Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical]]> vol. 49 num. 2 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[Visceral leishmaniasis in Southern Rio de Janeiro State and the risk of propagation to São Paulo State, Brazil]]> <![CDATA[Epstein-Barr virus-positive gastric cancer: a distinct molecular subtype of the disease?]]> Abstract: Approximately 90% of the world population is infected by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Usually, it infects B lymphocytes, predisposing them to malignant transformation. Infection of epithelial cells occurs rarely, and it is estimated that about to 10% of gastric cancer patients harbor EBV in their malignant cells. Given that gastric cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide, with a global annual incidence of over 950,000 cases, EBV-positive gastric cancer is the largest group of EBV-associated malignancies. Based on gene expression profile studies, gastric cancer was recently categorized into four subtypes; EBV-positive, microsatellite unstable, genomically stable and chromosomal instability. Together with previous studies, this report provided a more detailed molecular characterization of gastric cancer, demonstrating that EBV-positive gastric cancer is a distinct molecular subtype of the disease, with unique genetic and epigenetic abnormalities, reflected in a specific phenotype. The recognition of characteristic molecular alterations in gastric cancer allows the identification of molecular pathways involved in cell proliferation and survival, with the potential to identify therapeutic targets. These findings highlight the enormous heterogeneity of gastric cancer, and the complex interplay between genetic and epigenetic alterations in the disease, and provide a roadmap to implementation of genome-guided personalized therapy in gastric cancer. The present review discusses the initial studies describing EBV-positive gastric cancer as a distinct clinical entity, presents recently described genetic and epigenetic alterations, and considers potential therapeutic insights derived from the recognition of this new molecular subtype of gastric adenocarcinoma. <![CDATA[Integrative literature review of the reported uses of serological tests in leprosy management]]> Abstract: An integrative literature review was conducted to synthesize available publications regarding the potential use of serological tests in leprosy programs. We searched the databases Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde, Índice Bibliográfico Espanhol em Ciências da Saúde, Acervo da Biblioteca da Organização Pan-Americana da Saúde, Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online, Hanseníase, National Library of Medicine, Scopus, Ovid, Cinahl, and Web of Science for articles investigating the use of serological tests for antibodies against phenolic glycolipid-I (PGL-I), ML0405, ML2331, leprosy IDRI diagnostic-1 (LID-1), and natural disaccharide octyl-leprosy IDRI diagnostic-1 (NDO-LID). From an initial pool of 3.514 articles, 40 full-length articles fulfilled our inclusion criteria. Based on these papers, we concluded that these antibodies can be used to assist in diagnosing leprosy, detecting neuritis, monitoring therapeutic efficacy, and monitoring household contacts or at-risk populations in leprosy-endemic areas. Thus, available data suggest that serological tests could contribute substantially to leprosy management. <![CDATA[Over expression of AdeABC and AcrAB-TolC efflux systems confers tigecycline resistance in clinical isolates of <em>Acinetobacter baumannii</em> and <em>Klebsiella pneumoniae</em>]]> Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Due to the wide use of tigecycline in the treatment of severe infections caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria, clinical resistance to tigecycline has increased in recent years. Here, we investigated the relationship between tigecycline resistance and the expression of efflux pumps. METHODS: Clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii and Klebsiella pneumoniae were consecutively collected from hospitalized patients in three hospitals. