Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical]]> vol. 49 num. 3 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[Serious disease outbreaks caused by viruses transmitted by Aedes aegypti in Brazil]]> <![CDATA[Zika virus: what do we know about the viral structure, mechanisms of transmission, and neurological outcomes?]]> Abstract: The Zika virus epidemic that started in Brazil in 2014 has spread to &gt;30 countries and territories in Latin America, leading to a rapid rise in the incidence of microcephalic newborns and adults with neurological complications. At the beginning of the outbreak, little was known about Zika virus morphology, genome structure, modes of transmission, and its potential to cause neurological malformations and disorders. With the advancement of basic science, discoveries of the mechanisms of strain variability, viral transfer to the fetus, and neurovirulence were published. These will certainly lead to the development of strategies to block vertical viral transmission, neuronal invasion, and pathogenesis in the near future. This paper reviews the current literature on Zika virus infections, with the aim of gaining a holistic insight into their etiology and pathogenesis. We discuss Zika virus history and epidemiology in Brazil, viral structure and taxonomy, old and newly identified transmission modes, and neurological consequences of infection. <![CDATA[Could <em>Plasmodium vivax</em> malaria trigger malnutrition? Revisiting the Bradford Hill criteria to assess a causal relationship between two neglected problems]]> Abstract: The benign characteristics formerly attributed to Plasmodium vivax infections have recently changed owing to the increasing number of reports of severe vivax malaria resulting in a broad spectrum of clinical complications, probably including undernutrition. Causal inference is a complex process, and arriving at a tentative inference of the causal or non-causal nature of an association is a subjective process limited by the existing evidence. Applying classical epidemiology principles, such as the Bradford Hill criteria, may help foster an understanding of causality and lead to appropriate interventions being proposed that may improve quality of life and decrease morbidity in neglected populations. Here, we examined these criteria in the context of the available data suggesting that vivax malaria may substantially contribute to childhood malnutrition. We found the data supported a role for P. vivax in the etiology of undernutrition in endemic areas. Thus, the application of modern causal inference tools, in future studies, may be useful in determining causation. <![CDATA[Evaluation and optimization of SYBR Green real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction as a tool for diagnosis of the Flavivirus genus in Brazil]]> Abstract: INTRODUCTION: The genus Flavivirus includes several pathogenic species that cause severe illness in humans. Therefore, a rapid and accurate molecular method for diagnosis and surveillance of these viruses would be of great importance. Here, we evaluate and optimize a quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method for the diagnosis of the Flavivirus genus. METHODS: We evaluated different commercial kits that use the SYBR Green system for real-time RT-PCR with a primer set that amplifies a fragment of the NS5 flavivirus gene. The specificity and sensitivity of the assay were tested using twelve flaviviruses and ribonucleic acid (RNA) transcribed from the yellow fever virus. Additionally, this assay was evaluated using the sera of 410 patients from different regions of Brazil with acute febrile illness and a negative diagnosis for the dengue virus. RESULTS: The real-time RT-PCR amplified all flaviviruses tested at a melting temperature of 79.92 to 83.49°C. A detection limit of 100 copies per ml was determined for this assay. Surprisingly, we detected dengue virus in 4.1% (17/410) of samples from patients with febrile illness and a supposedly negative dengue infection diagnosis. The viral load in patients ranged from 2.1×107to 3.4×103copies per ml. CONCLUSIONS: The real-time RT-PCR method may be very useful for preliminary diagnoses in screenings, outbreaks, and other surveillance studies. Moreover, this assay can be easily applied to monitor viral activity and to measure viral load in pathogenesis studies. <![CDATA[High prevalence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance determinants in <em>Enterobacter cloacae</em> isolated from hospitals of the Qazvin, Alborz, and Tehran provinces, Iran]]> Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) is a growing clinical concern worldwide. The main aims of this study were to detect qnr-encoding genes and to evaluate the clonal relatedness of qnr-positive Enterobacter cloacae isolates. METHODS: A total of 116 E. cloacae isolates that were not susceptible to quinolone were obtained from seven hospitals in Tehran, five hospitals in Qazvin, and two hospitals in Karaj (Iran). Bacterial