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Zoologia (Curitiba), Volume: 37, Published: 2020
  • Character variation and taxonomy of short-tailed fruit bats from Carollia in Brazil Research Article

    Lemos, Túlio Henrique; Tavares, Valéria da Cunha; Moras, Ligiane Martins

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Carollia has a complex taxonomic history and is widely distributed in the Neotropics. Species of Carollia appear to have differentiated recently in the late Cenozoic, and present overlapping morphological characters that may not be useful to distinguish among species. Carollia has recently been revised, but only a few specimens representing the Brazilian distribution of Carollia within Brazil were studied. We reviewed specimens of Carollia distributed in several localities of Brazil revisiting previously described morphological characters for species identification, and taxonomic problems within the genus. We found a large degree of overlap between characters previously used to distinguish among species of Carollia, and some of them constitute variation within a same species. We also report new records extending the known distribution of C. benkeithi to farther east of its previously known distribution (Parauapebas, southeastern Pará, and Vitória do Xingu, Pará, eastern Amazonian Brazil) and one record extending the distribution of C. brevicauda south to Corumbá, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.
  • A remarkable new species of Cavichiana (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Cicadellinae) from southeastern Brazil Research Article

    Quintas, Victor; Takiya, Daniela M.; Côrte, Isabele; Mejdalani, Gabriel

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Cavichiana Mejdalani et al., 2014 was a formerly monotypic Cicadellinae genus exclusively found in bromeliads from southeastern Brazil. Here a new species is described, diagnosed, and illustrated from Itatiaia National Park, municipality of Itamonte, state of Minas Gerais (Mantiqueira mountain range); specimens were collected on Vriesea spp. (Bromeliaceae). Cavichiana alpina sp. nov. (male holotype in DZRJ) can be recognized by the following combination of features: (1) forewing clavus with basal portion and area along commissural margin orange, remainder of claval area blue (except dark brown apex); (2) corium with large blue area adjacent to claval sulcus, connected to blue area of clavus; (3) distal portion of female and male pygofer not sclerotized; (4) aedeagus with distinct basidorsal lobe and with apex narrowly rounded, not bearing crown of spines; and (5) female sternite VII with deep V-shaped posterior emargination. Notes on the distribution of the genus are provided and C. bromelicola Mejdalani et al., 2014 is newly recorded from southern Brazil.
  • Glossidiella peruensis sp. nov., a new digenean (Plagiorchiida: Plagiorchiidae) from the lung of the brown ground snake Atractus major (Serpentes: Dipsadidae) from Peru Research Article

    Huancachoque, Eva; Sáez, Gloria; Cruces, Celso Luis; Mendoza, Carlos; Luque, José Luis; Chero, Jhon Darly

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT During a survey of helminth parasites of the brown ground snake, Atractus major Boulenger, 1894 (Serpentes: Dipsadidae) from Moyobamba, region of San Martin (northeastern Peru), a new species of Glossidiella Travassos, 1927 (Plagiorchiida: Plagiorchiidae) was found and is described herein based on morphological and ultrastructural data. The digeneans found in the lung were measured and drawings were made with a drawing tube. The ultrastructure was studied using scanning electron microscope. Glossidiella peruensis sp. nov. is easily distinguished from the type- and only species of the genus, Glossidiella ornata Travassos, 1927, by having an oblong cirrus sac (claviform in G. ornata), distinctly ovate testes (rounded testes in G. ornata) and button-like papillae on the dorsal edge of the oral sucker region (absent in G. ornata). In addition, G. peruensis sp. nov. differs from G. ornata by possessing a longer distance between testes and substantially wider oral and ventral suckers. This is the first time that a species of digenean is described and reported parasitizing snakes in Peru.
  • Reproductive parameters of the Chestnut-capped Blackbird, Chrysomus ruficapilus (Passeriformes: Icteridae), in a natural wetland from southeastern Brazil Research Article

    Costa, Mariellen C.; Medolago, César A.B.; Murcia, Amanda; Francisco, Mercival R.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The Chestnut-capped Blackbird, Chrysomus ruficapilus (Vieillot, 1819), is a common bird species in flooded areas of South America. Data on its reproductive parameters have been reported mainly for rice paddies from Uruguay and southern Brazil, where reproductive phenology might have been influenced by the chronology of agricultural activities. Here we provide reproductive data for a population in a natural marshland from São Paulo state, southeastern Brazil. A total of 45 active nests were monitored between December 2017 and April 2018. Clutch size was 2.8 ± 0.44. Incubation and nestling periods were respectively 11.8 ± 0.39, and 12.3 ± 0.75 days, and overall nesting success was 65%. The reproductive season lasted about five months, which is longer than that observed in rice paddies from southern Brazil. This suggests that the reproductive phenology has been underestimated before. Although clutch sizes were bigger in our study population than that from rice paddies from southern Brazil, nest survival was higher in the artificial habitat, suggesting that the Chestnut-capped Blackbird can obtain benefits from nesting in artificial habitats.
  • Encounter rate and behavior of Alouatta guariba clamitans in the Ilha Grande State Park, Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil Research Article