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of tigecycline was determined using the broth microdilution method. Expression levels of efflux pump genes and regulators were examined by quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The correlations between tigecycline MICs and gene expression levels were analyzed. RESULTS: Overall, 1,026 A. baumannii and 725 K. pneumoniae strains were collected. Most strains were isolated from sputum. The tigecycline resistance rate was 13.4% in A. baumannii isolates and 6.5% in K. pneumoniae isolates. Overexpression of AdeABC and AcrAB-TolC efflux systems was observed found in clinical tigecycline-resistant isolates. The tigecycline MIC had a linear relationship with the adeB expression level in A. baumannii isolates, but not with the acrB expression level in K. pneumoniae isolates. There were significant linear trends in the overexpression of ramA as the tigecycline MIC increased in K. pneumoniae isolates. CONCLUSIONS: Tigecycline resistance in A. baumannii and K. pneumoniae was strongly associated with the overexpression of efflux systems. More studies are needed to elucidate whether there are other regulators that affect the expression of adeB in A. baumannii and how ramA affects the expression of acrB in K. pneumoniae. <![CDATA[Monoterpene isolated from the essential oil of <strong><em>Trachyspermum ammi</em></strong> is cytotoxic to multidrug-resistant <strong><em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em></strong> and <strong><em>Staphylococcus aureus</em></strong> strains]]> Abstract INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to determine whether an herbal extract containing monoterpene exhibited activity against multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from clinical infection samples. METHODS: The essential oil of Trachyspermum ammi (L.) Sprague ex Turrill (Apiaceae) fruit was extracted by hydrodistillation. Fruit residues were treated with hydrochloric acid and re-hydrodistilled to obtain volatile compounds. Compounds in the distilled oil were identified using gas-chromatography (GC) and GC-mass spectrometry (MS). The antibiotic susceptibility of all bacterial isolates was analyzed using both the disc diffusion method and determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The sensitivity of antibiotic-resistant isolates to essential oil was also determined by using the disc diffusion method and MIC determination. RESULTS: Of 26 clinical isolates, 92% were multidrug-resistant (MDR). Aromatic monoterpenes (thymol, paracymene, and gamma-terpinene) were the major (90%) components of the oil. Growth of S. aureus strains was successfully inhibited by the oil, with an inhibitory zone diameter (IZD) between 30-60mm and MIC &lt;0.02μL/mL. The oil had no antimicrobial activity against clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa; rather, it prevented pigment production in these isolates. CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed that the essential oil of Trachyspermum ammi, which contains monoterpene, has good antibacterial potency. Monoterpenes could thus be incorporated into antimicrobial ointment formulas in order to treat highly drug-resistant S. aureus infections. Our findings also underscore the utility of research on natural products in order to combat bacterial multidrug resistance. <![CDATA[Secular trends in <em>Klebsiella pneumoniae</em> isolated in a tertiary-care hospital: increasing prevalence and accelerated decline in antimicrobial susceptibility]]> Abstract: INTRODUCTION Klebsiella pneumoniae has become an increasingly important etiologic agent of nosocomial infections in recent years. This is mainly due to the expression of virulence factors and development of resistance to several antimicrobial drugs. METHODS This retrospective study examines data obtained from the microbiology laboratory of a Brazilian tertiary-care hospital. To assess temporal trends in prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility, K. pneumoniae isolates were analyzed from 2000 to 2013. The relative frequencies of K. pneumoniae isolation were calculated among all Gram-negative bacilli isolated in each period analyzed. Susceptibility tests were performed using automated systems. RESULTS: From 2000-2006, K. pneumonia isolates comprised 10.7% of isolated Gram-negative bacilli (455/4260). From 2007-2013, this percentage was 18.1% (965/5331). Strictly considering isolates from bloodstream infections, the relative annual prevalence of K. pneumoniae increased from 14-17% to 27-32% during the same periods. A progressive decrease in K. pneumoniae susceptibility to all antimicrobial agents assessed was detected. Partial resistance was also observed to antimicrobial drugs that have been used more recently, such as colistin and tigecycline. CONCLUSIONS Our study indicates that K. pneumoniae has become a major pathogen among