identification was performed using standard laboratory methods and API 20E strips. Quinolone resistance was determined using the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method according to the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. PCR and sequencing were employed to detect qnrA, qnrB, and qnrS genes, and clonal relatedness was assessed using the enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC)-PCR method. RESULTS: In total, 45 (38.8%) and 71 (61.2%) of isolates showed high- and low-level quinolone resistance, respectively, and qnr-encoding genes were detected in 70 (60.3%) of them. qnrB1 [45 (38.8%) isolates] was the most commonly detected gene, followed by qnrS1 [28 (24.1%) isolates] and qnrB4 [18 (15.5%) isolates] either alone or in combination with other genes. The results of the ERIC-PCR revealed that 53 (75.7%) qnr-positive isolates were genetically unrelated. CONCLUSIONS: This study describes, for the first time, the high prevalence of the qnrB1, qnrS1, and qnrB4 genes among E. cloacae isolates in Iran. The detection of qnr genes emphasizes the need for establishing tactful policies associated with infection control measures in hospital settings in Iran. <![CDATA[Coagulase-negative staphylococci in Southern Brazil: looking toward its high diversity]]> Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are the most prevalent pathogens in nosocomial infections and may serve as a reservoir of mobile genetic elements such as the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) encoding methicillin resistance. Molecular characterization of SCCmec types combined with advanced molecular typing techniques may provide essential information for understanding the evolution and epidemiology of CoNS infections. We therefore aimed to investigate the SCCmec distribution, multidrug-resistance (MDR), and biofilm formation in CoNS blood culture isolates from a hospital in Southern Brazil. METHODS: We analyzed 136 CoNS blood culture isolates obtained during 2002-2004 from patients admitted to a tertiary care hospital in Brazil. SCCmec types I to V were determined using multiplex PCR. The clonal relationship of Staphylococcus epidermidis was determined using pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Molecular epidemiological data were interpreted along with data on biofilm formation, presence of the icaD gene, and MDR. RESULTS: The most prevalent species were S. epidermidis, Staphylococcus haemolyticus, and Staphylococcus hominis harboring mainly SCCmec types II, III, and V. Overall, the presence of multiple SCCmec was associated with non-MDR, except for S. epidermidis. S. epidermidis isolates showed a high prevalence of icaD, but had low phenotypic biofilm formation. PFGE and MLST revealed high genetic diversity in the S. epidermidis population. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest a major shift in SCCmec types within a short period and reveal a different behavior of S. epidermidis with regard to the association between the presence of multiple SCCmec types and MDR profile. <![CDATA[Antimicrobial susceptibility of <em>Acinetobacter</em> clinical isolates and emerging antibiogram trends for nosocomial infection management]]> Abstract: Introduction: The drug resistant Acinetobacter strains are important causes of nosocomial infections that are difficult to control and treat. This study aimed to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Acinetobacter strains isolated from different clinical specimens obtained from patients belonging to different age groups. METHODS: In total, 716 non-duplicate Acinetobacter isolates were collected from the infected patients admitted to tertiary-care hospitals at Lahore, Pakistan, over a period of 28 months. The Acinetobacter isolates were identified using API 20E, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed and interpreted according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. RESULTS: The isolation rate of Acinetobacter was high from the respiratory specimens, followed by wound samples. Antibiotic susceptibility analyses of the isolates revealed that the resistance to cefotaxime and ceftazidime was the most common, in 710 (99.2%) specimens each, followed by the resistance to gentamicin in 670 (93.6%) isolates, and to imipenem in 651 (90.9%) isolates. However, almost all isolates were susceptible to tigecycline, colistin, and polymyxin B. CONCLUSIONS: The present study showed the alarming trends of resistance of Acinetobacter strains isolated from clinical specimens to the various classes of antimicrobials. The improvement of microbiological techniques for earlier and more accurate identification of bacteria is necessary for the selection of appropriate treatments. <![CDATA[Clinical and microbiological features of infections caused by <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em> in patients hospitalized in intensive care units]]> Abstract: INTRODUCTION: The spread of multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Brazilian