    Ferreguetti, Atilla C.; Oliveira, Amanda B.M. de; Pereira, Bruno C.; Santori, Ricardo T.; Geise, Lena; Bergallo, Helena G.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Alouatta guariba clamitans Cabrera, 1940 is an endemic species of the Atlantic Forest that occurs from south Bahia, Brazil, extending south to the province of Misiones, Argentina. In Rio de Janeiro state, the species was classified as threatened, indicating that attention is needed for the conservation of this taxon. Additionally, an outbreak of yellow fever spread throughout the southeastern states of Brazil from January 2017 until March 2018 seriously threatening Rio de Janeiro populations of the species. Herein, we aimed to provide the first estimates of A. g. clamitans encounter rate, density, and population size in the Ilha Grande State Park (PEIG), which is part of the Atlantic Forest biome of Brazil. Data were collected in two different periods, the first between December 2003 and May 2005, and the second from August 2009 to May 2010, and information on encounter rates and behavior was collected to better understand aspects of species’ ecology. The estimated encounter rate in the first period through the distance sampling method was 0.04 ± 0.01 individuals per kilometer. Nine groups were recorded in the second period of the study, with 47 individuals along 3 km. Our estimates of encounter rate, density and population size were low and reinforces the need to initiate species monitoring and assess the impact that yellow fever outbreaks may have on PEIG populations. The results presented here can be a starting point to support future strategic actions for the species, to measure impacts and to the management of the species, and for a conservation program.
  • Updates on Berlandiella (Araneae: Philodromidae): a new species, description of the male of B. querencia and new diagnosis for the genus Research Article

    Pantoja, Paulo; Drago-Bisneto, Marcos; Saturnino, Regiane

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Berlandiella Mello-Leitão, 1929 is currently composed of six Neotropical species, of which Berlandiella querencia Lise & Silva, 2011 is known only from female specimens; the other species of the genus were described based on both males and females. In this paper, we describe and illustrate Berlandiella zabele sp. nov., based on a few individuals collected in Sete Cidades National Park, Piracuruca and Brasileira, state of Piauí, Brazil. We illustrate and describe the previously unknown male of B. querencia, based on a specimen collected from Reserva Mocambo, Belém, state of Pará, Brazil. The taxa described herein have scopula in the tarsi and metatarsi, and the males have a cymbial process, characters recorded for the first time for the genus. Additionally, we present an updated diagnosis for Berlandiella.
  • Chilling to the bone: Lower temperatures increase vertebrate predation by Tonatia bidens (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae) Research Article

    Carvalho, Fernando; Bôlla, Daniela A.S.; Mottin, Viviane; Kiem, Suelen Zonta; Zocche, Jairo J.; Passos, Fernando C.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The greater round-eared bat, Tonatia bidens (Spix, 1823), is a medium-sized phyllostomid bat distributed in the north of Argentina, Paraguay and Brazil. The diet and foraging patterns of this species are poorly known. We analyzed the composition of the diet of a population of T. bidens and how the temperature influences the consumption of vertebrates and invertebrates. To describe diet composition, we conducted weekly collections of food scrap from two monospecific night-perches. Data of temperature for the study period were taken from the meteorological station installed 300 m from the collection perches. The influence of temperature was evaluated using generalized linear models (GLMs) with negative binomial distribution. Tonatia bidens consumed 28 taxons (204 records), being at least 17 Artropods and 11 Passeriformes birds. Temperature explained a greater proportion of vertebrate abundance (R2 = 0.23) than invertebrate (R2 = 0.16) or to both pooled (R2 = 0.11). The relation with temperature was positive with invertebrates and negative with the vertebrates. The diet of the population of T. bidens comprised mainly invertebrates, which were the most frequent and diverse taxa. Data suggests that T. bidens has a diverse diet, with proportion of the item’s consumption varying temporally. Environmental factors, such as the temperature presented on this work, seems to be good proxies for the dietary traits of this species.
  • Analysis of reproductive biology and spawning season of the pink ear emperor Lethrinus lentjan , from marine ecosystem Research Article

    Younis, Elsayed M.; Al-Asgah, Nasser A.; Abdel-Warith, Abdel-Wahab A.; Gabr, Mohamed H.; Shamlol, Fozi S.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT A total of 593 samples of Lethrinus lentjan (Lacepede, 1802) were collected from the Red Sea, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, to study their productive biology and spawning season of the local population. Sampling was carried out on a monthly basis for a period of one year. The monthly sex ratios indicated that females were dominant throughout the study period, with an overall male:female sex ratio of 1:7.98, although males were larger than females. The highest monthly performance maturation index (PMI), as well as the male and female gonadosomatic index (GSI) and ovarian maturation rate (OMR) were observed in February and March. Histological examination of the gonads confirmed the process of sexual transformation in this fish species, wherein individuals mature first as female, and then change sex to male (protogynous hermaphroditism). Histological sections also showed that the sexual maturation of males of L. lenjtan comprised three main stages, while the sexual development of females could be classified into four main stages. Extended spawning in the form of batches released during different months throughout the year were recorded for this fish species, with the main spawning season in February and March, and an additional, shorter spawning season in September.
  • Survival of the copepod Mesocyclops longisetus during simulations of transport from hatchery to target areas for biological control of mosquito larvae Research Article

    Nunes-Silva, Aline; Lima-Keppe, Isabela de; Souza, Robson V. de; Perbiche-Neves, Gilmar

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Copepods have been successfully used in many countries for the biological control of larvae of mosquitoes that vector diseases. In Brazil, this line of research has been focused on the use of the copepod Mesocyclops longisetus (Thiébaud, 1914) for the biological control of the mosquito Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1792). The transportation of the copepods from the place where they are reared to where they will be used often involves long distances for extended periods of time. This study assesses the survivorship of M. longisetus during simulation of transport under different conditions. Different loading densities (20, 30, 40, 80, and 120 ind.L) and stirring times (30 minutes, one hour, two hours, and four hours) were tested. Survivorship was high, with 75% of the results equal or higher than 90% survival. Reduced mortality was observed when transportation time was up to 120 minutes and densities were up to 40 ind.L. In higher densities or longer transportation times, the mortality rate was significantly affected.
  • Living among thorns: herpetofaunal community (Anura and Squamata) associated to the rupicolous bromeliad Encholirium spectabile (Pitcairnioideae) in the Brazilian semi-arid Caatinga Research Article

