ISSN 0004-2749 printed version
Scope and policy
ABO-ARQUIVOS BRASILEIROS DE OFTALMOLOGIA (ABO, ISSN 0004-2749 - printed version and ISSN 1678-2925 - online version) is the official bimonthly publication of the Brazilian Council of Ophthalmology (Conselho Brasileiro de Oftalmologia - CBO). The purpose of the journal is to publish scientific studies in Ophthalmology, Visual Sciences, and Public Health, encouraging research, as well as qualification and updating of the professionals involved in this field.
Original manuscripts are accepted only in English. Manuscripts are grouped into one of the following categories, based on the methodology used:
Laboratory Experimental Studies
Types of Manuscripts
Manuscripts submitted to ABO should fit into one of the following categories according to their format. The maximum number of words, figures, tables and, references for each type of manuscript are in parentheses at the end of the description for each category. The word count of the manuscript includes the text from the beginning of the introduction up to the end of the discussion; therefore, the following items are not included: title page, abstract, references, acknowledgments, tables and figures, including legends.
Editorials are contributed by invitation and should be related to topics of current interest, preferentially related to articles published in the same issue of ABO (title, maximum of 1,000 words, 2 figures or tables, and 10 references).
Original articles present complete experiments with results that have never been published before (title, structured abstract, maximum of 3,000 words, 8 figures or tables, and 30 references). The evaluation of the manuscripts will be based on the following priorities:
* Manuscripts containing speculative conclusions, unsubstantiated by the results or based on a study with inappropriate methodology will not be accepted.
Case Reports and Case Series
Case reports or case series will be considered for publication when describing rare and original findings that have not been internationally confirmed, or when presenting clinical or surgical responses that can contribute to elucidate the pathophysiology of a disease (title, unstructured abstract, maximum of 1,000 words, 4 figures or tables, and 10 references).
Letters to the Editor
Letters to the editor are considered for publication if they contain comments related to manuscripts previously published in ABO or, exceptionally, the results of original studies with insufficient content to be submitted as Original Article. These letters should present new information or new interpretation of existing information. When the content of the letter refers to an article previously published in ABO, such article should be mentioned in the first paragraph of the letter and included in its reference list. In these cases, the letters will be linked to the article, and the authors of the article will have their right of reply guaranteed in the same issue. Congratulation letters will not be published (title, maximum of 700 words, 2 figures or tables, and 5 references).
Review ArticlesReview articles follow the editorial line and are also accepted if submitted. Suggestions of topics for review articles should be sent directly to the editor, but manuscripts cannot be sent without an invitation (title, unstructured abstract, maximum of 4,000 words, 8 figures or tables, and 100 references).
Manuscripts will only be considered for publication if they meet all the journal's requirements. The editorial office will inform the authors if their manuscript fails to meet such requirements. Upon notification, the corresponding author will have 30 days to make the necessary changes in the manuscript. If the deadline is not met, the manuscript will be excluded from the editorial process.
The manuscripts submitted to ABO are initially evaluated by the editors to check for content compliance with the editorial line of the journal. After this assessment, all manuscripts are sent for peer review. The anonymity of reviewers is preserved throughout the whole process. However, the authors of manuscripts do not remain anonymous.
After the initial editorial evaluation, the reviewers' comments can be sent to the authors to guide the changes to be implemented in the text. After implementing the changes suggested by the reviewers, the revised manuscript should be resubmitted along with a letter (which is sent as a supplementary document) with specific indications of all changes made to the manuscript or the reasons why the suggested changes were not made. Manuscripts that are resubmitted without a letter will be withheld until the editorial office receives the letter. The deadline to submit the new version of the manuscript is 30 days after the authors are informed of the need to make changes in their manuscript. Manuscripts will be excluded from the process if authors fail to meet this deadline. The ultimate publication will be based on the final approval of the editors. Manuscripts submitted to ABO should not be simultaneously considered for publication by other journals. In addition, total or partial publication or translation for publication in another language of the manuscripts submitted to ABO should not be considered without the permission of the editors of ABO.
The authors of manuscripts submitted to ABO should make sure that all authors meet the criteria mentioned above and that all persons who meet these criteria are listed. Individuals who hold headship positions cannot be considered authors of manuscripts based only on their positions. ABO does not accept the participation of honorary authors.The corresponding author should complete and submit the Author Contribution Statement as a supplementary document.
Guidelines for Excellent Research
Manuscripts should only be submitted online using the appropriate interface of ABO. The following guidelines were based on the format suggested by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) and published in the document: Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals.
Only the manuscripts complying with these guidelines will be considered for analysis.
The text should be sent as a digital file. Only the following formats are accepted: .doc. The text should be typed double-spaced, in 12 point font. The pages should be numbered in Arabic numerals, starting each section on a new page.
The sections should be presented according to the following sequence: Title page (as a separate document); Abstract and Keywords; Introduction; Methods; Results; Discussion; Acknowledgements (if any); References; Tables (optional) and Figures (optional) including legends.
1. Title Page. It should contain: a) title (no more than 135 characters with spaces); b) authors' names as they should appear in print; c) each author's affiliation* (city, state, country and, if applicable, department, school, university); d) corresponding author's name, address, phone number, and email; e) sources of financial support (if any); f) project number and institution responsible for the approval of the Research Ethics Committee; g) statement of conflicts of interests of all authors; h) clinical trial registration number on a public trials registry.
* Professional or academic degrees, as well as job position will not be published.
