Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Male calls play different roles in anuran social organization, such as spacing, territoriality and female attraction. However, calls and associated behaviors remain poorly described for many anuran species. Here we describe the advertisement and release calls of the tree frog Phyllomedusa ayeaye (Lutz, 1966) and report on the social context of emissions and a physical combat. Approximately 35 minutes of digital recordings were obtained from 34 hours of observations at one breeding site in the state of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil. Bioacoustic analysis showed that males emitted two types of advertisement calls: 1) simple call (a sequence of short pulsed notes) and 2) composite call (a sequence of short pulsed notes followed by a long pulsed note). Composite calls were emitted more frequently during more intense chorus activity, with various active males at the breeding site. The release call was also composed by short pulsed notes, with a wider spectrum of frequencies and emitted more rapidly than the advertisement calls. Our results suggest that the composite call of P. ayeaye may represent a mixed advertisement call. Long notes might be the aggressive part directed to males, whereas short notes directed to females. Our description of call types, their functions, and male physical interactions will be useful for studies investigating the systematics and behavior of Phyllomedusa species.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Fish larvae and adults are morphologically distinct from each other and have different ecological requirements. Research on the dynamics of ichthyoplankton provides valuable information about the early stages of the life cycle of fish. This study analyzed the temporal and spatial distribution of the larval stages of three migratory species - Salminus brasiliensis (Cuvier, 1816), Prochilodus lineatus (Valenciennes, 1836) and Pseudoplatystoma corruscans (Agassiz, 1829) - to identify possible spawning areas in the last lotic remnant of the upper Paraná River, in the Brazilian territory. A total of 26 points were sampled monthly from October 2003 to November 2004. The PERMANOVA detected significant differences between the months only for S. brasiliensis (Pseudo-F = 3.88, p = 0.0021) and P. corruscans (Pseudo-F = 3.35, p = 0.004). Among the environmental variables, temperature was the most important and the Mantel test detected a significant correlation between temperature and the densities, only for P. lineatus (r = 0.09, p = 0.03). The species in our data chose for spawning tributaries that are not dammed, of which most are outside conservation areas. Therefore, recruitment, maintenance and possible actions aiming to recover the stocks of these species are dependent on the conservation of tributaries and floodplain lakes in the region, in addition to monitoring to prevent fishing during the reproductive period.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT We compared the termite assemblages of different ecosystems in a humidity gradient. Three areas were sampled: (i) a humid montane forest; (ii) a hillside forest where shaded coffee (Coffea arabica Linnaeus, 1753) is cultivated; (iii) a seasonally dry forest (Caatinga). Active collection protocols were employed in each area during the dry and rainy seasons. The species were grouped according to their habitats and feeding habits. A total of 45 termite species belonging to 20 genera and three families were encountered. The termite fauna of the Caatinga was as rich and abundant as that of the humid forest areas, but it was distinct from it in species composition. Most termite species encountered in the montane forest were also found in the agro-ecological site, but some species were only found in the latter. The termite fauna of the Caatinga varied seasonally the most, with significantly reduced abundance during the dry period. When species richness, abundance, and species composition were considered together the climatic seasons were not found to significantly affect the termite faunas in any of the study areas. The numbers of encounters per feeding group and per habitat exploited did not differ among the different areas, or during the different seasons. Even in adjacent areas, the humidity gradient, as well as the vegetational characteristics, are reflected in differences in the termite fauna. Agro-ecological regimes can be considered viable alternatives to traditional methods of cultivation as they largely conserve the biodiversity found in non-modified environments.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Brazilian marine molluscs, especially Gastropoda and Bivalvia, are relatively well studied. However, information on the class Polyplacophora is more scarce, particularly on reef-dwelling forms. This study aimed to qualitatively and quantitatively analyze aspects of polyplacophorans from reef ecosystems and their associations with macroalgae on the coast of Maceió (state of Alagoas, Brazilian Northeast). The study area included five coral reefs at Ipioca, Ponta do Prego, Ponta do Meirim, Riacho Doce and Ponta Verde, as well as two sandstone reefs, located in Guaxuma and Sereia. The samples were obtained by snorkelling along the intertidal and subtidal reef zones to a depth of up to five meters during low tides, between 2009 and 2011. In addition, the chitons associated with three macroalgae of the Ponta Verde coral reef were studied based on collections made over 12 years (from the summer of 1998 to the winter of 2009). Three replicates with an area of 25 cm2 were collected from each of the following species of macroalgal phytals: Amphiroa fragilissima (Rhodophyta), Caulerpa racemosa (Chlorophyta) and Dictyota cervicornis (Phaeophyta). A total of 715 individuals (110 juveniles and 605 adults) were identified, including Acanthochitona terezae Guerra, 1983, Ischnochiton striolatus (Gray, 1828) and Ischnoplax pectinata (Sowerby II, 1840). Acanthochitona terezae was found for the first time in the area. Ischnochiton striolatus was the most abundant species in the reef ecosystem and in association with macroalgae. The greatest number of individuals of all three polyplacophorans identified (adults and juveniles) was found on the phytal A. fragilissima.