hospitalized patients and confirms its recent trend of increasing antimicrobial resistance. <![CDATA[<strong><em>Trypanosoma cruzi</em></strong> isolated from a triatomine found in one of the biggest metropolitan areas of Latin America]]> Abstract: INTRODUCTION: To characterize Trypanosoma cruzi (TcI) isolated from a Panstrongylus megistus specimen found in one of the biggest metropolitan areas of Latin America, the relationship between the TcI group of T. cruzi and the transmission cycle in the urban environment was studied. METHODS: The T. cruzi strain, Pm, was isolated in a culture medium from the evolutionary forms present in the hindgut of a live male specimen of P. megistus found in the Jabaquara subway in São Paulo City. The sample from the triatomine showed trypomastigote forms of Trypanosomatidae, which were inoculated in the peritoneum of Balb/c mice. The sample was then inoculated in Liver Infusion Tryptose medium and J774 cells for the molecular identification and characterization of the parasite. The Pm strain of T. cruzi was identified by isolation in axenic culture medium, and based on the morphology, cell infection, growth kinetics, and molecular characterization. RESULTS: After isolation, the protozoan was identified as T. cruzi. No parasites were detected in the peripheral blood of the animal, which can be a characteristic inherent to the strain of T. cruzi that was isolated. Cell invasion assays were performed in triplicate in the J774 cell line to confirm the invasive ability of the Pm strain and revealed amastigote forms of the parasite within macrophages. CONCLUSIONS: Our biological and molecular characterizations helped understand parasite-host interactions and their evolutionary history in context of the associations between vectors, ecotopes, hosts, and groups of the parasite. <![CDATA[Extraction of <strong><em>Trypanosoma cruzi</em></strong> DNA from food: a contribution to the elucidation of acute Chagas disease outbreaks]]> Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Before 2004, the occurrence of acute Chagas disease (ACD) by oral transmission associated with food was scarcely known or investigated. Originally sporadic and circumstantial, ACD occurrences have now become frequent in the Amazon region, with recently related outbreaks spreading to several Brazilian states. These cases are associated with the consumption of açai juice by waste reservoir animals or insect vectors infected with Trypanosoma cruzi in endemic areas. Although guidelines for processing the fruit to minimize contamination through microorganisms and parasites exist, açai-based products must be assessed for quality, for which the demand for appropriate methodologies must be met. METHODS: Dilutions ranging from 5 to 1,000 T. cruzi CL Brener cells were mixed with 2mL of acai juice. Four Extraction of T. cruzi DNA methods were used on the fruit, and the cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) method was selected according to JRC, 2005. RESULTS: DNA extraction by the CTAB method yielded satisfactory results with regard to purity and concentration for use in PCR. Overall, the methods employed proved that not only extraction efficiency but also high sensitivity in amplification was important. CONCLUSIONS: The method for T. cruzi detection in food is a powerful tool in the epidemiological investigation of outbreaks as it turns epidemiological evidence into supporting data that serve to confirm T. cruzi infection in the foods. It also facilitates food quality control and assessment of good manufacturing practices involving acai-based products. <![CDATA[Antimonial drugs entrapped into phosphatidylserine liposomes: physicochemical evaluation and antileishmanial activity]]> Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Leishmaniasis is a disease caused by the protozoan Leishmania that resides mainly in mononuclear phagocytic system tissues. Pentavalent antimonials are the main treatment option, although these drugs have toxic side effects and high resistance rates. A potentially alternative and more effective therapeutic strategy is to use liposomes as carriers of the antileishmanial agents. The aims of this study were to develop antimonial drugs entrapped into phosphatidylserine liposomes and to analyze their biological and physicochemical characteristics. METHODS: Liposomes containing meglumine antimoniate (MA) or pentavalent antimony salt (Sb) were obtained through filter extrusion (FEL) and characterized by transmission electron microscopy. Promastigotes