hospitals has greatly impacted upon the morbidity and mortality of individuals in intensive care units. Given the lack of information regarding the dynamics of multidrug resistance in northern Brazil, we analyzed the clinical and microbiological features of nosocomial infections caused by P. aeruginosa. METHODS Between January 2010 and March 2012, we conducted a retrospective cohort study of P. aeruginosa isolates from 54 patients who were hospitalized in intensive care units. The clinical and epidemiologic variables were analyzed, including the patients' demographic data and comorbidities, and the lengths of the intensive care unit stays, the classification of the infections as nosocomial, the use of invasive procedures, antimicrobial therapy, and the patients' outcomes. We undertook susceptibility tests, molecular detection of the metallo-β-lactamase genes, and genotypic analyses of the isolates using the repetitive element-polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: Multidrug resistance occurred most frequently among isolates from adults who had been hospitalized for an average of 87.1 days. The use of mechanical ventilation and urinary catheters were risk factors for infection. The four isolates that harbored the blaSPM-1-like gene showed &gt;95% genetic similarity. CONCLUSIONS This study's findings show that P. aeruginosa has a high death rate, and that inadequate treatment and invasive procedures are risk factors for infection. This is the first report describing the detection of the blaSPM-1-like gene in northern Brazil. These results highlight the need for better monitoring and a greater understanding of nosocomial infections and their public health impacts. <![CDATA[Prevalence and factors associated with <em>Chlamydia trachomatis</em> infection among women with HIV in São Paulo]]> Abstract: INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to estimate the prevalence and risk factors associated with Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection among women with HIV in São Paulo. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included women with HIV who were receiving care from sixteen public health services in São Paulo (October 2013 to March 2014). All participants answered a questionnaire regarding their sociodemographic, behavioral, and clinical characteristics. A urine sample was tested for CT and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) using the polymerase chain reaction. The chi-square test and a logistic regression model were used to test the associations with CT or NG infections. RESULTS: We evaluated 853 women and ultimately included 836 (98%) women. The mean age was 40.5 ± 0.34 years, and the prevalences of CT and NG infections were 1.8% and 0.5%, respectively. CT infection was associated with CD4+ T-cell counts of &lt;350 cells/mm3 [adjusted odds ratio (ORadj): 24.5], age of 18-25 years (ORadj: 23.2), the non-use of condoms during the last 6 months (ORadj: 10.2), a self-reported history of a sexually transmitted infection (ORadj: 9.4), and having two or more sexual partners during the last year (ORadj: 6.1). CONCLUSIONS: Although we observed a low prevalence of CT infection among women with HIV, younger age was associated with a high risk of infection. Therefore, it may be appropriate to include screening for CT as part of the routine care for this population. <![CDATA[Cardiac rehabilitation program in patients with Chagas heart failure: a single-arm pilot study]]> Abstract: INTRODUCTION: The benefit of a cardiac rehabilitation (CR) program for patients with Chagas heart failure (CHF) remains unclear. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the effects of CR for CHF patients. METHODS: A single-arm pilot study, including 12 patients with CHF, was performed. Patients participated in an 8-month physical exercise intervention, comprising aerobic, strength, and stretching exercises (3 times per week, 60 minutes per session). Nutritional and pharmaceutical counseling were also performed. Functional capacity (cardiopulmonary exercise test), muscle respiratory strength (manovacuometry), and body composition (anthropometry and skinfolds) were evaluated at baseline, and after 4 and 8 months of intervention. Cardiac function (echocardiography), biomarkers (lipid profile, glucose, and glycated hemoglobin) and quality of life (Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire) were assessed at baseline and at the end of the intervention. RESULTS: Seven of 12 patients included in the study completed the 8-month follow-up period. Only 2 moderate adverse events occurred during the exercise training. Functional capacity improved after 4 months of CR, while left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and respiratory strength improved after 8 months. Patients with right ventricular (RV) dysfunction at baseline exhibited an improvement in functional capacity after 4 months, and improvements in left ventricular (LV) diastolic pressure, respiratory strength, and quality