Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical]]> http://www.scielo.br/rss.php?pid=0037-868220190001&lang=en vol. 52 num. lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.br/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.br <![CDATA[Hepatitis Delta Prevalence in South America: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100200&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) has been associated with acute or chronic hepatitis in Latin America, but there is no prevalence study covering South American countries. This meta-analysis aimed to estimate anti-HDV prevalence through a systematic review of published articles in English, Portuguese and Spanish until December 2017. Searches were conducted in Health Virtual Library, Capes, Lilacs, PubMed, and SciELO, according to defined criteria regarding participant selection and geographical setting. Study quality was assessed using the GRADE guidelines. Pooled anti-HDV prevalence was calculated using the DerSimonian-Laird random-effects model with Freeman-Tukey double arcsine transformation. Out of the 405 identified articles, only 31 met the eligibility criteria for inclusion in the meta-analysis. In South America, pooled anti-HDV prevalence among hepatitis B virus carriers was 22.37% (95% confidence interval: 13.72-32.26), though it appeared less frequently in some countries and populations, according to the data collection date. The findings indicated significant successive reductions in anti-HDV prevalence over thirty years. However, there was a scarcity of HDV epidemiological studies outside the Amazon Basin, notably in the Southwest continent and absence of target population standardization. There was a high HDV prevalence in South American countries, despite differences in methodological characteristics and outcomes, highlighting a drastic decline in the last decades. Future studies should identify HDV prevalence estimates in other regions of the continent and identify risk factors. <![CDATA[Current vector control challenges in the fight against malaria in Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100201&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract In Brazil, malaria is an important public health problem first reported in 1560. Historically, fluctuations in malaria cases in Brazil are attributed to waves of economic development; construction of railroads, highways, and hydroelectric dams; and population displacement and land occupation policies. Vector control measures have been widely used with an important role in reducing malaria cases. In this review article, we reviewed the vector control measures established in the Brazilian territory and aspects associated with such measures for malaria. Although some vector control measures are routinely used in Brazil, many entomological and effectiveness information still need better evidence in endemic areas where Plasmodium vivax predominates. Herein, we outlined some of the needs and priorities for future research: a) update of the cartography of malaria vectors in Brazil, adding molecular techniques for the correct identification of species and complexes of species; b) evaluation of vector competence of anophelines in Brazil; c) strengthening of local entomology teams to perform vector control measures and interpret results; d) evaluation of vector control measures, especially use of insecticide-treated nets and long-lasting insecticidal nets, estimating their effectiveness, cost-benefit, and population acceptance; e) establishment of colonies of malaria vectors in Brazil, i.e., Anopheles darlingi, to understand parasite-vector interactions better; f) study of new vector control strategies with impacts on non-endophilic vectors; g) estimation of the impact of insecticide resistance in different geographical areas; and h) identification of the relative contribution of natural and artificial breeding sites in different epidemiological contexts for transmission. <![CDATA[West Nile virus infections are here! Are we prepared to face another flavivirus epidemic?]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100202&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Emerging arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses), such as chikungunya and Zika viruses, are a major threat to public health in countries like Brazil where biodiversity is high and medical care is sometimes precarious. West Nile fever is a disease caused by the West Nile Virus (WNV), an RNA virus belonging to the Flaviviridae family. It is transmitted by infected mosquitoes to numerous animals like birds, reptiles and mammals, including human and non-human primates. In the last decade, the number of reported cases of WNV infection in humans and animals has increased in the Americas. Circulation of WNV in forests and rural areas in Brazil has been detected based on serological surveys and, in 2014, the first case of West Nile fever was confirmed in a patient from Piauí State. In 2018, the virus was isolated for the first time from a horse from a rural area in the state of Espírito Santo presenting with a neurological disorder; this raises the possibility that other cases of WNV encephalitis may have occurred without clinical recognition and without laboratory diagnosis by specific assays. The imminent WNV outbreak poses a challenge for Brazilian clinicians and researchers. In this review, we summarize the basic biological and ecological characteristics of this virus and the clinical presentation and treatment of febrile illnesses caused by WNV. We also discuss the epidemiological aspects, prophylaxis of WNV infections, and monitoring strategies that could be applied in the possibility of a WNV outbreak in Brazil. <![CDATA[Influence of antiretroviral therapy on bone metabolism of patients with chronic hepatitis B: a review]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100203&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Hepatitis