Resumo em Inglês:ABSTRACT The Anthropocene brought an accelerated risk of extinction for species across the globe. However, extinction proneness is not even across groups. Past and current events show large-sized mammals at greater extinction risk than smaller ones. For practical reasons, conservation actions tend to focus on the species level; therefore, well-founded species limits are pivotal. Since 2005, the number of known mammal species is about 20% higher but largely due to taxonomic discoveries in small-sized taxa. Here we review the recent taxonomic advances on medium- and large-sized mammals (MLM) from the Neotropics, and discuss misperceptions concerning the taxonomy stability in this group and how this may hinder proper conservation actions. We advocate that apparent taxonomic inertia toward large-sized mammals is partly related to limited systematic inquiry rather than representing an accurate knowledge of their diversity. Fortunately, this scenario has slowly changed in recent years. Linked to integrative analyses that took place during the 21st century, the Neotropical region represents a major example of recent growth in MLM diversity. Taxonomic novelties were found in eight orders of MLM and occurred across taxonomic ranks, from family to subspecies. Most changes comprise subspecies or synonyms elevated to full species, but new taxa of Artiodactyla, Carnivora, Lagomorpha, Pilosa, Primates, Perissodactyla, and large rodents have also been discovered. Recent reshuffles in MLM classification clearly illustrate the risk that bias in taxonomy studies can bring to conservation. Considering the new findings, some species previously labeled as “least concern” for conservation, stand now in some level of threat. This appraisal challenges the misperception of MLM as well-known and shows that taxonomy is a conservation issue.
Resumo em Inglês:ABSTRACT Natural history collections (NHCs) contain valuable information that can be used in different fields of knowledge, and aid in the development of society, science, and technology. The role of curators and taxonomists in maintaining and improving biological collections is essential, as these are fundamental for the understanding of biodiversity. However, the role of taxonomists and the importance of NHCs to society have been undervalued in recent years. We, while attending a graduate program on collections at PUCRS, noted a gap in knowledge about scientific collections. Was this gap, which continued from our undergraduate to graduate years, a mere coincidence or widespread in biological science programs in Brazil? We queried 126 Brazilian institutions of higher education to assess the presence of courses related to natural-history collections and taxonomy. A total of 25 private and 37 public universities from 126 institutions searched, have a program of study in biological sciences in the curriculum on their websites. About 16% offer some course related to NHCs or taxonomy, and all of them are public institutions. Despite the budget cutting made by the Brazilian government that make it even more difficult to recognize NHCs and related areas, we believe that there should be more links among researchers from different areas and especially between the levels of basic and higher education, so that students are exposed to this subject early in their education. We, as Brazilian students, believe that more information on NHC-related issues and taxonomic subjects is urgently needed in biological science programs.
Resumo em Inglês:ABSTRACT Three new and one already known species of Dactylogyrus Diesing, 1850 are described from five species of Labeo (Cyprinidae) sampled in the middle section of the Sanaga hydrosystem (Centre Region-Cameroon): Dactylogyrus sanagaensis sp. nov. from Labeo sanagaensis Tshibwabwa, 1997, L. nunensis Pellegrin, 1929, L. camerunensis Trewavas, 1974 and L. annectens Boulenger, 1903; Dactylogyrus nachtigalensis sp. nov. and D. yassensis Musilová, Řehulková & Gelnar, 2009 from Labeo batesii Boulenger, 1911; and Dactylogyrus djimensis sp. nov. from Labeo camerunensis. Dactylogyrus sanagaensis sp. nov. is close to D. longiphalloides, D. longiphallus, D. leonis, D. marocanus, and D. dembae, however it can be easily distinguished from these species by the size of MCO. Dactylogyrus nachtigalensis sp. nov. is similar to D. dembae and D. sanagaensis sp. nov. but this new species can be mainly differentiated by the length of penis. Dactylogyrus djimensis sp. nov. mostly similar to D. omega can be differentiated from it by the penis diameter. Dactylogyrus yassensis collected from Cameroon doesn’t significantly differ morphometrically from the original description, thus extends the distribution of this species to Sanaga basin. Monogenean species collected from Labeo spp. in the middle section of the Sanaga hydrosystem were classified into two morphological groups: the ‘pseudanchoratus-like group’ and the ‘cyclocirrus-like group’ newly defined herein. Phylogenetic relationships are suggested among Dactylogyrus species.
