Resumo em Inglês:ABSTRACT Several behavioral aspects of the Red-crested Finch Coryphospingus cucullatus (Statius Müller, 1776) are poorly studied. Here we provide reproductive information on 16 active nests. This information may be valuable to elucidate the phylogenetic relationships of this bird, and to design plans to manage it. Nesting activities occurred from October to February. Clutches consisted of two to three eggs (2.06 ± 0.25), which were laid on consecutive days. Incubation usually started the morning the females laid their last egg and lasted 11.27 ± 0.47 days. Hatching was synchronous, or happened at a one-day interval. The nestling stage lasted 12 ± 0.89 days. Only females incubated the eggs and they fed the young more often than the males did. Overall nesting success, from incubation to fledging, was 28.2%. Nest architecture and egg color proved to be diagnostic characteristics of Coryphospingus , supporting its maintenance as a distinct genus within the recently proposed sub-family Tachyphoninae. Red-crested Finches showed a preference for certain nesting sites, i.e., forest borders or a Cerrado in late regeneration stage. This information can be useful to programs aiming to release illegally trapped individuals.
Resumo em Inglês:ABSTRACT Gelanor Thorell, 1969 comprises 11 Neotropical species. In this paper, two new species are described from Brazil: Gelanor hoga sp. nov., based on males and females from the state of Amazonas, and Gelanor cachimbo sp. nov., based on males from the state of Pará. Additionally, new records from Brazil are provided for Gelanor altithorax Keyserling, 1893, Gelanor consequus O. P.-Cambridge, 1902, Gelanor juruti Benavides & Hormiga, 2016, Gelanor latus (Keyserling, 1881), Gelanor waorani Benavides & Hormiga, 2016 and Gelanor zonatus (C.L. Koch, 1845) and a key to the Brazilian species and illustrations are provided.
Resumo em Inglês:ABSTRACT Studies on the nesting biology of Liris are restricted to a few notes and observations on ground-nesting species. There are no studies of this kind about Brazilian species. We investigated and described the nesting biology of Liris sp. obtained by trap-nests that were installed at an area of Atlantic Forest vegetation (25°10'S, 48°18'W) in southern Brazil. The nests of Liris sp. are built with a variety of plant debris. They usually have one cell, but may have up to two. Nests do not show vestibular or intercalary cells. Immatures have a hard cocoon made with the silk they produce, mixed with the fine sand and sawdust left by the adult female at the bottom of the cell. No nest parasites were observed. The wasps did not go through diapause at the prepupal stage, and emerged within 36 to 46 days after nests were collected from the field. There was no emergence of male wasps. Even though Liris sp. nest in preexisting cavities, they resemble ground-nesting species of the same genus in their habits, nest architecture, and development characteristics. The absence of males in our samples might be related to nest diameter. The eggs from which males hatch can be laid in smaller burrows than those available at the present study. We believe that the hardiness of the cocoon is the species' main strategy against parasites, although it is complemented by the camouflage provided by the nest closure. We suggest that a broader comparison of the nesting biology of Liris Fabricius, 1804 should be carried out, leading to a better understanding of the evolution of nests in the genus.
Resumo em Inglês:ABSTRACT The goal of this study was to detail the temporal and morphological parameters of the immature stages of Spodoptera cosmioides (Walker, 1858) and to gather information about their larval host plants. Larvae were reared on artificial diet and under controlled conditions (25 ± 1°C, 70 ± 10% RH and 14 hour photophase). The viability of eggs, larvae (pre-pupae period inclusive) and pupae were 98.97, 97.33, 97.95 and 94.76%, respectively. The average duration of egg, larval, pre-pupal and pupal stages was 3.82, 19.24, 3.20 and 14.81 days, respectively. A small proportion of females (9.48%) passed through seven instars, and female development was significantly slower than male development. The female larvae that developed through six and seven instars exhibited a mean growth rate of 1.63 and 1.49, respectively. Overall, female pupae were significantly larger, exhibiting slower development than males. One hundred and twenty six plants belonging to 40 families are listed as hosts of S. cosmioides , mainly including Solanaceae, Fabaceae, Asteraceae and Poaceae.