B is a major public health problem worldwide and associated with significant mortality. To prevent or delay the deleterious effects of chronic infection by the hepatitis B virus, patients should be carefully followed, and antiviral therapy indicated according to specific recommendations. Currently, available drugs inhibit viral replication and slow or stop the progression of inflammation and fibrosis of the liver. However, the drugs for oral use in the treatment of hepatitis B, jointly referred to as nucleoside/nucleotide analogs, are indicated for prolonged use and have potential side effects. The reduction in bone mineral density was associated with the use of tenofovir, already evaluated in patients infected with HIV because the drug is also part of the therapeutic arsenal for this viral infection. There are few studies on the effects of tenofovir in patients with mono hepatitis B. Therefore, this literature review proposes to examine how hepatitis B acts in the body and the mechanisms by which antiretroviral drugs (especially tenofovir) can affect bone metabolism. <![CDATA[Rheumatic heart disease in the modern era: recent developments and current challenges]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100250&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) remains a major cause of preventable death and disability in children and young adults. Despite significant advances in medical technology and increased understanding of disease mechanisms, RHD continues to be a serious public health problem throughout the world, especially in low- and middle-income countries. Echocardiographic screening has played a key role in improving the accuracy of diagnosing RHD and has highlighted the disease burden. Most affected patients present with severe valve disease and limited access to life-saving cardiac surgery or percutaneous valve intervention, contributing to increased mortality and other complications. Although understanding of disease pathogenesis has advanced in recent years, key questions remain to be addressed. Preventing or providing early treatment for streptococcal infections is the most important step in reducing the burden of this disease. <![CDATA[Do climate changes alter the distribution and transmission of malaria? Evidence assessment and recommendations for future studies]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100251&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Malaria, a mosquito-borne infectious disease, is considered a significant global health burden. Climate changes or different weather conditions may impact infectious diseases, specifically those transmitted by insect vectors and contaminated water. Based on the current predictions for climate change associated with the increase in carbon dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere and the increase in atmospheric temperature, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change predicts that in 2050, malaria may threaten some previously unexposed areas worldwide and cause a 50% higher probability of malaria cases. Climate-based distribution models of malaria depict an increase in the geographic distribution of the disease as global environmental temperatures and conditions worsen. Researchers have studied the influence of changes in climate on the prevalence of malaria using different mathematical models that consider different variables and predict the conditions for malaria distribution. In this context, we conducted a mini-review to elucidate the important aspects described in the literature on the influence of climate change in the distribution and transmission of malaria. It is important to develop possible risk management strategies and enhance the surveillance system enhanced even in currently malaria-free areas predicted to experience malaria in the future. <![CDATA[Characteristics of basic health units and detection of tuberculosis cases]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100300&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious and contagious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. TB emerged in the 21st century as an unsolved public health problem. This study aimed to analyze the relationship between the characteristics of basic health units (BHUs) and the number of TB cases detected in Maranhão, Brazil. METHODS An ecological, analytical study was conducted using the municipalities in the state of Maranhão as the unit of analysis. Data regarding the number of detected TB cases was obtained from the Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação database, and the characteristics of the BHUs were obtained from the first cycle of data collection for the Program to Improve Access and Quality of Basic Care. The BHU structure was classified as adequate (80%-100%), partially adequate (60%-79%), poorly adequate (40%-59%), or inadequate (&lt;40%) according to the presence of specified items. The number of BHUs per municipality in each adequacy category was estimated. Inflated Poisson regression analysis was performed to estimate the incidence density ratios (IDRs) and the 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). RESULTS Municipalities with a higher level of BHU adequacy had a higher number of detected TB cases (IDR = 1.61, 95% CI: 1.01-2.60). CONCLUSIONS Better structured health services in primary care may be associated with better detection and/or notification of TB cases. <![CDATA[Influence of exposure and vertical transmission of HIV-1 on the neuropsychomotor development in children]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100301&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION: Exposure to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 during pregnancy is a major risk factor for neurodevelopmental delay and deleterious effects in children. However, limited information about