Resumo em Inglês:ABSTRACT Although stable isotopes have been increasingly used in ornithology since 1980 in many places, Brazil has been slow in adopting this methodology, especially when it comes to terrestrial birds. The most common elements in bird ecology studies are carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen, and oxygen stable isotopes, which provide information on diet, trophic interactions, habitat use, migration, geographic patterns, and physiology. It is important that Brazilian ornithologists become aware of the potential of stable isotope analysis in ecological studies, and the shortcomings of this tool. The use of stable isotopes to study bird ecology has great potential in Brazil, since many ecological questions about Neotropical birds can be addressed by it (e.g., resource and habitat use, migratory routes, isotopic niches, anthropogenic impacts, individual specialization). Brazilian museums and other Natural History collections can provide samples to study long-term temporal dynamics in bird ecology. Additionally, the integration of avian tissue sample information into a database may increase the collaboration among researchers and promote sample reuse in a variety of studies. All biomes in Brazil have been under pressure from anthropogenic impacts (e.g., land-use change, habitat loss, fragmentation, intensive agriculture), affecting several taxa, including terrestrial birds. Considering the negative effects of human expansion over natural areas and that stable isotopes provide useful ecological information, ornithologists in Brazil should increase their use of this tool in the future.
Resumo em Inglês:ABSTRACT Bat species present a series of attributes that makes them prone to being parasitized. Bat flies (Streblidae) are hematophagous ectoparasites exclusive to bats. Our study aimed to investigate the association of bat flies with the Common vampire bat, Desmodus rotundus (É. Geoffroy, 1810), in Honduras. We analyzed the effect of sex and age of the host on parasitism. Eight localities belonging to six departments were sampled in an altitudinal range between 50 and 995 m. Field data were obtained between May 2018 to November 2019 and 80 individuals were captured, from which 395 bat flies were extracted. Four species of bat flies were registered: Strebla wiedemanni Kolenati, 1856, Trichobius parasiticus Gervais, 1844, T. joblingi Wenzel, 1966 and T. caecus Edwards, 1948. Trichobius parasiticus presented the highest prevalence and mean intensity, followed by S. wiedemanni. Trichobius joblingi and T. caecus are new records of parasitism on D. rotundus for Honduras, although we consider as an accidental association. We recorded six types of infracommunities that parasitized 85% of the hosts. The prevalence and mean intensity was not affected by age and sex of the host for any bat fly species.
Resumo em Inglês:ABSTRACT The importance of amphibian bioacoustics is widely documented in ecological, taxonomical and evolutionary studies, as calls might act as a primary mechanism of reproductive isolation. The influence of air temperature and male size on the variation of the advertisement calls in anurans is widely recognized but still insufficiently analyzed in Brazilian species. Our goals were to (1) describe the advertisement call of Aplastodiscus albosignatus (Lutz & Lutz, 1938), (2) test the influence of temperature and body size on its acoustic signals and (3) evaluate the variation of within and between-male acoustic signals. Advertisement calls of A. albosignatus consist of an unpulsed note with four harmonics. In most cases, the dominant frequency is the third harmonic but, in some calls, it was the minimum frequency (first harmonic). The average duration of calls was 0.191 s, the interval between calls was 2.08 s and the repetition rate was 33 calls per minute. On average, the minimum frequency was 550.15 Hz, the maximum frequency was 3531.70 Hz and the third harmonic was 2498.9 Hz. To evaluate the effect of air temperature, and body size on the variation of call parameters, we performed generalized linear models. The most explanatory model for spectral parameters was temperature plus body size. Concerning temporal variables, the best model that explains the variation in call duration was body size, while for the interval between calls was air temperature. The maximum frequency and the frequency of the third harmonic had little variation in the calls of both the same male and different males. Thus, these parameters were considered important in species recognition.