of Leishmania infantum were incubated with the drugs and the viability was determined with a tetrazolium dye (MTT assay). The effects of these drugs against intracellular amastigotes were also evaluated by optical microscopy, and mammalian cytotoxicity was determined by an MTT assay. RESULTS: Liposomes had an average diameter of 162nm. MA-FEL showed inhibitory activity against intracellular L. infantum amastigotes, with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 0.9μg/mL, whereas that of MA was 60μg/mL. Sb-FEL showed an IC50 value of 0.2μg/mL, whereas that of free Sb was 9μg/mL. MA-FEL and Sb-FEL had strong in vitro activity that was 63-fold and 39-fold more effective than their respective free drugs. MA-FEL tested at a ten-times higher concentration than Sb-FEL did not show cytotoxicity to mammalian cells, resulting in a higher selectivity index. CONCLUSIONS: Antimonial drug-containing liposomes are more effective against Leishmania-infected macrophages than the non-liposomal drugs. <![CDATA[Molecular characterization of <strong><em>Mycobacterium tuberculosis</em></strong> isolates from Tehran, Iran by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and spoligotyping]]> Abstract: INTRODUCTION Characterization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) isolates by DNA fingerprinting has contributed to tuberculosis (TB) control. The aim of this study was to determine the genetic diversity of MTB isolates from Tehran province in Iran. METHODS MTB isolates from 60 Iranian and 10 Afghan TB patients were fingerprinted by standard IS6110-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis and spoligotyping. RESULTS The copy number of IS6110 ranged from 10-24 per isolate. The isolates were classified into 22 clusters showing ≥ 80% similarity by RFLP analysis. Fourteen multidrug-resistant (MDR) isolates were grouped into 4 IS6110-RFLP clusters, with 10 isolates [71% (95% CI: 45-89%)] in 1 cluster, suggesting a possible epidemiological linkage. Eighteen Iranian isolates showed ≥ 80% similarity with Afghan isolates. There were no strains with identical fingerprints. Spoligotyping of 70 isolates produced 23 distinct patterns. Sixty (85.7%) isolates were grouped into 13 clusters, while the remaining 10 isolates (14.2%) were not clustered. Ural (formerly Haarlem4) (n = 22, 31.4%) was the most common family followed by Central Asian strain (CAS) (n = 18, 25.7%) and T (n = 9, 12.8%) families. Only 1strain was characterized as having the Beijing genotype. Among 60 Iranian and 10 Afghan MTB isolates, 25% (95% CI: 16-37) and 70% (95% CI: 39-89) were categorized as Ural lineage, respectively. CONCLUSIONS A higher prevalence of Ural family MTB isolates among Afghan patients than among Iranian patients suggests the possible transmission of this lineage following the immigration of Afghans to Iran. <![CDATA[Two decades of tuberculosis in a city in Northeastern Brazil: advances and challenges in time and space]]> Abstract: INTRODUCTION This study presents two decades of epidemiological data on tuberculosis (TB), in order to understanding the disease profile and its spatiotemporal dynamics. METHODS This descriptive study was performed in the City of Olinda/Pernambuco, Brazil, from 1991-2010, and it analyzed new patients with TB living in the city. We used the χ²-test with a p-value &lt;0.05 to identify differences in trends. Incidence and cluster distribution were identified using spatial scan statistics. RESULTS In total, 6202 new cases were recorded during the two decades. The highest incidence occurred in 1995 (110 cases/100,000 inhabitants), and the lowest occurred in 2009 (65 cases/100,000 inhabitants) (β=-1.44; R²=0.43; p=0.0018). The highest mortality occurred in 1998 (16 deaths/100,000 inhabitants), and the lowest occurred in 2008 (5 deaths/100,000 inhabitants) (β=-0.19; R²=0.17; p=0.07). There was a male predominance (65%), and ages ranged from 20-49 years (65%). There was a substantial increase in the number of patients that were cured after treatment (60% to 67%; p&lt;0.001) as well as those tested for HIV (1.9% to 58.5%; p&lt;0.001). During the first decade, clusters with p-values &lt;0.05 included 29% of the total notified cases, and in the second decade, that percentage was 12%. CONCLUSIONS We observed a decreasing trend in incidence, which was significant, and mortality rates, which was not significant. The increased number of laboratory tests performed reflects advances in surveillance, and a reduction in the proportion of cases in primary clusters suggests, among other things, that the disease is spreading across the region. <![CDATA[Knowledge and practices related to dengue and its vector: a community-based study from Southeast Brazil]]> Abstract INTRODUCTION: This study investigated the knowledge of users of primary healthcare services living in Ribeirão Preto, Brazil, about dengue and its vector. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of 605 people was conducted following a major dengue outbreak in 2013. RESULTS: Participants with higher levels of education were more likely to identify correctly the vector of the disease. CONCLUSIONS: The results emphasize the relevance of health education programs, the continuous promotion of educational campaigns in the media, the role of the television as a source of information, and the importance of motivating the population to control the vector. <![CDATA[Spatial distribution of disseminated histoplasmosis and AIDS co-infection in an endemic area of Northeastern Brazil]]> Abstract: INTRODUCTION: The spatial distribution of disseminated histoplasmosis (DH) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) co-infection in adult residents of Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil was evaluated. METHODS: Socio-demographic data for the DH/AIDS cases were obtained from a reference hospital, and socio-environmental indicators were obtained from an official Brazilian institute. Kernel analysis and local indicators of spatial autocorrelation (LISA) cluster maps were used to estimate the case density within the city. RESULTS: DH/AIDS cases were concentrated in the Northwestern and Southwestern peripheral areas of the city, related with low human development indices, but different from AIDS cases distribution. CONCLUSION: Risk factors other than AIDS infection must affect histoplasmosis development in this area. <![CDATA[Evaluation of human T-lymphotropic virus prevalence/co-infection rates for a four-year period in a non-metropolitan blood center in Southeast Brazil]]> Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Human T-lymphotropic virus types 1/2 (HTLV-1/2) are distributed worldwide and are endemic in specific regions. METHODS: Serological evaluation of the HTLV-1/2 prevalence and co-infection rate [human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), Chagas disease, and syphilis)] for 2011-2014 was performed with volunteer blood donors from the western part of São Paulo State. RESULTS: Serrana and Araçatuba had higher HTLV seroprevalence rates (0.1%); while Franca, Olimpia, and Bebedouro had lower seroprevalences (0.04%). Co-infection (HBV and syphilis) was present in 12.3% of HTLV-infected blood donors. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide data for the prevalence of HTLV in Brazil and demonstrate the importance of regional and global hemovigilance. <![CDATA[Prevalence and genotype distribution of human papillomavirus: implications for cancer screening and vaccination in Henan province, China]]> Abstract: INTRODUCTION: To provide information for cervical cancer screening and vaccination in Henan province, China, the distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV) was analyzed. METHODS: The HPV genotypes were detected using gene array and flow-through hybridization. RESULTS: Overall, 38.1% (1,536/4,033) of the women were human papillomavirus deoxyribonucleic acid (HPV DNA) positive. The prevalence of high-risk HPV types was 32.4%. HPV 16 was the most prevalent genotype (8.9%), followed by HPV 52 (5.8%) and HPV 58 (4.4%). CONCLUSIONS: The data support close surveillance of women for cervical cancer screening, and HPV prophylactic vaccines including HPV16, HPV 52, and HPV 58 might offer greater protection in this area. <![CDATA[Acceptance and potential barriers to effective use of diagnostic tests for visceral leishmaniasis in an urban area in Brazil]]> Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Acceptance of the IT LEISH(r) and direct agglutination test- made in the Laboratório de Pesquisas Clínicas (DAT-LPC) by healthcare professionals and patients suspected of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Ribeirão das Neves was evaluated. METHODS: Ninety-two patients and 47 professionals completed three questionnaires. RESULTS: Eighty-eight (96%) patients considered fingertip blood collection a positive test feature, and 86% (37) and 91% of professionals considered the IT LEISH(r) easy to perform and interpret, respectively. All professionals classified the DAT-LPC as simple