    Jorge, Jaqueiuto S.; Sales, Raul F.D.; Santos, Roberto L.; Freire, Eliza M.X.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Bromeliads are important habitats for reptiles and amphibians, and are constantly used as shelter, refuge, foraging or thermoregulation sites due to their foliar architecture, which allows for constant maintenance of humidity and temperature. This study aimed to identify the herpetofauna inhabiting the non-phytotelmata rupicolous bromeliad Encholirium spectabile Mart. ex Schult. & Schult.f. and to analyze the microhabitat usage of these bromeliads by different species in the Caatinga of northeastern Brazil. From January 2011 to August 2012, we collected data by active search throughout three paralel transects in a rock outcrop in the municipality of Santa Maria, state of Rio Grande do Norte. We recorded four species of anuran amphibians, six lizards, and seven snakes in the bromeliads. The average air temperature was lower and air humidity higher inside than outside the bromeliads, and bromeliads at the rock outcrop borders had lower temperatures and higher humidity than those at the center. We found a significant difference in the distribution of individuals throughout the rock outcrop, with most specimens found at the borders. We also found significant differences regarding the use of each microhabitat by the taxonomic groups, with lizards and snakes using green leaves and dry leaves evenly, along with fewer records in inflorescence stems, and anurans mainly using green leaves, with few records on dry leaves, and no records in the inflorescence stems. This study highlights rupicolous bromeliads as key elements in the conservation and maintenance of amphibians and reptiles in the rock outcrops of Brazilian semi-arid Caatinga.
  • New combination and redescription of Bumba humile , description of four new species and new records from Brazil (Araneae: Theraphosidae: Theraphosinae) Research Article

    Lucas, Sylvia M.; Passanha, Victor; Brescovit, Antonio D.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The taxonomic history of Bumba Pérez-Miles, Bonaldo & Miglio, 2014 is mainly based on the inclusion of the new species. Bumba have been characterized by the type IV urticating setae present, retrolateral process on male palpal tibia, palpal bulb resting in a ventral distal excavation of palpal tibia, metatarsus I passes between the two branches of tibial apophysis when flexed, presence of spiniform setae on prolateral and retrolateral sides of maxillae and coxae I-IV. In this paper we include the row of teeth (denticulate row) in the median region of the inferior prolateral keel in all male palps. This structure range from a residual tooth to a ridge of up to five teeth. Both, the denticulate row and the retrolateral process on male palpal tibia in males could be considered as putative synapomorphies for Bumba. Here, Homoeomma humile Vellard, 1924 is transferred to Bumba and redescribed, while the female is described for the first time. Bumba cabocla (Pérez-Miles, 2000) is synonymyzed with B. horrida (Schmidt, 1994). Bumba pulcherrimaklaasi (Schmidt, 1991) is transferred to Cyclosternum Ausserer, 1871. Four new species are described and illustrated: Bumba tapajos sp. nov. from state of Pará, Bumba cuiaba sp. nov. and Bumba rondonia sp. nov., both from states of Rondônia and Mato Grosso, respectively, and Bumba mineiros sp. nov. from Paraguay and the Brazilian states of Goiás, Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul. Diagnosis of B. horrida and B. lennoni are extended and figures of this species are presented.
  • The effects of rainfall and arthropod abundance on breeding season of insectivorous birds, in a semi-arid neotropical environment Research Article

    França, Leonardo Fernandes; Figueiredo-Paixão, Victória Helen; Duarte-Silva, Thales Afonso; Santos, Kamila Barbosa dos

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Rainfall in tropical semi-arid areas may act as a reliable cue for timing bird reproduction, since it precedes future food supply. With this in mind, we set-up a study to test the reproductive response of insectivorous bird to arthropod abundance and rainfall patterns. Sampling occurred in a seasonally dry Neotropical forest, in north-eastern Brazil, between October, 2015 and October 2016, at 14-day intervals. We used brood patch to assess reproductive periodicity of insectivorous birds (eight species, 475 captures, 121 patch records). We sampled arthropods to quantify abundance, using biomass and number of individuals (1755 individuals, 15 Orders). Rainfall temporal distribution was analyzed using daily precipitation data. We used a cross-correlation function to test for correlation and time-lags between the covariates under study. Both the number of reproductively-active birds and arthropod abundance were higher in time periods close to the rainy season. Increase in arthropod biomass in the aerial stratum preceded the period of greatest rainfall by one (14 days, r = 0.44) to three sampling periods (0.47). In contrast, the highest proportion of individuals with brood patches occurred after the main rainfall peak, with the strongest relationship occurring after two (0.52) to four (0.50) time lags. Finally, the proportion of individuals with brood patches was positively correlated with aerial stratum arthropod biomass when five time lags were considered (0.55). Our results support the hypothesis of a temporal process involving rainfall, arthropods and reproduction of insectivorous birds in the wet/dry tropics. However, rainfall did not appear to act as a cue for the timing of reproduction, since records indicated higher arthropod biomass before the main rainfall peak. At least occasionally in the study area, insectivorous bird reproduction peaks after food abundance.
  • Type specimens of Limnophorini (Diptera: Muscidae) deposited in the Museum für Naturkunde, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin (Berlin, Germany) Research Article

    Couri, Márcia; Pont, Adrian

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The type specimens of 153 species of Limnophorini in the Museum für Naturkunde, Berlin, Germany, were revised. Differential diagnoses, notes on the types, and photographs of some of them (habitus and labels) are provided.
  • Genetic analysis of whole mitochondrial genome of Lateolabrax maculatus (Perciformes: Moronidae) indicates the presence of two populations along the Chinese coast Research Article

