Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências]]> vol. 92 num. lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[Harvesting the cockle <em>Leukoma pectorina</em> (Lamarck, 1818) on Algodoal-Maiandeua Island (Pará, Brazil): techniques, bio-ecology, and ethnoecological knowledge]]> Abstract The ecological and ethnological aspects of the harvesting of the cockle, Leukoma pectorina (Bivalvia: Veneridae), were investigated on Algodoal-Maiandeua Island, on the Amazon coast of Brazil. Ethnobiological data were collected through informal conversations, semi-structured interviews, and observations of the harvesting and processing of bivalves on the island. Following the ethnobiology study, the cockle beds were surveyed to evaluate the density of L. pectorina, body size and the meat yield of the cockles in the months of dry and rainy seasons. In the study area, cockling is a manual and artisanal activity, and L. pectorina is typically harvested by mothers with little formal education. The cocklers make their own tools, cockles are prepared in the family environment, and the majority of the catch is sold to commercial establishments on the island. Cockling is a sporadic activity used to complement the family income, and is more common during the dry season, when tourism increases on Algodoal-Maiandeua Island. The cockles are also larger and population density is higher during this season, and the cocklers themselves recognize this period as providing the most productive harvest. These findings reinforce the value of traditional knowledge for both scientific research and the planning of the management of coastal fishery resources. <![CDATA[Effect of tween 40 and ethanol on the secretion, structure and antioxidant activities of exopolysaccharides from <em>Inonotus rickii</em>]]> Abstract In this study, the effects of Tween 40 and ethanol supplementation on the secretion, structure and antioxidant activities of exopolysaccharide (EPS) from Inonotus rickii were investigated. It was observed that Tween 40 and ethanol displayed a stimulatory effect on EPS secretion. The EPSs obtained by the addition of Tween 40 (EPS-T), ethanol (EPS-E) and control (EPS-C) were purified by Sepharose CL-6B gel chromatography and molecular weights of EPS-T, EPS-E and EPS-C were estimated to be 22.1, 30.0, and 40.5 kDa, respectively. Monosaccharide composition analysis indicated that EPS-T, EPS-E and EPS-C were mainly composed of mannose and glucose. Furthermore, EPS-E exhibited better OH• and DPPH scavenging activities than those of EPS-C and EPS-T, which might be associated with its molecular characterization.