Resumo em Inglês:ABSTRACT Intergroup conflicts are energetically more costly than intra-group disputes, and thus typically occur in contexts in which the energetic returns are relatively high. In anthropogenic environments, provisioned resources tend to be rich in energy and highly agglomerated. While females are expected to defend provisioned resources, the adult males, in turn, are expected to defend the females. Based on this premise, the present study focused on an urban forest in the city of Goiânia (Goiás, Brazil), which is inhabited by two groups of bearded capuchins. Behavioral data were collected using instantaneous scan sampling and all-events records to document intergroup conflicts and define their context. We used a backward logistic regression and stepwise linear regression to analyze the participation of the individuals in the conflicts. Conflicts were more frequent in the context of provisioning, although the number of neither females nor males involved in the conflict varied significantly between contexts. The females did avoid participating in conflicts involving adult males, however, to minimize the risk of being attacked by them. The adult males participated more in the presence of other adult males, which is partly consistent with the hypothesis of the defense of reproductive partners. The conflicts were not more intense in the context of provisioned resources, which contrasted with expectations. The hierarchical relationship between the two study groups, and the fact that the groups were derived from the same social unit, may have contributed to a reduction in the intensity of the conflicts.
Resumo em Inglês:ABSTRACT Megaspiridae include land snails with a tall spire. They occur in Brazil, New Guinea and Australia. Megaspira Lea, 1839 is distributed through the central and southeast regions of Brazil There is controversy regarding the number of species in the genus, and their taxonomic status. The characters used to identify Megaspira include a large cylindrical shell and internal armature in the columella. The goal of the present study is to describe a new species for the genus, based on shell morphology, microsculpture and the inner anatomy. These anatomic characters had not been described before for any of the included species. The material was collected at the Jararaca trail, Ilha Grande (Angra dos Reis, state of Rio de Janeiro). Seven linear measurements were taken from the shells. Megaspira adenticulata sp. nov. differs from the other species of the genus by not having apertural lamella in the shell aperture or in the columella in adult specimens. Also, the shell does not have light brown spots, as observed in other species of Megaspira. The shell has a mean of 16 whorls and height of 27 mm. It is smaller in average size than the shell of other described species. The new species was found under leaf litter, especially near rocks and in shallow soil.
Resumo em Inglês:ABSTRACT Wind energy is an important electricity source. Even though it is cleaner than other energy sources in terms of greenhouse gas emissions, gathering energy from the wind has impact on organisms that fly, including bats. Understanding whether and how bat activity patterns are affected by environmental variables may be useful when trying to mitigate these impacts, for example bat mortality from collisions with wind turbines. Northeastern Brazil concentrates one of the world’s largest wind potentials and has thousands of wind turbines in operation. In spite of this scenario, there is a lack of basic information, such as the presence of bat species and their activity patterns in those wind farms. We used passive acoustic monitoring to assess species richness and species composition and obtain data on activity patterns of insectivorous bats in four wind farm complexes in northeastern Brazil. We also investigated the possible correlation between environmental variables (wind speed and direction, air temperature and humidity, and percentage of moon illumination) and bat activity. The acoustic monitoring carried out for 30 nights produced approximately 120,000 bat passes of 29 sonotypes and four families. Environmental variables may influence bat activity, but in a site-specific way, i.e., although the environmental conditions of wind-energy complexes were similar, there was not an activity pattern common to all. Considering such specificities, we strongly recommend long-term specific on-site monitoring in each wind complex, avoiding generalizations for the environmental licensing of wind energy in Brazil.
Resumo em Inglês:ABSTRACT Myotis atacamensis (Lataste, 1892) was described based on three syntypes from San Pedro de Atacama, Chile. The type series is lost. The original description was based on few external and cranial characters, and the diagnosis became obsolete and useless considering the current diversity of South American Myotis. Based on 12 specimens of M. atacamensis from southern Peru and northern Chile, we provide a morphological comparison with its South American congeners, designate a neotype, and provide a new diagnosis.