of life at the end of follow-up. Conversely, those with normal baseline RV function demonstrated LVEF increases that were not observed in patients with RV dysfunction. CONCLUSIONS: CR was feasible, safe, and has important clinical benefits for patients with CHF, specifically for cardiac function and muscle respiratory strength. <![CDATA[Does my patient have chronic Chagas disease? Development and temporal validation of a diagnostic risk score]]> Abstract: INTRODUCTION With the globalization of Chagas disease, unexperienced health care providers may have difficulties in identifying which patients should be examined for this condition. This study aimed to develop and validate a diagnostic clinical prediction model for chronic Chagas disease. METHODS This diagnostic cohort study included consecutive volunteers suspected to have chronic Chagas disease. The clinical information was blindly compared to serological tests results, and a logistic regression model was fit and validated. RESULTS The development cohort included 602 patients, and the validation cohort included 138 patients. The Chagas disease prevalence was 19.9%. Sex, age, referral from blood bank, history of living in a rural area, recognizing the kissing bug, systemic hypertension, number of siblings with Chagas disease, number of relatives with a history of stroke, ECG with low voltage, anterosuperior divisional block, pathologic Q wave, right bundle branch block, and any kind of extrasystole were included in the final model. Calibration and discrimination in the development and validation cohorts (ROC AUC 0.904 and 0.912, respectively) were good. Sensitivity and specificity analyses showed that specificity reaches at least 95% above the predicted 43% risk, while sensitivity is at least 95% below the predicted 7% risk. Net benefit decision curves favor the model across all thresholds. CONCLUSIONS: A nomogram and an online calculator (available at were developed to aid in individual risk estimation. <![CDATA[Performance of POC-CCA® in diagnosis of schistosomiasis mansoni in individuals with low parasite burden]]> Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Schistosomiasis, caused by Schistosoma mansoni, is a public health concern in Brazil. However, the most popular diagnostic method, the Kato-Katz technique, exhibits low sensitivity in low-endemicity areas. We aimed to compare the performance of an immunological assay, the point-of-care circulating cathodic antigen (POC-CCA®) test, with that of two parasitological techniques in a low-endemicity population. METHODS: Our study included 141 individuals living in Estreito de Miralta, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Fecal samples were obtained from all participants and analyzed for schistosomiasis using two parasitological techniques: the Kato-Katz technique and the saline gradient technique. Additionally, POC-CCA® strips were utilized for testing urine samples. The results obtained by the different techniques were compared. RESULTS: Analysis of two or 24 slides using the Kato-Katz technique resulted in a positivity rate of 10.6% (15/141) or 19.1% (27/141), respectively. The saline gradient technique yielded a positivity rate of 17.0% (24/141). The prevalence according to both parasitological techniques was 24.1% (34/141). The POC-CCA® test yielded a positivity rate of 22.7% (32/141); however, the positivity rate was merely 2.1% if trace results were considered negative. The agreements observed between POC-CCA® and the parasitological techniques were good (Kappa indexes &gt; 0.64). The POC-CCA® test was more sensitive than the two-slide Kato-Katz technique (p &lt; 0.05) in detecting cases of S. mansoni infection when trace results were considered positive. CONCLUSIONS: These findings reinforce the importance of using multiple diagnostic techniques in low-endemicity areas for effective control of disease. <![CDATA[Serological evidence of hantavirus infection in an urban area in Mato Grosso State, Brazil]]> Abstract: INTRODUCTION: In Brazil, Mato Grosso (MT) has the highest number of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome cases. Our study aimed to identify anti-hantavirus antibodies in the sera of patients from Sinop, MT, presenting with acute febrile illness. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of data for 198 sera samples assessed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was conducted. RESULTS: Immunoglobulins G (IgGs) against the hantavirus nucleoprotein were found in 13.6% of the tested sera. No sample had immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies to hantavirus. Seropositivity occurred mainly in female residents in urban areas who worked around the household. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest circulation of hantavirus in Sinop. <![CDATA[Diversity of yellow fever mosquito vectors in the Atlantic Forest of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil]]> Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Environmental modifications caused by human activities have led to changes in mosquito vector populations, and sylvatic species have adapted to breeding in urban areas. METHODS: Mosquitoes were collected using ovitraps in three sampling sites in the Atlantic Forest in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. RESULTS: We collected 2,162 Culicidae specimens. Haemagogus janthinomys and Haemagogus leucocelaenus, both sylvatic yellow fever virus vectors, were the most common species found. CONCLUSION: There is a potential for the transmission of arboviruses in and around these natural reserves. Therefore, it is necessary to maintain entomological surveillance programs in the region. <![CDATA[Detection of antibodies to Oropouche virus in non-human primates in Goiânia City, Goiás]]> Abstract: INTRODUCTION Arboviruses are associated with human disease, and non-human primates (NHPs) are important primary hosts. This study shows the detection of antibodies to Oropouche virus (OROV) in NHPs either living in urban parks or acclimatized at the Wild Animal Screening Center, Goiânia city. METHODS: Fifty blood samples were analyzed by hemagglutination-inhibition and neutralization assays. RESULTS: Two monkeys (Alouatta caraya) had antibodies to OROV by both techniques. CONCLUSIONS This is the first report demonstrating the detection of OROV antibodies in Goiás State and may represent the introduction/circulation of OROV in the region and a potential risk to the human population. <![CDATA[Canine antibody response to <em>Lutzomyia longipalpis</em> saliva in endemic area of visceral leishmaniasis.]]> Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Canine exposure to Lutzomyia longipalpis bites and the potential of Leishmania infantum transmissibility for the vector were evaluated. METHODS Immunoglobulin G (IgG) anti-Lu longipalpis saliva and -L. infantum, and blood parasite load were determined in dogs from endemic areas of visceral leishmaniasis. RESULTS Blood parasitism was similar between symptomatic and asymptomatic dogs. IgG anti-L. infantum was higher in symptomatic dogs, but IgG anti-Lu. longipalpis saliva was mostly observed in higher titers in asymptomatic dogs, indicating vector preference for feeding on asymptomatic dogs. CONCLUSIONS Our data suggest a pivotal role of asymptomatic dogs in L. infantum transmission in endemic areas. <![CDATA[First report of <em>Rhodnius stali</em> (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae) in the State of Acre and in the Brazilian Amazon]]> Abstract: INTRODUCTION: This paper reports, for the first time, the presence of Rhodnius stali in the state of Acre and in the Brazilian Amazon. METHODS: Specimens of R. stali were collected by the Federal University of Acre in Rio Branco. RESULTS: The number of Triatominae species in the State of Acre increased from five to six. This was also the first report of R. stali in the Brazilian Amazon. CONCLUSIONS: The occurrence of R. stali is worrisome, since this species has been found naturally infected by Trypanosoma cruzi and there has been evidence of its domiciliation capabilities. <![CDATA[Semisolid liver infusion tryptose supplemented with human urine allows growth and isolation of <em>Trypanosoma cruzi</em> and <em>Trypanosoma rangeli</em> clonal lineages]]> Abstract: INTRODUCTION This work shows that 3% (v/v) human urine (HU) in semisolid Liver Infusion Tryptose (SSL) medium favors the growth of Trypanosoma cruzi and T. rangeli. METHODS Parasites were plated as individual or mixed strains on SSL medium and on SSL medium with 3% human urine (SSL-HU). Isolate DNA was analyzed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). RESULTS SSL-HU medium improved clone isolation. PCR revealed that T. cruzi strains predominate on mixed-strain plates. PFGE confirmed that isolated parasites share the same molecular karyotype as parental cell lines. CONCLUSIONS SSL-HU medium constitutes a novel tool for obtaining T. cruzi and T. rangeli clonal lineages. <![CDATA[Analysis of cutaneous tuberculosis cases reported from 2000 to 2013 at a university hospital in Rio de Janeiro]]> Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Tuberculosis (TB) is a serious public health problem; however, the cutaneous form remains rare. METHODS: A retrospective analysis examined notified cutaneous tuberculosis (CTB) cases from 2000 to 2013 at the University Hospital Clementino Fraga Filho. RESULTS: Twenty-six CTB cases were documented during this period. Erythema induratum of Bazin was the most common form, and 86.7% of such cases occurred in women (p=0.068). Only one patient was HIV positive. CONCLUSIONS: This study confirms the rarity of CTB and highlights the need for multicenter studies in order to obtain an adequate number of cases for analysis. <![CDATA[A profile of scorpionism, including the species of scorpions involved, in the State of Amazonas, Brazil]]> Abstract: INTRODUCTION This study investigated scorpionism profile in the State of Amazonas, Brazil. METHODS: Data referring to stinging incidents