanum viarum Dunal (Solanaceae).
Abstract in English:A new species of Tmesiphantes Simon, 1892 is described and illustrated, based on eight male specimens collected at the Una Biological Reserve, southern state of Bahia, Brazil. It is distinguished by the morphology of male palpal bulb and tibial apophysis. The new species is very small and is the smallest theraphosid described to date (body length 5.5 mm). It is distinguished from congeners by the size, which vary from 12 mm (T. riopretano) to 23.8 mm (T. nubilus) in other species of the genus, aspect of palpal bulb, sternal posterior sigillae close to sternal margin and by the aspect of tibial apophysis which lacks the prolateral branch. Tmesiphantes presently comprises nine species. Sixth have been described for the southern region of Bahia, a well known area of endemism in the Atlantic Forest. Identification keys for Tmesiphantes males and females are presented.
Abstract in English:The Neotropical Lincus Stål, 1867 includes 35 species, thirteen of which are known only from females. Several species are vectors of Phytomonas staheli McGhee & McGhee, 1979, a trypanosomatid parasitic in palm-trees in South America that causes hart-rot, sudden and slow wilt diseases. The hitherto unknown males of L. singularis Rolston, 1983 ("swollen head" species group found in the oil palm Elaeis guineensis Jacq.), and L. incisus Rolston, 1983 ("hatchet-lobed" species group; found in the coconut tree Cocos nucifera L.), are described with emphasis on the morphology of the genitalia, and taxonomic remarks are provided. Males of L. singularis can be distinguished from other species included in "swollen head" group by their pronotal lobes with anterior and posterior margins subparallel and projected laterally from the eye margin, while males of L. incisus can be distinguished from the species of the "swollen head" group by an obtuse projection with a deepest incision and several additional diagnostic characters of the genitalia.
Abstract in English:Anatomical data on Solariellaobscura (Couthouy, 1838) are presented and analyzed. The main features of this species, when compared with other known trochoids, are: ctenidium with thick lamellae; enlarged ureter (that may indicate sexual dimorphism) instead of a modified urogenital papilla; odontophore very different from other trochoids such as Calliostoma, Agathistoma, Monodonta, and Gaza, with short m6, large mj and m4 pairs and absent m8 pair and posterior cartilages; esophageal valve surrounding the odontophore ventrally; anterior and mid-esophagus composed of several thin folds and a very wide cerebral ganglion. Solariellaobscura differs from Solariellavaricosa (Mighels & Adams, 1842) by having lower spire, spiral cords weaker on the base and axial rib oblique. There are no differences between S.obscura and S.varicosa in the external morphology and radula. These internal anatomical data are described for the first time for a solariellid and might improve our understanding of the relationships within this taxon.
Abstract in English:Bryde's whales, Balaenoptera edeni Anderson, 1879, were observed on 17 occasions (N = 21 surveys) in the coastal waters off Rio de Janeiro in southeastern Brazil during austral summer through autumn 2014. Five whales were individually identified using photo-identification techniques. The mean interval between resightings for all individuals was 12.8 days, with a minimum of one day and a maximum of 48 days. The comparison between the catalogs of Bryde's whales off Rio de Janeiro and the Cabo Frio region revealed matches for three individuals. The resightings show movements of up to 149.6 km along the coastal waters off the state of Rio de Janeiro. Most of the observations consisted of solitary individuals (82.3% of sightings). Feeding was the predominant behavior observed (47%), followed by milling (35.3%) and travelling (17.6%) in waters up to 48 m deep. Direct observations resulted in the addition of new prey, such as snubnose anchovy, Anchoviella brevirostris (Günther, 1868) and white snake mackerel, Thyrsitops lepidopoides (Cuvier, 1832), to the known diet of the Bryde's whale. A long time series of photo-identification efforts in the Rio de Janeiro, the Cabo Frio region and other areas can elucidate fundamental aspects of spatial and temporal site fidelity knowledge of Bryde's whales in southeastern Brazil.
Abstract in English:Intersex specimens of Pisidia longicornis (Linnaeus, 1767) are recorded for the first time and their secondary sexual characters are analyzed. Of 145 specimens of P. longicornis examined in this study, six were identified as intersex individuals. Of these, three presented male secondary sexual characters, well-developed male gonopores and rudimentary female gonopores, whereas the other three had female secondary sexual characters, with female gonopores being more pronounced than the male ones. The present study provides the first record of intersex porcelain crabs.