Resumo em Inglês:ABSTRACT Limnichidae are currently a moderately diverse beetle family with a sparse fossil record. Here we describe a new limnichid genus and species, Anomocephalobus liuhaoi Li, Jäch & Cai gen. et sp. nov., from the mid-Cretaceous amber from northern Myanmar. Anomocephalobus gen. nov. is tentatively assigned to the extant subfamily Cephalobyrrhinae, based on its transverse metacoxae, 5-segmented protarsi, and absence of grooves on the ventral surface for reception of legs, though its oval body shape is somewhat deviating from extant Cephalobyrrhinae. The generic placement of the recently described Erichia cretacea Yu, Ślipiński, Ren & Pang, 2018 is also discussed.
Resumo em Inglês:ABSTRACT A new species of the leafhopper genus Andanus Linnavuori, 1959 (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Deltocephalinae: Athysanini), A. tambopixunensis sp. nov., is described. Materials studied were intercepted using Malaise and light traps in the Tambopata National Reserve (Peru) and the Amazonian Forest (Brazil). The genera Perundanus Zanol, 1993 syn. nov. and Paralaca Lozada, 1998 syn. nov. are recognized as junior synonyms of Andanus based on morphological comparison. The type species of Perundanus and Paralaca, A. raunoi (Zanol, 1993) comb. nov. and A. sordidus (Lozada, 1998) comb. nov., respectively, are transferred to Andanus. A detailed redescription of the genus and illustrations of external and genital morphology are provided as well as a key to the known species. The new species differs from other species in having a pygofer without processes, subgenital plates divergent, and aedeagus with a pair of short dorsoapical and single ventroapical spine. Comparative notes on morphological similarities of Andanus to other Neotropical Athysanini genera are discussed.
Resumo em Inglês:ABSTRACT We provide a list for the ants collected in the leaf litter, soil and vegetation of the Parque Estadual São Camilo, an important conservation unit of Atlantic Forest in Paraná, Brazil, and one of the oldest in the state. We report 108 species, of which eight species and two genera represent new records for Southern Brazil. Seven species are reported for the first time in Paraná. Our work is the first ant list for the western limit of the state, and reveals a surprisingly high number of species considering the extension of the study area. We highlight the importance of integrating different sampling techniques to explore ant diversity, and to conduct baseline studies in protected areas to document biodiversity.
Resumo em Inglês:ABSTRACT An up-to-date list of exclusively cave-dwelling gastropod species recorded in Brazil is presented including updated taxonomy, detailed geographic information, and illustration of types. The list includes 18 cave-exclusive (troglobitic) gastropods encompassing 15 land and three freshwater species, with the status of further species pending additional studies. Their unusual morphology and diversity are discussed, as well as their conservation status and prospects in the current Brazilian environmental and political scenario.
Resumo em Inglês:ABSTRACT We present new records for 42 species of longhorn beetles (Cerambycinae) in the Amazon Region, including the first report of Tomopteropsis cerdai Peñaherrera-Leiva & Tavakilian, 2003 in Brazil (Rondônia). New state records are provided for Amapá (one species), Amazonas (six species), Pará (one species), Rondônia (seven species), Roraima (13 species), and Acre (17 species). The new records expand the known distribution of the species and illustrate the important role played by inventories like the thematic network “Biodiversidade de Insetos na Amazônia” (Rede BIA) in helping us understand the biodiversity of the Amazon region.
Resumo em Inglês:ABSTRACT Soosiulus belterrensissp. nov. is described and illustrated from the Amazon Forest of the state of Pará, northern Brazil. Both the male and female terminalia are treated in detail, in addition to color features. With the addition of this new taxon, the diverse Neotropical genus Soosiulus Young, 1977 now comprises 28 species. The new species is the first one proposed for Soosiulus after the original generic description. It appears to be included in a complex with eleven other Soosiulus species, all of them sharing a very similar color pattern. Among the members of this putative complex, the aedeagus of S. belterrensis sp. nov. is most similar to those of S. hastatus Young, 1977 and S. ruber Young, 1977, due to the presence of a pair of conspicuous dorsoapical processes. However, in S. hastatus and S. ruber the aedeagus has also a retrorse ventroapical process originated from a lobe; both process and lobe are not present in the new species. In addition, the female sternite VII in S. hastatus and S. ruber is convex posteriorly, whereas it has a distinct median emargination in the new species.