    Gong, Jie; Chen, Baohua; Li, Bijun; Zhou, Zhixiong; Shi, Yue; Ke, Qiaozhen; Zhang, Dianchang; Xu, Peng

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The whole mitochondrial genome of Lateolabrax maculatus (Cuvier, 1828) was used to investigate the reasons for the observed patterns of genetic differentiation among 12 populations in northern and southern China. The haplotype diversity and nucleotide diversity of L. maculatus were 0.998 and 0.00169, respectively. Pairwise FST values between populations ranged from 0.001 to 0.429, correlating positively with geographic distance. Genetic structure analysis and haplotype network analysis indicated that these populations were split into two groups, in agreement with geographic segregation and environment. Tajima’s D values, Fu’s Fs tests and Bayesian skyline plot (BSP) indicated that a demographic expansion event may have occurred in the history of L. maculatus. Through selection pressure analysis, we found evidence of significant negative selection at the ATP6, ND3, Cytb, COX3, COX2 and COX1 genes. In our hypotheses, this study implied that demographic events and selection of local environmental conditions, including temperature, are responsible for population divergence. These findings are a step forward toward the understanding of the genetic basis of differentiation and adaptation, as well as conservation of L. maculatus.
  • The bat fauna (Mammalia: Chiroptera) of Carlos Botelho State Park, Atlantic Forest of Southeastern Brazil, including new distribution records for the state of São Paulo Research Article

    Cláudio, Vinícius C.; Barbosa, Gedimar P.; Rocha, Vlamir J.; Moratelli, Ricardo; Rassy, Fabrício B.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Carlos Botelho State Park (PECB) is a large remnant of Atlantic Forest in Southeastern Brazil, with more than 37,000 ha. As its bat fauna is still unknown, we performed the first bat survey on PECB, to provide data on the distribution, natural history and taxonomy of the species. Fieldwork was conducted monthly, from October 2016 to September 2017. Captures were made using ground-level mist-nets (39600 m2.h), canopy mist-nets (2017.5 m2.h) and searches for roosts (42 hours).We captured 412 bats from 34 species of Phyllostomidae, Molossidae and Vespertilionidae. A total of 11 species were captured only in ground-level mist-nets, five in canopy mist-nets, and seven in roosts. Dermanura cinerea Gervais, 1856, Eptesicus taddeii Miranda, Bernardi & Passos, 2006, Glyphonycteris sylvestris Thomas, 1896 and Lampronycteris brachyotis (Dobson, 1879) are rare on surveys conducted in the Atlantic Forest of São Paulo and were captured in canopy mist-nets. Micronycteris schmidtorum Sanborn, 1935 and Molossus currentium Thomas, 1901 constitute the first record for the state of São Paulo, and were captured in canopy mist-nets and roosts, respectively. The species richness registered for PECB surpasses other surveys conducted in Atlantic Forest localities that use only ground-level mist-nets. Our results reinforce the importance of employing mixed capture methods, such as elevated mist-nets and searches for roosts.
  • Structure of the leaf litter frog community in an area of Atlantic Forest in southeastern Brazil Research Article

    Vagmaker, Natália; Pereira-Ribeiro, Juliane; Ferreguetti, Átilla Colombo; Boazi, Alex; Gama-Matos, Rayanne; Bergallo, Helena Godoy; Rocha, Carlos Frederico Duarte

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Different spatial and temporal factors can influence the species richness and abundance of leaf anurans that are fundamental for the ecosystem functioning, as they act as predators and integrate the trophic chain as prey of other animals. There are relatively few studies that aimed to understand the spatio-temporal variation and the influence of environmental factors on leaf litter communities. We studied parameters of the anuran community living in the forest leaf litter in the Duas Bocas Biological Reserve (DBBR), Espírito Santo, Brazil. We sought to understand the extent to which richness, abundance, biomass and density varied between two locations with different stages of preservation (primary and secondary forest). In addition, we tested the effect of temperature and local humidity on abundance. We conducted the samplings monthly from October 2017 to September 2018, establishing 98 4 x 4 m plots (16 m2 each) demarcated on the DBBR forest leaf litter. We measured temperature (°C) and relative air humidity (%), and each plot was carefully surveyed by four observers. We tested for differences in anuran density between the two sampled locations and estimated the effects of environmental variables in the community. We recorded 102 individuals of anurans from 11 species belonging to eight families. The DBBR anuran community parameters significantly differed between the two studied locations, with the highest values of anuran richness and abundance occurring in the area covered by primary forest, probably due to differences in the preservation of each area. However, temperature and humidity did not affect the abundance of anurans in the sampled areas. Our results provide the first information about spatial variation and influence of environmental factors, directed to the community of leaf litter anurans in DBBR, and represents the second study on this group of anurans in the state of Espírito Santo.
  • Taxonomic Catalog of the Brazilian Fauna: order Trichoptera (Insecta), diversity and distribution Research Article