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The digestive tract of Trachelyopterus striatulus (Steindachner, 1877) was studied using morphological, histological, and histochemical techniques. The barbels, lips and tongue had stratified squamous epithelium with mucous, claviform cells, and taste buds. Trachelyopterus striatulus had a dental plaque with villiform teeth. The bucopharyngeal cavity was formed by the gill apparatus and pharyngeal teeth with vilifform denticles. The oesophagus presented stratified squamous epithelium with mucous cells and taste buds. The stomach included cardiac, fundic, and pyloric regions and a simple prismatic epithelium with prismatic cells that reacted positively to periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) and amylase+PAS. Only the cardiac and pyloric regions responded positively to alcian blue pH 2.5 (Ab pH 2.5) and alcian blue pH 0.5 (Ab pH 0.5). The cardiac and fundic regions exhibited tubular gastric glands. The intestine was 118.90 ± 22.49 mm long with an intestinal coefficient (CO) of 0.83 ± 0.13. The epithelium was simple prismatic with a brush border and goblet cells, and a greater number of goblet cells were found in the caudal region of the intestine. The mucous cells and goblet cells reacted positively to PAS, amylase+PAS, Ab pH 2.5, and Ab pH 0.5. We analysed if the function of the mucosubstances and morphological characteristics of the digestive tract of T. striatulus are compatible with omnivorous feeding habit.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Richardiidae are a family of Tephritoidea in which most genera are poorly known taxonomically, including some which were poorly described with limited or no illustrations. With the aim to decrease this taxonomic gap, herein we review two scarcely known monotypic genera: Odontomerella Hendel, 1912 and Maerorichardia Hennig, 1937, both known only from the holotypes of their type species. Maerorichardia is the only genus of Richardiidae with mid and hind tibiae thicker than their respective femora, and the wing with the anal lobe distinctly developed. Odontomerella can be distinguished from the others richardiids by the postcranium reduced and little wider ventrally, the compound eye well developed, occupying most of the head, with the gena and postcranium very reduced, and the face short, with the oral margin distinctly concave. The limits of both genera are revised and better supported with the addition of new diagnostic characters. Odontomera flavipleura Hennig, 1938 is transferred to Odontomerella. The types of the species are revised and illustrated.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The use of traps is extremely important in several types of ecological studies, and may assist in the capture of individuals in areas that are difficult to access. In the present study, we compared the effectiveness of wooden (Schramm) versus "Tomahawk" traps to capture Salvator merianae (Duméril & Bibron, 1839) lizards. The study was conducted in Eldorado do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Field data were collected from August 2013 to March 2015, during the reproductive period of the species. The study involved two types of baited traps: i) "Tomahawk", made of galvanized steel; and ii) Schramm, a wooden trap. The capture rate of the Schramm wooden traps was 1.63 individuals/day, and of the "Tomahawk" was 0.36 individuals/day. These results are important for researchers working with large lizards and may help to increase sampling efficiency for these organisms.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The cuticle is the outermost of the three cellular layers of the mammalian hair. It comprises numerous keratinized scales, whose morphology, combined with other microscopic characteristics of the hair, confers characteristic signature traits to various different species. This study aimed to analyze whether the cuticular patterns of the aristiform hair had any signature implications for the two species of the genus Abrawayaomys Cunha & Cruz, 1979. We identified the cuticular profiles of A. ruschi and A. chebezi. Both species have similar hair pattern. The base of the hair shows "irregular waved" scales with smooth and continuous edges, and the apex showed "transversal waved" small-sized scales with continuous and ornamented edges. The middle portion of the hair exhibits different cuticular patterns on different sides of a single hair follicle: "transversal waved" on the dorsal side and "narrow losangled" on the ventral side. This distribution pattern of the cuticular scales is an unprecedented record for any mammal, and it is an important generic feature that allows the identification of single samples, such as those found in predators' gastrointestinal contents. The species in question are considered rare due to the restricted number of specimens deposited in scientific collections. Our findings may contribute to expanding the species' geographic range by making it possible to identify it in various situations. These results highlight the relevance of studies pertaining the identification of the micromorphology of the aristiform hair, which can be used as a tool to accurately identify rodents.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Estimates of local population abundances, which require carefully designed sampling procedures, can provide valuable information on population size and density. Even though small mammals are one of the most widely studied vertebrate groups, many surveys have not recorded basic information to estimate local abundances, for instance catching effort. Here we suggest a simple comparative trapping frequency index that can be used as an alternative to the relative abundance index in data sets that only contain the number of species and individuals collected, thus lacking information on sampling effort. To compare trapping frequency and relative abundances we used capture records from more than four years, from seven species of rodents and two marsupial species collected by the Brazilian Plague Service. We calculated the trapping frequency index of each species as the proportion of trapped individuals per total of all individuals caught. We found that this trapping index was significantly correlated with a relative abundance index (number of captured individuals divided by number of trap nights). Our findings suggest that the proposed index may be useful for comparisons in situations where data on catching effort is lacking. The index may also provide a simple, though approximate quantification of relative local abundances, with possible applications in comparative studies (e.g. meta-analysis). We suggest that this index is used in studies that do not focus on obtaining accurate population parameter estimates, but which nonetheless contain data that can still offer a representative measure to compare local population abundances.