Resumo em Inglês:ABSTRACT Alticini is the most diverse tribe of Chrysomelidae with approximately 8,000 species. Despite of its high diversity, little is known about their natural history and immature stages. Herein, we describe the immatures of Omophoita personata (Illiger, 1807) reared in laboratory from adults sampled in field. We also investigated and compared with immatures of O. octoguttata (Fabricius, 1775). Detailed morphology and chaetotaxy are presented. Larvae of O. personata have their bodies covered with tubercles and the stemmata are absent. These characteristics are shared with other Oedionychina species, reinforcing the stability of these morphological characteristics as diagnostic of this subtribe. This study provides important descriptive and comparative data that increases the knowledge about Alticini immatures.
Resumo em Inglês:ABSTRACT The Atlantic anchoveta, Cetengraulis edentulus (Cuvier, 1829) is one of the most commercially important fish species in the littoral of Brazil. The present study evaluates the parasitic fauna of this engraulid fish from the southeastern Brazilian coast. Between October 2019 and March 2020, a total of 100 specimens of C. edentulus from the Sepetiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (22°57’44”S; 43°52’28”W), were examined. Eighty-five specimens of C. edentulus were parasitized by at least one species of metazoan, with a mean of 4.32 ± 6.12 parasites/fish. Eleven species of parasites were collected: five digeneans, two monogeneans, two copepods, one isopod and one nematode. The nematode Hysterothylacium sp. was the most abundant and dominant species, representing 51.85% of the metazoan parasites collected, showing positive correlation with the host’s total length and parasite abundance and prevalence. The mean abundance and prevalence of Hysterothylacium sp. was significantly higher in female hosts. One pair of larval endoparasites showed positive covariation. Centengraulis edentulus represents a new host record for nine species of parasites. A dominance of endoparasitic larval stages is documented in the parasite community of C. edentulus. This may be a function of the feeding habits of engraulid fish, which feed mainly on zooplanktonic organisms. It may also have to do with to the fact that C. edentulus is the intermediate and/or paratenic host of fish parasites, birds, and marine mammals.
Resumo em Inglês:ABSTRACT In the framework of the study of Siluriform fish monogeneans of Lake Tanganyika, we described two new species of Bagrobdella Paperna, 1969 from Auchenoglanis occidentalis (Valenciennes, 1840). Bagrobdella vanhovei sp. nov. is characterized by the morphology of its MCO which is unique among its congeners, presenting a non-terminal opening, whereas the other species have a terminal opening, and Bagrobdella vansteenbergei sp. nov. characterized by the size of its hooks, which are almost all of the same size, and its male copulating organ with a unique shape: a sub-terminal opening and no membrane surrounding. The Multivariate analysis done on morphometrical characters shows that the new and already described species are well individualized, except for Bagrobdella parauchenoglanii Akoumba, Pariselle, Tombi & Bilong Bilong, 2017 and Bagrobdella fraudulenta Euzet & Le Brun, 1990 (but these two species are easily distinguishable by their morphology), and that B. vanhovei sp. nov. has a great intra-specific morphometrical variation.
Resumo em Inglês:ABSTRACT This contribution endeavored to investigate the genetic structure and gene flow of the flood mosquito, Aedes vexans (Meigen, 1830). Using partial sequences of the mitochondrial COI gene, available from BOLD Systems and GenBank, the Haplotypic (Hd) and nucleotide (π) gene diversity, genetic structuring and gene flow of A. vexans at the global, continental, and country levels were calculated. In total, 1,184 sequences were obtained, distributed among America (88.60%; represented by EUA and Canada), Europe (7.35%), Asia (3.89%), and Africa (0.17%). From these, 395 haplotypes (H) without presence of pseudogenes (NUMTs) were detected. The cluster analyses grouped the haplotypes into six clades. Clade I includes haplotypes from countries in America and Europe, while clades II and III include haplotypes exclusively from Asia and Europe; clade IV grouped only one haplotype from Africa and clade V grouped haplotypes from America and Africa. The global Hd and π were 0.92 and 0.01, respectively. In addition, there is evidence of genetic structuring among continents (7.07%), countries (1.62%), and within countries (91.30%; FST = 0.08, p < 0.05) and no isolation by distance was detected (r = 0.003, p > 0.05). The genetic diversity of A. vexans was found to be greater in North America than in other continents. Although this provisional conclusion might be influenced by a sample bias, since 88.60% of the sequences are from America, is also plausible to consider that America corresponds to the ancestral distribution area of the flood mosquito. This hypothesis needs further testing, using a more comprehensive sample from other continents. Additionally, the six clusters found and their geographical distribution do not support previous proposals of splitting the genus into three subspecies confined to certain geographical areas.