    Santos, Allan P.M.; Dumas, Leandro L.; Henriques-Oliveira, Ana L.; Souza, W. Rafael M.; Camargos, Lucas M.; Calor, Adolfo R.; Pes, Ana M.O.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Caddisflies are a highly diverse group of aquatic insects, particularly in the Neotropical region where there is a high number of endemic taxa. Based on taxonomic contributions published until August 2019, a total of 796 caddisfly species have been recorded from Brazil. Taxonomic data about Brazilian caddisflies are currently open access at the “Catálogo Taxonômico da Fauna do Brasil” website (CTFB), an on-line database with taxonomic information on the animal species occurring in Brazil. The order Trichoptera at CTFB includes a catalog of species recorded for the country, with synonymic lists, distribution throughout six biomes, 12 hydrographic regions, and 27 political states (including Federal District) from Brazil. The database is constantly updated to include newly published data. In this study, we reviewed the taxonomic effort on Brazilian caddisflies based on data currently in CTFB database. The accumulation curve of species described or recorded from the country, by year, shows a strong upward trend in last 25 years, indicating that it is possible that there are many more species to be described. Based on presence/absence of caddisfly species at three geographic levels (biomes, hydrographic regions, and states), second order Jackknife estimated at least 1,586 species occurring in Brazil (with hydrographic regions as unities), indicating we currently know about 50% of the Brazilian caddisfly fauna. Species distribution by Brazilian biomes reveals that the Atlantic Forest is the most diverse, with 490 species (298 endemic), followed by the Amazon Forest, with 255 species (101 endemic). Even though these numbers may be biased because there has been more intense collecting in these two biomes, the percentage of endemic caddisfly species in the Atlantic Forest is remarkable. Considering the distribution throughout hydrographic regions, clustering analyses (UPGMA) based on incidence data reveals two groups: northwestern basins and southeastern. Although these groups have weak bootstrap support and low similarity in species composition, this division of Brazilian caddisfly fauna could be related to Amazon-Atlantic Forest disjunction, with the South American dry diagonal acting as a potential barrier throughout evolutionary time.
  • Altered retina and cornea of Clarias gariepinus (Siluriformes: Clariidae) under the effect of bright and dim lights Research Article

    Sabry, Dalia A.; El-Badry, Dina

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of constant bright light on the cornea and retina of Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) and to examine whether it can change after constant exposure to dim light. Twenty-one adult individuals of C. gariepinus were divided into three groups (n = 7). The first group was maintained under normal light (NL). The second group was exposed to the intense bright light (BL) (3020 Lux) of white light lamps for seven days. The third group was exposed to dim light for seven days (DL) following the previous exposure to intense bright light for seven days. The eyes of each fish group were removed and fixed. The following aspects of the eye were investigated: histopathological, immunohistochemical (GFAP and BAX) staining and biochemical study for lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA) and glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase (G6PDH). Also, isoenzyme electrophoresis of LDH, G6PDH and SOD were performed. The present study found that, seven-days BL exposure caused damage to both cornea and retina. However, after exposure to dim-light after bright light there was partial improvement in corneal and retinal structure and an increase in the assayed SOD and G6PDH levels, along with a reduction in MDA content and activity of LDH. These findings demonstrate a plasticity that may help C. gariepinus survive disturbances in the aquatic environment.
  • Reproductive responses of the male Brandt’s vole, Lasiopodomys brandtii (Rodentia: Cricetidae) to tannic acid Research Article

    Dai, Xin; Zhou, Ling-Yu; Xu, Ting-Ting; Wang, Qiu-Yue; Luo, Bin; Li, Yan-Yu; Gu, Chen; Li, Shi-Ping; Wang, Ai-Qin; Wei, Wan-Hong; Yang, Sheng-Mei

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Tannins are polyphenols that are present in various plants, and potentially contain antioxidant properties that promote reproduction in animals. This study investigated how tannic acid (TA) affects the reproductive parameters of male Brandt’s voles, Lasiopodomys brandtii (Radde, 1861). Specifically, the anti-oxidative level of serum, autophagy in the testis, and reproductive physiology were assessed in males treated with TA from the pubertal stage. Compared to the control, low dose TA enhanced relative testis and epididymis weight and sperm concentration in the epididymis, and significantly increased the level of serum superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px). mRNA levels of autophagy related genes LC3 and Beclin1 decreased significantly with low dose TA compared to the control. However, compared to the control, high dose TA sharply reduced the levels of serum SOD, GSH-Px, CAT, serum testosterone (T), and mRNA level in steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) in the testis. Both sperm abnormality and mortality increased with high dose TA compared to the control and low dose TA. Collectively, this study demonstrated that TA treatment during puberty had a dose-dependent effect on the reproductive responses of male Brandt’s voles. TA might mediate autophagy in the testis, through both indirect and direct processes. TA mainly affected the reproductive function of male Brandt’s voles by regulating anti-oxidative levels. This study advances our understanding of the mechanisms by which tannins influence reproduction in herbivores.
  • The chiggerflea Hectopsylla pulex (Siphonaptera: Tungidae): infestation on Molossus molossus (Chiroptera: Molossidae) in the Central Andes of Colombia Research Article

    Ramírez-Chaves, Héctor E.; Tamayo-Zuluaga, Andrés Fernando; Henao-Osorio, Jose J.; Cardona-Giraldo, Alexandra; Ossa-López, Paula A.; Rivera-Páez, Fredy A.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Some species of mastiff bats, Molossus Geoffroy, 1805, inhabit human shelters such as houses and barns. Among them, the Pallas’s mastiff bat, Molossus molossus Pallas, 1766, is the most common species in South America. There are a few studies on this bat in Colombia, mostly on colony size, diet, ectoparasite records, and activity patterns in the Andean and Caribbean regions. Here, we provide information on the prevalence of chiggerfleas, Hectopsylla pulex (Haller, 1880), on M. molossus, along with molecular data on the flea, and its distribution in Colombia. In addition, we describe the size and sex ratio of the infested bat colony, located in the central Andes of Colombia. The bat colony was represented by ca. 45 individuals, of which 33 were captured. The colony had more females (25 individuals) than males (8 individuals). A total of four Pallas’s mastiff bats had chiggerfleas, H. pulex, most of which were attached to the bat’s faces and ears. The composition of the colony (sex ratio) and the observed activity times match those reported for other colonies of the species in Colombia. The cytochrome oxidase subunit 1, and the 12S rRNA mitochondrial gene obtained from H. pulex represent the second and first available sequences for the species, respectively. The level of infestation of individuals in the colony was low, similar to that observed in other South American countries, such as Brazil. Finally, the new locality is the seventh confirmed and the highest elevational record of H. pulex in Colombia.
  • Leukocyte profile of the helmeted manakin, Antilophia galeata (Passeriformes: Pipridae) in a Cerrado forest fragment Research Article