and easy. CONCLUSIONS: Patients and healthcare professionals in Ribeirão das Neves demonstrated a high degree of acceptance of the IT LEISH(r) and DAT-LPC. <![CDATA[New cases of Chagas disease in a rural area of Northeast Brazilian]]> Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Chagas disease is considered one of the 17 most neglected tropical diseases in the World, with the most common form of vector transmission. METHODS: This structured cross-sectional study was conducted through an epidemiological survey in the Tobias Barreto municipality of Sergipe. RESULTS: Of the 255 participants, 1 (0.4%) participant was positive for human Chagas disease. Approximately 30.2% of the participants found the triatomine bugs in their houses and outbuildings. CONCLUSIONS: The detection of a case indicated transmission, which was also evidenced by the presence of triatomines and poor housing conditions. <![CDATA[Factors associated with non-adherence to the treatment of vivax malaria in a rural community from the Brazilian Amazon Basin]]> Abstract: INTRODUCTION We investigated the association between demographic and behavioral factors and non-adherence to antimalarial therapy. METHODS A demographic questionnaire and 5-item self-reported questionnaire regarding non-adherence were completed by 135 patients after treatment for Plasmodium vivax. RESULTS Treatment interruption, but not demographic factors, was significantly associated with non-adherence to therapy. The likelihood of non-adherence was 5.16 times higher when the patients felt better than when they felt worse. The relative risk of parasitic resurgence was 3.04 times higher in non-adherent patients. CONCLUSIONS Treatment interruption is significantly associated with treatment adherence. <![CDATA[Assessment of schistosomiasis in the semi-arid Northeast region of Brazil: the São Francisco River large-scale water transposition project]]> Abstract: INTRODUCTION Risk of schistosomiasis expansion to semi-arid northeastern Brazil under the influence of the Integration Project of the São Francisco River (IPSFR) was assessed. METHODS: Stool examinations of schoolchildren, epidemiological investigation, and survey of the local host snail Biomphalaria straminea were performed in five IPSFR municipalities. RESULTS Six of 4,770 examined schoolchildren were egg-positive for Schistosoma mansoni. Biomphalaria straminea was widespread, but not naturally infected with S. mansoni. Snails experimentally exposed to two laboratory S. mansoni strains yielded infection indices of 1-4.5%. CONCLUSIONS: There is evidence of active schistosomiasis transmission in the area; thus, intensive surveillance actions are required. <![CDATA[Case report of vancomycin-induced pancytopenia]]> Abstract: Vancomycin is the first-line agent for the treatment of bacteremia, endocarditis, pneumonia, cellulitis, and osteomyelitis. Pancytopenia is an uncommon adverse effect of vancomycin therapy, with only a few cases of vancomycin-related neutropenia and pancytopenia described in the literature. We describe a case of a 56-year-old man who was diagnosed with chronic paraspinal abscess and started on intravenous vancomycin. He was re-admitted two weeks later with new-onset pancytopenia. Discontinuation of vancomycin resulted in improved cell counts. Physicians should monitor cell counts in patients who are on long-term intravenous vancomycin. <![CDATA[Secondary transmission of cryptosporidiosis associated with well water consumption: two case studies]]> Abstract: Cryptosporidiosis is a very prominent disease in the field of public health, and usually causes diarrhea. We describe two immunocompetent patients who presented with chronic diarrhea that was ultimately found to be caused by continuous exposure to well water contaminated with the microbial cysts (oocysts) of the Cryptosporidium spp parasite. We describe the patients' histories and possible explanations for their prolonged symptoms. <![CDATA[Cysticerci located in the fourth ventricle causing obstructive hydrocephalus: a radiological emergency requiring prompt diagnosis]]> Abstract: Cryptosporidiosis is a very prominent disease in the field of public health, and usually causes diarrhea. We describe two immunocompetent patients who presented with chronic diarrhea that was ultimately found to be caused by continuous exposure to well water contaminated with the microbial cysts (oocysts) of the Cryptosporidium spp parasite. We describe the patients' histories and possible explanations for their prolonged symptoms.