Resumo em Inglês:ABSTRACT Despite the great advances in research on the taxonomy and ecology of hydroids of the Brazilian coast, those studies are concentrated in the Southeast and South regions of the country, leaving a gap in knowledge from the North and Northeast regions. Aiming to fill part of this gap, we studied the hydroids communities in the state of Sergipe, Northeast Brazil, in the continental shelf and in three estuarine regions. In the continental shelf, samplings with fishing trawls took place during the dry and rainy seasons of 1999-2003 (8 campaigns), from 18 stations distributed at depths of 10, 20, and 30 m. In the estuaries of the rivers Japaratuba, Sergipe and Vaza-Barris three ropes with six polyethylene plates were installed in each place and left submerged for three months in the dry and rainy periods of 2017. Seventy-nine hydroid species of 26 families were identified. Sixteen of these have been assigned to nine Anthoathecata families and the remaining 63 species to 17 Leptothecata families. Among the identified species, 60 are new records from Sergipe and among those, nine are also new records from the Northeast region and two from the Brazilian coast. Our results increase the hydroid records from Sergipe and extend the range of some species inside the Brazilian coast and the Atlantic Ocean, showing the potential for future studies in other environments of the Sergipe coast.
Resumo em Inglês:ABSTRACT In vitro rearing protocols already established for honeybees are currently being adapted to assess the risk of pesticides, and to conduct comparative developmental biology studies on stingless bees. However, differences in critical life-history traits (development time and the type of larval nutrition leading to caste differentiation process) among social bees require the development of an in vitro rearing protocol for each species and caste. We generated a protocol to produce workers of Frieseomelitta varia (Lepeletier, 1836), a non-endangered and highly eusocial pollinator species with wide geographical distribution. We tested the viability of using either the eggs or the first instar larvae as the starting point for in-vitro transfer. In vitro rearing was performed in acrylic plates at 30 °C and 99% relative humidity during the larval feeding phase. The humidity was subsequently reduced to 75% during the following days of development. The experimental larvae were offered either 25 µL or 27 µL of larval food. The development time, emergence and mortality rates, and morphological parameters of the emerged workers were assessed. In the process of validating the protocol, the adults that emerged after in vitro rearing were compared with colony-reared adults. In our results, 27 µL of larval food allowed 90% of workers to emerge. No significant differences were found between the emerging workers reared in vitro and those reared in the colony. The described protocol is a useful method for rearing F. varia workers in vitro, which can be used for diverse types of experimental approaches.
Resumo em Inglês:ABSTRACT In low-order streams, the processing of allochthonous leaf litter is essential in the carbon/energy flow dynamics. Benthic macroinvertebrates, such as chironomids, play critical roles in the breakdown of allochthonous materials, because their larvae take part in intricate trophic networks and have varied trophic ecologies. We evaluated the effects of intra-annual variability on the input of allochthonous leaf litter, and the interactions of leaf-detritus on the succession of Chironomidae assemblages in the dry, rainy, and transition seasons (rainy-dry and dry-rainy). The study took place in a stream in the Brazilian Cerrado. Leaves were incubated in the stream to ascertain the colonization process by Chironomidae and the loss of leaf litter mass after 90 days. Functional feeding groups (FFG) were less rich and less abundant in the dry and dry-rainy seasons, than in the other seasons. The FFG composition of Chironomidae demonstrated that temporal variation between seasons was affected by the exposure time of the leaf-detritus in the stream, and there was more segregation during the dry and rainy seasons. In conclusion, the colonization of leaf-detritus by Chironomidae larvae depended on how long allochthonous plant material remained in the stream, and the variability of the organic matter dynamics input into the stream.