    Ribeiro, Paulo Vitor Alves; Baesse, Camilla Queiroz; Cury, Márcia Cristina; Melo, Celine de

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Changes in the amounts and proportions of leukocytes, known as leucocyte profiles, have been documented for several bird species and have been used to measure stress levels in these animals. The present work ascertained the biological and ecological attributes that influence the leukocyte profile of Antilophia galeata (Lichtenstein, 1823), the helmeted manakin. This species has been deemed useful in ecological studies because it responds to environmental changes. Blood samples drawn from 89 individuals of A. galeata captured in a Cerrado forest fragment were subjected to analysis under optical microscopy to identify and quantify leukocytes and micronuclei. The number of lymphocytes was greater for males, non-reproductive individuals and individuals infected with ticks. None of the leukocyte components differed in relation to age, molting or body condition index. The amount of micronuclei was correlated with values for total leukocytes, H/L ratio, heterophils, basophils and monocytes. The results suggest that reproduction may be an immunosuppressive factor for the species, producing sexual differences in lymphocyte availability. In addition, biomarkers of genotoxic damage (micronuclei) were related to the amount of leukocytes, indicating that individuals may be sensitive to environmental disturbances. Leukocyte profiles can be considered a useful tool for addressing ecological questions that are relevant to the conservation of species in degraded environments.
  • Ecological separation by ecomorphology and swimming performance between two congeneric fish species Research Article

    Souza, Rafael C. R.; Pompeu, Paulo S.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The high diversity of freshwater fish species reflects a great morphological plasticity. Understanding the relationship between swimming capacity, morphology and habitat use may be important to predict the chances of finding a species at an anthropized environment. The swimming capacity and morphological aspects of two sympatric species of Characidium, and for which spatial segregation in different hydraulic habitats is known, were compared in this study. Twenty-one individuals of Characidium fasciatum Reinhardt, 1867 and 23 individuals of Characidium cf. zebra Eigenmann, 1909 were captured and used for the evaluation of the swimming capacity and ecomorphological attributes. The swimming capacity of each species was obtained by measuring critical and relative velocities. A total of 12 ecomorphological attributes correlated with habitat use and swimming characteristics were also compared. The Mann-Whitney mean test showed that the swimming capacity of C. fasciatum was greater than that of C. cf. zebra, and the standard length of the individuals explained 12.42% of the variation in their capacity to withstand water flow. Both species were morphologically distinct in the relative length of the caudal peduncle, ventral flattening index and the relative area of the pectoral fin. The relative area of the pectoral fin alone accounted for 16.71% of the differences in the ability to resist the water flow and which were not explained by body length. Our results showed that two species differed in the ecomorphological space and in their swimming capacity, supporting the hypothesis that the greater the hydrodynamism, the better a fish is able to withstand the water flow, and that this capacity is correlated with the morphological characteristics linked to the swimming activity of the fish.
  • Age, growth and reproductive biology of two endemic demersal bycatch elasmobranchs: Trygonorrhina fasciata and Dentiraja australis (Chondrichthyes: Rhinopristiformes, Rajiformes) from Eastern Australia Research Article

    Reis, Marcelo; Figueira, Will F.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Bottom-dwelling elasmobranchs, such as guitarfishes, skates and stingrays are highly susceptible species to bycatch due to the overlap between their distribution and area of fishing operations. Catch data for this group is also often merged in generic categories preventing species-specific assessments. Along the east coast of Australia, the Eastern Fiddler Ray, Trygonorrhina fasciata (Muller & Henle, 1841), and the Sydney Skate, Dentiraja australis (Macleay, 1884), are common components of bycatch yet there is little information about their age, growth and reproductive timing, making impact assessment difficult. In this study the age and growth (from vertebral bands) as well as reproductive parameters of these two species are estimated and reported based on 171 specimens of Eastern Fiddler Rays (100 females and 71 males) and 81 Sydney Skates (47 females and 34 males). Based on von Bertalanffy growth curve fits, Eastern Fiddler Rays grew to larger sizes than Sydney Skate but did so more slowly (ray: L∞ = 109.61, t0 = 0.26 and K = 0.20; skate: L∞ = 51.95, t0 = -0.99 and K = 0.34 [both sexes combined]). Both species had higher liver weight ratios (HSI) during austral summer. Gonadal weight ratios (GSI) were higher in the austral winter for Eastern Fiddler and in the austral spring for Sydney Skates.
  • The puzzling occurrence of the upside-down jellyfish Cassiopea (Cnidaria: Scyphozoa) along the Brazilian coast: a result of several invasion events? Research Article

    Stampar, Sergio N.; Gamero-Mora, Edgar; Maronna, Maximiliano M.; Fritscher, Juliano M.; Oliveira, Bruno S.P.; Sampaio, Cláudio L.S.; Morandini, André C.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The massive occurrence of jellyfish in several areas of the world is reported annually, but most of the data come from the northern hemisphere and often refer to a restricted group of species that are not in the genus Cassiopea. This study records a massive, clonal and non-native population of Cassiopea and discusses the possible scenarios that resulted in the invasion of the Brazilian coast by these organisms. The results indicate that this jellyfish might have invaded the Brazilian coast multiple times.
  • Morphology, histology and histochemistry of the digestive tract of the Banded tilapia, Tilapia sparrmanii (Perciformes: Cichlidae) Research Article