were obtained from the National Databank of Major Causes of Morbidity. Information on the scorpion species involved was obtained from the Amazonas State health units. RESULTS: Amazonas has a scorpionism rate of 8.14 cases/100,000 inhabitants. Some municipalities (e.g., Apuí) presented higher rates (273 cases/100,000 inhabitants). Most species involved in envenomation belonged to the genus Tityus. CONCLUSIONS: Our results reaffirm the notion of scorpionism being a public health hazard and provide data that can guide public policy aimed at scorpionism prevention and treatment. <![CDATA[Dengue as a cause of fever during pregnancy: a report of two cases]]> Abstract: Dengue infection has not been routinely investigated among pregnant women and parturients with acute febrile syndrome in endemic settings. Here, we report two cases of dengue fever detected at the time of delivery in parturients enrolled in a cohort prospective study conducted in a hospital in Recife, Brazil. The parturients reported fever onset within seven days prior to delivery, and dengue infection was confirmed upon detection of viral ribonucleic acid (RNA) by using the reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Dengue infection should be considered as a diagnostic possibility in cases of fever during pregnancy and labor, especially in endemic areas. <![CDATA[Neurobrucellosis and venous sinus thrombosis: an uncommon association]]> Abstract: Brucellosis is a commonly diagnosed zoonosis and neurological involvement is rare. A 30-year-old woman presented with a pulsatile headache that was exacerbated by the Valsalva maneuver and refractory to analgesic therapy. The patient also had nausea, cough, and coryza that evolved over 7 days. The neurological examination was unremarkable. Thrombosis of the lateral and sigmoid sinus and ipsilateral internal jugular vein were diagnosed and anticoagulation therapy was started. Brucella spp was identified in a sample of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF); five months after treatment with rifampicin and doxycycline, CSF was sterile. Cerebral venous thrombosis is a very uncommon sign of brucellosis. <![CDATA[Chronic kidney disease related to renal tuberculosis: a case report]]> Abstract: Genitourinary tuberculosis (TB) is the third most common form of extrapulmonary TB. A 34-year-old man with severe kidney function loss secondary to renal TB initially presented with urinary symptoms, including dysuria and polacyuria. The diagnosis was based on clinical history and laboratory tests; the urinalysis revealed acid-fast bacilli. The patient's condition stabilized after beginning TB-specific treatment, but the right kidney function loss persisted. Renal TB can lead to irreversible loss of renal function. As such, renal function should be considered in all patients from TB-endemic areas who present with urinary symptoms and whose urine cultures are negative for common pathogens. <![CDATA[Hallux amputation after a freshwater stingray injury in the Brazilian Amazon]]> Abstract: Freshwater stingray injuries are a common problem in the Brazilian Amazon, affecting mostly riverine and indigenous populations. These injuries cause severe local and regional pain, swelling and erythema, as well as complications, such as local necrosis and bacterial infection. Herein, we report a case of bacterial infection and hallux necrosis, after a freshwater stingray injury in the Brazilian Amazon, which eventually required amputation. Different antimicrobial regimens were administered at different stages of the disease; however, avoiding amputation through effective treatment was not achieved. <![CDATA[Two cases of lepidopterism caused by indoor exposure to moths]]> Abstract: Freshwater stingray injuries are a common problem in the Brazilian Amazon, affecting mostly riverine and indigenous populations. These injuries cause severe local and regional pain, swelling and erythema, as well as complications, such as local necrosis and bacterial infection. Herein, we report a case of bacterial infection and hallux necrosis, after a freshwater stingray injury in the Brazilian Amazon, which eventually required amputation. Different antimicrobial regimens were administered at different stages of the disease; however, avoiding amputation through effective treatment was not achieved. <![CDATA[<em>Aedes aegypti</em> (Diptera: Culicidae) in a tree hole in Brazil]]> Abstract: Freshwater stingray injuries are a common problem in the Brazilian Amazon, affecting mostly riverine and indigenous populations. These injuries cause severe local and regional pain, swelling and erythema, as well as complications, such as local necrosis and bacterial infection. Herein, we report a case of bacterial infection and hallux necrosis, after a freshwater stingray injury in the Brazilian Amazon, which eventually required amputation. Different antimicrobial regimens were administered at different stages of the disease; however, avoiding amputation through effective treatment was not achieved.