Resumo em Inglês:ABSTRACT Altitudinal migration in birds comprises seasonal movements between breeding and non-breeding areas in mountainous regions, attributed to biotic and abiotic factors. Different authors have suggested the existence of altitudinal migration between high and low areas of the mountains of the Atlantic Forest, with movement from high to low during the winter when birds would be fleeing the cold and in search of food, but there is no documented evidence. Through recaptures of understory birds, we investigated possible altitudinal migration in a region of the Atlantic Forest in Southeast Brazil. Twenty mist-nets were set at four locations between 15 and 729 m a.s.l. during 143 days of field work, distributed over 54 months and covering all seasons of the year. A total of 1946 birds (98 species) were captured/banded with 558 being recaptured (28.6%; 45 species). However, only 42 of the recaptures were at a different elevation. Most of the movements were of short distances and performed only once by birds, showing no seasonal pattern. These movements may be better interpreted as daily movements undertaken by birds of mixed-species flocks looking for food or moving around their respective home-ranges. Our results show that mist-nets may not be an effective tool in detecting altitudinal movements of birds and that other methods should be evaluated for this purpose.
Resumo em Inglês:ABSTRACT A new species of Hanshumba Young, 1977 is described and illustrated from the Mantiqueira mountain range (southeastern Brazil), municipalities of Wenceslau Braz (state of Minas Gerais) and São Bento do Sapucaí (state of São Paulo). The new taxon is associated with olive orchards and is considered a potential vector of the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa. This bacterium causes a serious disease known in Brazil as olive leaf desiccation syndrome. Hanshumba mariae sp. nov. can be distinguished from the other five known species of the genus by the following combination of features: (1) apical third of ventral margin of male pygofer with small inner process bearing setae; (2) male abdominal segment X (anal tube) without processes; (3) style with apex narrow, obtuse, not foot-shaped; (4) aedeagus with distinct dorsal lobe along basal two-thirds and with apical portion expanded, bearing dorsal projection; (5) paraphyses with distal pair of rami forceps-like, their basal halves divergent from each other, distal halves approximately parallel, apices acute; (6) female sternite VII with posterior margin shallowly emarginate, bearing slight median lobe; and (7) valvula II of ovipositor with approximately 15 low teeth. Both males and females of the new species are described in detail. A key to the six known species of the genus is provided.
Resumo em Inglês:ABSTRACT Reserva Ecológica de Guapiaçu (REGUA) is a private, protected area inside a remnant of the Atlantic Forest with high biodiversity. Although the bats of the reserve have been sampled for more than two decades, few studies have been published about them. Based on a compilation of data from several surveys, we present an updated list of the bat species there and compare it with surveys from other locations in the Atlantic Forest. From August 1998 to September 2021, at least 194 sampling nights were carried out at REGUA by different research groups from various institutions, totaling 448,092 m2.h of sampling. A total of 4,069 individuals were captured, belonging to 47 species and six families. Additionally, our results indicate that it is possible that some species that occur at REGUA have not been recorded yet. REGUA has the greatest number of bat species known for the Atlantic Forest. This most likely results from the fact that the reserve includes large areas of mature, continuous forest connected with other protected areas in the State of Rio de Janeiro. Another factor contributing to the high diversity of bat species at REGUA is that the area has been intensely sampled for many years. Given that the bat assemblage there appears to be a good proxy to ascertain the ecological patterns of biodiversity in well-preserved forests, we consider REGUA to be an important area for long-term ecological research. The basic knowledge about the ecological interactions of bats with different food resources and zoonotic microorganisms offers a unique opportunity to carry out research in several areas of knowledge, making it possible to address questions about bat assemblage structure, bat-parasite ecology, competition, niche partitioning, and other related studies.