    Okuthe, Grace E.; Bhomela, Bongile

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT This study described anatomical, histological and histochemical features of the mucosal layer of the digestive tract of Tilapia sparrmanii Smith, 1840, an omnivorous freshwater fish endemic to Southern Africa. This species exhibited a short thick oesophagus with long deep longitudinal folds (466.68 ± 16.91 µm), and a thick (173.50 ± 10.92 µm) muscular layer that allow the passage of large food items. The mucosa was lined with stratified secretory epithelium rich in goblet cells that secreted neutral and acid mucins. The stomach was a sac-like structure with simple tubular glands surrounded by connective tissue. The mucosa was lined with simple columnar epithelium and the lamina propria exhibited a well-developed layer of gastric glands that occupied the entire length of the cardio-fundic region. The stomach mucosa consisted of epithelial cells with intense neutral mucin secretion which protects against gastric juice. Neck cells of gastric glands synthesized neutral and acid mucins. The intestine was highly coiled and presented a complex pattern of transversal folds internally (villi). Villi length decreased progressively from the anterior to the posterior intestine (p < 0.0001). Tunica muscularis of the mid-intestine had the thinnest thickness among all parts of the intestine (p < 0.0001). Goblet cells whose numbers increased towards the rectum secreted both acid and neutral mucins. The results indicate structural similarities of T. sparrmanii GIT with other tilapia species and will be useful for understanding the physiology of the digestive systems as well as functional components of the GIT.
  • Key to the Macrophya sibirica group (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae) with description of a new species from China Research Article

    Liu, Mengmeng; Li, Zejian; Wei, Meicai

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The Macrophya sibirica group was proposed by Li et al. (2016). A new species in this group, Macrophya nigrotrochanterata sp. nov. from Liaoning Province, China, is here described and illustrated. A key to all Chinese species and a distribution map of the M. sibirica group in China are provided.
  • The microanatomy of the central nervous system and brain of the Indo-Pacific seahorse, Hippocampus barbouri, during development Research Article

    Senarat, Sinlapachai; Kettratad, Jes; Kaneko, Gen; Kamnurdnin, Thatpon; Sudtongkong, Chanyut

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The central nervous system (CNS) of Teleostei is a complex system of self-governance and its morphology is reflected in the physiological and reproductive behaviors. The Indo-Pacific seahorse, Hippocampus barbouri Jordan & Richard son, 1908, is a new candidate species for aquaculture in Thailand. In this study, we investigated the brain morphology of H. barbouri across various developmental windows. Light microscopic observations of adult brains revealed a large optic tectum in the mesencephalon, whereas the cerebral hemispheres and the cerebellum are of medium size. The detailed brain structures were generally similar to those of other teleosts; however, only five distinct layers were present in the optic tectum, including the stratum marginale, stratum opticum, stratum album central, stratum griseum central, and stratum periventriculae, versus six layers observed in other fish. One day after birth (1 DAB) the brain was a packed structure without any clear sub-structures. The number of capillaries in the optic tectum began to increase at 6 DAB, and at 14 DAB several features, including small blood vessels in the optic tectum and Purkinje cells, became noticeable. By 35 DAB, the optic tectum became highly vascularized and included five layers. Additionally, large Purkinje cells were developed in the cerebellum. Based on the brain development pattern, we speculate that the predatory ability of this fish starts to develop from 6 to 14 days after birth.
  • Annual and daily patterns of calling activity in male Scinax fuscomarginatus (Anura: Hylidae) from Central Brazil Research Article

    Souza, Antonio Olímpio de; Oliveira, Seixas Rezende; Dias, Gardênia Proto; Bastos, Rogério Pereira; Morais, Alessandro Ribeiro de

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Bioacoustics is an effective way of recording detailed data during population surveys and monitoring. In the present study, we used an automated digital recorder (ADR) to describe the temporal variation in the calling activity of Scinax fuscomarginatus (Lutz, 1925) in central Brazil. We also evaluated the role of climatic variables (air temperature and precipitation) on calling activity by using a Generalized Additive Model (GAM). We conducted the recordings at five ponds in the Cerrado savanna of Rio Verde Municipality, in Goiás state between November 2013 and October 2014. The analysis of the 43.2 hours of acoustic recording showed that S. fuscomarginatus has a prolonged breeding pattern. The ADR provides a fine-scale description of the nocturnal calling pattern, as well as the oscillations between the rainy and dry seasons. The results of the analytical model also indicate that calling patterns were related to minimum (but not maximum) air temperatures and precipitation, which may be related to their reproductive and thermoregulatory requirements. Based on these findings, we conclude that the ADR method has potentially valuable applications for the collection of data on the natural history of anuran species, as well as supplying important insights for conservation initiatives.
  • The recapture of Leptopanchax opalescens (Aplocheiloidei: Rivulidae), a critically endangered seasonal killifish: habitat and aspects of population structure Research Article