Resumo em Inglês:ABSTRACT This study describes the composition and temporal variation of the spider assemblage (Arachnida: Araneae) associated with canopies of Vochysia divergens Pohl. (Vochysiaceae) in the northern region of the Brazilian Pantanal. Three V. divergens plants were sampled in 2004, at each seasonal period of the northern Pantanal (high water, receding water, dry season and rising water), using thermonebulization of the canopies with insecticide, totaling 396 m2 of sampled canopies. Analysis of abundance and richness of spider families were based on Non-Metric Multidimensional Scaling (NMDS) and Variance Analysis (ANOVA and MANOVA). A total of 7,193 spiders were collected (6,330 immatures; 88.0%; 863 adults, 12.0%) distributed in 30 families. Araneidae (1,676 individuals), Anyphaenidae (1,631 individuals), Salticidae (1,542 individuals) and Pisauridae (906 individuals), were predominant, representing 80.0% of the sample. Ten different guilds were registered: aerial hunters, orb-weavers, nocturnal aerial runners and diurnal space web weavers dominated, sharing most ecological niches. The spider assemblage is affected by changes in the habitat structure, especially by the seasonal hydrological regime and variations in the phenology of V. divergens . The assemblage is composed of different groups of spiders. The dominant taxa and behavioral guilds differ in the different seasonal periods. Spiders were more abundant during the dry and rising water seasons, most likely reflecting a greater supply of potential prey, associated with new foliage and flowering at the canopy. The displacement of soil dwelling spiders to the trunks and canopies before and during the seasonal floods can change the structure and composition of the canopy assemblages. Oonopidae, Gnaphosidae and Caponiidae, were more frequent during the rising and high water seasons, which indicates that these taxa use the canopies of V. divergens as a refuge during the seasonal flooding in the Pantanal.
Resumo em Inglês:ABSTRACT Diaphorocleidus altamirensis sp. nov., parasitic on the gills of Argonectes robertsi Langeani, 1999 from the Xingu River, northern Brazil, is described. The new species differs from its six congeners by the morphology of the male copulatory organ (which comprises a coil of six rings), by the midventral vagina, and by the presence of only one pair of eyespots. It is the first species of Diaphorocleidus Jogunoori, Kritsky & Venkatanarasaiah, 2004 described from hemiodontid fishes. In addition, new host and geographical records of seven species of dactylogyrids found on fish from the Xingu River are reported.
Resumo em Inglês:ABSTRACT Clariidae is a group that includes many species that have great economic importance in both fisheries and fish culture. Monogenean parasites of fishes assigned to this family have been studied in Cameroon, but there have been no studies on Clarias submarginatus Peter, 1882, a fish that is traditionally consumed by the local people. The examination of 43 specimens identified as C. submarginatus from Lake Ossa (first record of this fish species in the Sanaga basin), revealed that some of them belong to Quadriacanthus and are new. Their identification was made based on the morphology and the size of sclerotized parts of the haptor and the male and female copulatory complexes. Quadriacanthus macruncus Bahanak, Nack & Pariselle sp. nov. and Quadriacanthus submarginati Bahanak, Nack & Pariselle sp. nov. are characterized by the morphology of their accessory piece, pointed, slightly curved and wider at medium level, equipped with two subterminal, symmetrical and similar spines for Q. macruncus sp. nov. and made up of one long tip flanked by a short spine and a bulb for Q . submarginati sp. nov., while Quadriacanthus ossaensis Bahanak, Nack & Pariselle sp. nov. is distinguished by the unique morphology of the penis, ending in a fork. The new species of Quadriacanthus are herein described and their host specificity is discussed.