Resumo em Inglês:ABSTRACT This study concerns the millipede genus Leptherpum Attems, 1931, which contains nine valid species distributed across the Amazonian rainforest of northeastern South America. The type species L. carinovatum (Attems, 1898) is reexamined based on the type material and high-resolution photographs, including the first scanning electron micrographs of this species. The following three new species are described: Leptherpum tialaura sp. nov. from the state of Pará, Brazil; Leptherpum battirolai sp. nov. from the state of Amazonas, Brazil; and Leptherpum buenovillegasi sp. nov. from the commune of Maripasoula, French Guiana. A brief review of Leptherpum taxonomy and geographic distribution is provided, along with a key to males.
Resumo em Inglês:ABSTRACT During a survey of helminth parasites, five monogenoid species were reported from marine fishes from the coast of Angra dos Reis, littoral of Rio de Janeiro State, Atlantic Ocean. A total of 810 monogenoids were collected: Pseudotagia pomadasys Hernández-Vale, Bunkley-Williams & Williams Jr, 2016, Pseudoeurysorchis travassosi Caballero & Bravo-Hollis, 1962 in Haemulopsis corvinaeformis (Steindachner, 1868) (=Pomadasys corvinaeformis), Neodiplectanum mexicanum (Mendoza-Franco, Roche & Torchin, 2008) Domingues, Diamanka & Pariselle, 2011 and Aristocleidus hastatus Mueller, 1936 in Diapterus rhombeus (Cuvier, 1829) and Acanthocercodes bullardi Kritsky & Diggles, 2015 in Polydactylus virginicus (Linnaeus, 1758). The presence of P. pomadasys, P. travassosi and A. hastatus in the Southwest Atlantic Ocean represents a new geographical distribution for these species. Haemulopsis corvinaeformis represents a new host record for P. travassosi and A. bullardi is reported in the present paper for the first time parasitizing the gills of a polynemid in South Atlantic Ocean. The findings show that they belong to species previously recorded from the same or congeneric hosts from Central America and Mexico, representing new data on hosts and geographical records.
Resumo em Inglês:ABSTRACT The earliest fossil member of Teredidae, Delteredolaemus hei Li & Cai gen. et sp. nov., is reported from mid-Cretaceous Burmese amber. Delteredolaemus is assigned to the extant tribe Teredini, and shares a generally similar morphology with the extant genus Teredolaemus Sharp, 1885, although it can be distinguished from all other members in the tribe by the shape of the pronotum and mesoventral process, as well as the anteromedially tumid metaventrite.
Resumo em Inglês:ABSTRACT Nineteen species of Anguilla Schrank, 1798 are globally distributed in the world, however knowledge on the biogeography, species diversity and ecology of the 13 species of tropical anguillids in the Indo-Pacific region is highly limited. This study examined the diversity of tropical anguillids found in North Maluku of East Indonesia, which is known to have unique and highly heterogeneous habitats, complex oceanography, high biodiversity, and representativeness of Asian and Australian fauna. By means of molecular identification, two tropical anguillid eels, A. marmorata Quoy & Gaimard, 1824 and A. interioris Whitely, 1938, were confirmed to be distributed in North Maluku. This study also examined the mitochondrial DNA haplotype diversity of A. interioris, as it could contribute to our understanding of the biogeography and life history of this eel species. Our molecular analyses showed the presence of the same haplotypes along the different locations in the Indo-Pacific region. Although more samples and DNA markers are required to provide more support, the results suggest that the larvae of A. interioris from potentially different spawning sites in the Indian and Pacific oceans could be mixed together due to the complexity of oceanic currents, and when these migrating larvae reach maturity, they would likely spawn with the local eels.
Resumo em Inglês:ABSTRACT Mirinaba cadeadensis Lange de Morretes, 1952 is restricted to the Paraná state, and found at the municipalities of Morretes, São José dos Pinhais, Paranaguá, Matinhos, and Guaratuba, associated to the Serra do Mar mountains. In this paper, we report the first record of this species in an anthropogenic shell mound. Two shells of M. cadeadensis were located in the internal stratigraphic layers of the Boguaçu shell mound. This is also the first shell mound record for Mirinaba.