    Guedes, Gustavo H.S.; Salgado, Fernando L.K.; Uehara, Wagner; Ferreira, Débora L. de Paiva; Araújo, Francisco G.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Leptopanchax opalescens (Myers, 1942) is a small seasonal killifish endemic to coastal drainages in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Leptopanchax opalescens was recaptured in temporary open vegetation pools (22°42.35’S, 43°41.59’W) in the hydrographic basin of the Guandu River, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, after eight years without records. Information on habitat and population parameters (Capture per unit area (CPUA), size, sex ratio and length-weight relationship (LWR)) are given to provide subsidies for the conservation of this species. Specimens were captured during the rainy season (January-April 2020) in shallow pools (mean depth = 21 ± 12 s.d. cm), with relatively acidic pH (5.2 ± 0.8) and low concentrations of dissolved oxygen (3.5 ± 1 mg/L). The estimated CPUA of the population was 0.89 fish/m2. The total length (TL) of males ranged from 21.1 to 28.8 cm, and females ranged from 17.0 to 31.2 mm. Males were significantly larger (t-test = 2.04, p < 0.05) than females, which were in greater proportion (2.83Female: 1Male, p < 0.001). A positive allometric coefficient (b = 3.19) was found through length-weight relationship curve, indicating that individuals of the species gain proportionally more increment in weight than in length. Leptopanchax opalescens is a critically endangered species, and the results of this study contribute to the knowledge of the distribution, population structure and conservation of the species and its natural habitats.
  • Selective consumption of rodents by the Variable hawk Geranoaetus polyosoma (Accipitriformes: Accipitridae) in the Atacama Desert, northern Chile Research Article

    Muñoz-Pedreros, Andrés; Norambuena, Heraldo V.; Gil, Claudia; Rau, Jaime

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Geranoaetus polyosoma (Quoy & Gaimard, 1824) is a diurnal raptor widely distributed in South America. Although the trophic ecology of this bird has been more studied in the southern extreme of its range, little information is available on its dietary response to prey supply in desert environments. In the present study, we report on the trophic ecology of G. polyosoma in a sub-urban desert zone in northern Chile, with the following objectives: (1) to quantitatively describe its diet and (2) to determine its dietary selectivity in response to prey supply in the study area. The diet of G. polyosoma consisted mainly of rodents (97.2%). A greater preference (p < 0.05) was observed for the following large prey items (> 19.5 g): two native rodent species, Phyllotis xanthopygus (Waterhouse, 1837) and Eligmodontia puerulus (Philippi, 1896); and two introduced rodent species: Rattus rattus (Linnaeus, 1769) and R. norvegicus (Berkenhout, 1769).
  • Species composition and community structure of dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae) compared among savanna and forest formations in the southwestern Brazilian Cerrado Research Article

    Silva, Jorge L. da; Silva, Ricardo J. da; Fernandes, Izaias M.; Sousa, Wesley O. de; Vaz-de-Mello, Fernando Z.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Although dung beetles are important members of ecological communities and indicators of ecosystem quality, species diversity, and how it varies over space and habitat types, remains poorly understood in the Brazilian Cerrado. We compared dung beetle communities among plant formations in the Serra Azul State Park (SASP) in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. Sampling (by baited pitfall and flight-interception traps) was carried out in 2012 in the Park in four habitat types: two different savanna formations (typical and open) and two forest formations (seasonally deciduous and gallery). A total of 5,400 individuals collected comprised 57 species in 22 genera. Typical savanna had the greatest species richness and abundance, followed by open savanna and deciduous forest, while the gallery forest had the fewest species but high abundance. Tunnelers (one of three main nesting behavior guilds) showed the greatest richness and abundance (except in the gallery forest, where one dweller species was extremely abundant) in all plant formations. We found that species richness and abundance of the dung beetle community are influenced by differences among plant formations. Habitat heterogeneity in the different plant formations along with anthropic influences (fire, habitat fragmentation) are cited as important factors that explain guild and species richness and distribution patterns. These results emphasize the importance of protected areas, such as SASP, for the maintenance and conservation of species diversity in the Brazilian Cerrado.
  • Occurrence and ecological implication of a tropical anguillid eel, Anguilla marmorata, in Brunei Darussalam, Borneo Island Short Communication

    Zan, Nur Dhabita; Sarbini, Ain; Taha, Hussein; Tan, Iy Vonne; Azri, Azie; Kahar, Rafhiah; Metali, Faizah; Ahmad, Norhayati; Arai, Takaomi

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Tropical anguillid eels account for two-thirds of the 19 species in Anguilla Schrank, 1798. However, information on the species diversity, geographical distribution, and life histories of the tropical eels is very limited. Recent studies suggested that morphological species identification of the tropical anguillid eels should be validated by molecular analysis for accurate identification. After surveying for three years, two anguillid eels were found in Brunei Darussalam, Borneo Island. They were firstly identified as Anguilla marmorata Quoy & Gaimard, 1824 using morphological analysis and further gene analysis of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) confirmed the species identification. This study is the first comprehensive description of A. marmorata in Brunei Darussalam, Borneo Island. Furthermore, it is also the first study to validate two anguillid eels collected from the tropical Bonin Islands of Japan as A. marmorata by means of morphological and COI analyses. The molecular phylogenetic tree and haplotype network analyses suggest that A. marmorata found in Brunei Darussalam would belong to the North Pacific population of the westernmost distribution.
  • Bats used as hosts by Amblyomma sculptum (Acari: Ixodidae) in Northeastern Brazil and its implications on tick-borne diseases Short Communication

    Novaes, Roberto Leonan M.; Alves, Fernanda M.; Souza, Renan F.; Laurindo, Rafael S.; Moratelli, Ricardo

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Amblyomma Koch, 1844 is distributed worldwide, with ca. 130 species currently recognized. These ticks are vectors of pathogens to animals and humans, including the causative agent of the New World Rocky Mountain spotted fever. Species of the Amblyomma parasitize a wide range of organisms, especially medium and large terrestrial mammals. Here we report for the first time the association of Myotis lavali Moratelli, Peracchi, Dias & Oliveira, 2011, Noctilio albiventris Desmarest, 1818 and Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus, 1758) as hosts for Amblyomma sculptum Berlese, 1888. The ticks were originally identified as Amblyomma cajennense (Fabricius, 1787), in 2011. However, a later taxonomic review indicated that the species of the A. cajennense complex occurring in the Caatinga is A. sculptum. We also discuss the ecoepidemiological implications of this association.
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