Resumo em Inglês:ABSTRACT The arboreal echimyid rodent of the genus Phyllomys Lund, 1839 is found in the eastern Brazilian Atlantic forest, from the state of Ceará to the state of Rio Grande do Sul, reaching the São Francisco and Paraná river basins in the west. There are 13 species in the genus. Phyllomys lundi Leite, 2003, which until now was known from only two localities, is one of the four endemic Atlantic Forest species of Phyllomys with very restricted distribution. We provide additional data on the morphology, distribution and phylogeography (based on cytochrome b sequences) of the rare P. lundi . Our new record broadens the northern limit of the distribution P. lundi by approximately 250 km with respect to previous records.
Resumo em Inglês:ABSTRACT It is believed that the two species of Tolypeutes Illiger, 1811are the only armadillos that do not dig their own burrows, and that these species simply re-use burrows dug by other species. Here, we show that Tolypeutes matacus (Desmarest, 1804) and Tolypeutes tricinctus (Linnaeus, 1758) dig their own burrows. We describe the burrows and three other types of shelters used by them, and provide measurements and frequency of use of the different types of shelter. We have studied free-ranging individuals of T. matacus in two locations in Central Brazil and individuals of T. tricinctus in semi-captivity in the Northeast of Brazil. Individuals of T. matacus were found primarily in small burrows (76%), straw nests (13%), shallow depressions covered with leaf-litter (7%) or in straw nests made on shallow depressions (4%). Adult males and females of T. matacus did not differ in frequency of use of different types of shelter. Sub-adults T. matacus used shallow depressions and nests more often (40%) than adults (22%) and nurslings (10%). Nurslings of T. matacus reused the shelters more frequently (66%), than sub-adults (46%) and adults (35%). Adult females reused burrows and other types of shelter more frequently than adult males. Tolypeutes tricinctus rested mainly in burrows and under leaf-litter, but did not dig depressions or build nests. Tolypeutes tricinctus occasionally used burrows dug by Euphractus sexcinctus (Linnaeus, 1758), but T. matacus never used burrows dug by other species. Nursling T. matacus always shared shelter with an adult female therefore, both used shelters with similar frequency. Adult females and nurslings of T. matacus reused shelters in higher frequency. That can be explained by the fact that adult females with offspring tend to remain for consecutive nights in the same burrow when cubs are recently born. Due to their smaller body size, sub-adult T. matacus used shelter strategies that require less energetic effort more frequently than adults and nurslings. The habit of covering the burrow entrance with foliage and the burrow's reduced depth, indicates that Tolypeutes use of burrows is more likely to be related to parental care behavior and thermoregulation strategies than to defense mechanisms. We are confident that the burrows used for resting were indeed dug by Tolypeutes because, besides the direct observation of armadillos digging burrows, the measures of the burrows are very distinctive from those presented as characteristic for the co-occurring burrowing species and are congruent with Tolypeutes size and carapace shape. The newly acquired knowledge that species of Tolypeutes dig burrows can be used to increase the well-being of individuals kept in captivity by adapting enclosures to enable their digging behavior. In addition, this information contributes not only to the study of the ecology and natural history of the species, but can shed new light on the study of the anatomy of specialized diggers. Tolypeutes spp. can comprise the least fossorial of all living armadillo species, but they can no longer be classified as non-diggers.
Resumo em Inglês:ABSTRACT Over the last two decades, several studies have shown that the mating systems of various birds are more complex than previously believed, and paternity tests performed with molecular techniques have proved, for instance, that the commonly observed social monogamy often presents important variations, such as extra-pair paternity. However, data are still largely biased towards temperate species. In our study, at an area of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, we found broods containing at least one extra-pair young (EPY) in the socially monogamous White-necked Thrush Turdus albicollis (Vieillot, 1818). Paternity tests using six heterologous microsatellite loci revealed that four of 11 broods (36.4%) presented at least one extra-pair young (EPY). This rate of EPY is within the range found for other studies in the tropics. This is one of the few studies that present detailed paternity analyses of a Neotropical rainforest passerine. Our findings corroborate the early insights that breeding strategies involving cheating can also be widespread among Neotropical socially monogamous songbirds.