Approval of the Institutional Review Board (IRB). All retrospective, cross-sectional, or prospective studies involving primary data collection or clinical and surgical reports should include the project number and name of the institution that provided the approval of the IRB on the title page. Studies involving humans should be compliant with the Declaration of Helsinki, whereas studies involving animals should be in accordance with the principles suggested by the Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology (ARVO).
As a supplementary document, the corresponding author should send the IRB approval or its report stating that the evaluation of the project by the Committee is not necessary. The author cannot decide on the need for evaluation by the Research Ethics Committee.
Statement of Conflicts of Interest. The title page should contain the statement of conflicts of interest of all authors (even if there is no conflict of interest). For more information about potential conflicts of interest, refer to: World Association of Medical Editors: Conflict of interest in peer-reviewed medical journals.
Clinical Trials. All Clinical Trials shall include on the title page the registration number in an international registry that allows free access to trial information (examples: U.S. National Institutes of Health, Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number - ISRCTN, University Hospital Medical Information Network Clinical Trials Registry - UMIN CTR, Nederlands Trial Register, Registros Brasileiros de Ensaios Clínicos).
2. Abstract and Keywords. Structured abstract (Objective, Methods, Results, Conclusions) with no more than 300 words. Unstructured abstract with no more than 150 words. Five keywords in English listed by the National Library of Medicine (MeSH - Medical Subject Headings).
3. Optional Abstract and Keywords in Portuguese. Optional structured abstract (Objective, Methods, Results, Conclusions) with no more than 300 words. Unstructured abstract with no more than 150 words. Five keywords in Portuguese listed by BIREME. Portuguese translation may be provided by ABO at publication.
4. Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion. Citations in the text should be numbered sequentially in superscript Arabic numerals and in parentheses. The names of the authors should not be cited in the text.
5. Acknowledgements. This section should include the collaboration of people, groups or institutions that deserve to be acknowledged but do not meet the criteria for authorship. Statisticians and medical editors may meet the criteria for authorship and, in this case, should be acknowledged as authors. When they do not meet the criteria for authorship, they should be mentioned in this section. Writers who are not identified in the manuscript cannot be accepted as authors; therefore, professional writers should be acknowledged in this section.
6. References. Citations (references) of authors in the text should be numbered sequentially in the same order as they are cited and identified using superscript Arabic numerals. References should be in accordance with the format suggested by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE), based on the examples below.
The titles of the journals should be abbreviated according to the style provided by the List of Journal Indexed in Index Medicus of the National Library of Medicine.
The names of all authors should be cited for references with up to six authors. For studies with seven or more authors, cite only the first six authors followed by et al.
Examples of references:
7. Tables. Tables should be numbered sequentially using Arabic numerals in the order they are mentioned in the text. All tables should have a title and a heading for all columns. Their format should be simple, with no vertical lines or color in the background. All abbreviations (even if previously defined in the text) and statistical tests should be explained below the table. The bibliographical source of the table should also be informed when the table is extracted from another study.
Do not include tables in the main document of the manuscript, they should be uploaded as supplementary documents
8. Figures (graphs, photos, illustrations, charts). Figures should be numbered sequentially using Arabic numerals in the order they are mentioned in the text. ABO will publish the figures in black and white at no cost to the authors. Manuscripts with color figures will be published only whether the color figure is considered necessary, otherwise, it will be published in black and white.
Graphs should be in shades of gray, on a white background and without three-dimensional or depth effects. Instead of using pie charts, the data should be included in tables or described in the text.
Photos and illustrations should have a minimum resolution of 300 DPI for the size of the publication (about 2,500 x 3,300 pixels for a full page). The quality of the images is considered in the evaluation of the manuscript.
The main document should contain all figure legends, typed double-spaced and numbered using Arabic numerals.
Do not include figures in the main document of the manuscript; they should be uploaded as supplementary documents.
9. Abbreviations and Acronyms. Abbreviations and acronyms should be preceded by the spelled-out abbreviation on first mention and in the legends of tables and figures (even if they have been previously mentioned in the text). Titles and abstracts should not contain abbreviations and acronyms.
10. Units of Measurement: Values of physical quantities should be used in accordance with the standards of the International System of Units.
11. Language. Texts should be clear to be considered appropriate for publication in a scientific journal. Use short sentences, written in a direct and active voice. Foreign words should be in italics. Therapeutic agents should be mentioned by their generic names with the following information in parentheses: trade name, manufacturer's name, city, state and country of origin. All instruments or apparatus should be mentioned including their trade name, manufacturer's name, city, state and country of origin. The superscript symbol of trademark ® or ™ should be used in all names of instruments or trade names of drugs. Whenever there are doubts about style, terminology, units of measurement and related issues, refer to the AMA Manual of Style 10th edition.
12. Original Documents. Corresponding authors should keep the original documents and the letter of approval from the Research Ethics Committee for studies involving humans or animals, the consent form signed by all patients involved, the statement of agreement with the full content of the study signed by all authors and the statement of conflict of interest of all authors, as well as the records of the data collected for the study results. 13. Corrections and Retractions. Errors may be noted in published manuscripts that require the publication of a correction. However, some errors pointed out by any reader may invalidate the results or the authorship of a manuscript. If substantial doubt arises about the honesty or integrity of a submitted manuscript, it is the editor's responsibility to exclude the possibility of fraud. In these situations, the editor will inform the institutions involved and the funding agencies about the suspicion and wait for their final decision. If there is confirmation of a fraudulent publication in ABO, the editor will act in compliance with the protocols suggested by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) and by the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE).
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