these conditions exists in poor geographical areas in Brazil. Prevention of vertical transmission of HIV-1 is dealt differently in different regions of the country and in poorer areas it is more difficult to evaluate the impact of the prevention methods. The outcomes of the exposure to HIV-1 and the impact of vertical HIV-1 transmission on neuropsychomotor development was evaluated for the first time in children born to HIV-infected mothers in the North region of Brazil, where the majority of the population has poor access to health services. METHODS: Sixty children born to HIV-1-infected mothers (case group) and 58 born to non-infected mothers (control group) were followed for the first 12 months of life in a prospective case-control study. Neuropsychomotor development was assessed using the Denver II test. RESULTS: Suspected neuropsychomotor developmental delays were more frequent in the case group (33.3%), namely in language (38.9%) and gross motor skills (27.8%). These delays were reversed in most children after 12 months of life due to therapeutic intervention. The delays were not reversed in three children, all of whom belonged to the case group. Only one of these was infected with HIV-1, and this child had the poorest neuropsychomotor outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal HIV-1 infection negatively affected the neuropsychomotor development in children, although other factors may have played a role. <![CDATA[Oral microbiota and their antibiotic susceptibility in free-living monkeys in Goiás State, Brazil: Repercussions for injuries in humans]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100302&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION: Goiás State, which is in the midwest region of Brazil, has several urban forests. This fact, along with the expansion of urban areas within the limits of Forest Conservation Units, increases the contact between humans and wildlife, such as capuchin monkeys. The impulsive behavior of these animals and the scarcity of food cause them to vigorously search for food, leading to direct encounters with Park visitors, which can result in scratches and bites and making them potential disseminators of pathogenic microorganisms. METHODS: Ten specimens of bearded capuchin monkey (Sapajus libidinosus) were captured at the Onofre Quinan Environmental Park in Anápolis, Goiás, Brazil. Samples were collected from the monkeys, and the bacteria and fungi present in the samples were isolated and identified. Then, the identified microorganisms were subjected to antibiotic susceptibility testing. RESULTS: A total of 111 bacteria and 12 fungi were isolated, including two strict anaerobic bacteria of the genus Peptostreptococcus, 109 facultative anaerobic bacteria, and 12 yeasts. Among the facultative bacteria, enterobacteria and Staphylococcus were common. Resistance to tetracycline and ampicillin antibiotics was detected in the enterobacteria, and resistance to tetracycline, erythromycin, and clindamycin was detected in the Staphylococci. The other strains were sensitive to all tested antimicrobials. Cefoxitin showed 100% efficacy in all isolated bacteria. CONCLUSIONS: For bites from capuchin monkeys, we recommend performing complete hygiene and antibiotic therapy, according to medical recommendations. Given the 100% effectiveness of cefoxitin, it should be considered for this type of injury, especially in the study region. <![CDATA[Emergence of chikungunya and Zika in a municipality endemic to dengue, Santa Luzia, MG, Brazil, 2015-2017]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100303&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION: The recent circulation of arboviruses transmitted by vectors, such as dengue, chikungunya, and Zika, is concerning due to the high morbidity rates, clinical complications, and increased demand on health services. The objective of this study was to analyze the clinical and epidemiological aspects of an epidemic caused by arboviruses in the municipality of Santa Luzia, Minas Gerais, Brazil. METHODS: Longitudinal study of patients with acute febrile disease and suspected arbovirus infection reported to Brazilian Notifiable Disease Information System (Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação) from the epidemiological week 44 of 2015 to epidemiological week 52 of 2016. Patients with confirmed chikungunya were followed-up for 18 months and those with Zika for 15 months. Additionally, we analyzed and described the temporal distribution of confirmed cases of these arboviruses in this municipality. RESULTS: Overall 3,531 arboviruses cases, including 3,481 (98.7%) cases of dengue, 38 (1.0%) cases of chikungunya, and 12 (0.3%) cases of Zika were confirmed. The highest incidence of arbovirus infection occurred in the first quarter of 2016 (epidemiological week 7 to 14). The most frequent symptoms were for dengue, which included fever, headache, retro-orbital pain, and exanthema. Chikungunya infection was associated with fever, myalgia, arthralgia, and rash while Zika infection with pruritus and rash. CONCLUSIONS: Given the similarities in the initial clinical profiles of these arboviruses, it is important to perform a detailed clinical analysis, laboratory diagnosis, and patient follow-up. <![CDATA[Factors associated with the presence of triatomines in rural areas of south Argentine Chaco]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100304&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION: The domestic and peridomestic presence of Triatoma infestans depends on several factors, such as human behavior, vector behavior, ecology, and the environment. METHODS: This work was conducted in 139 domiciliary units, where triatomines were captured and risk factors in domiciles and peridomicilies were recorded. Household dwellers were interviewed to obtain information about practices regarding this disease and entomological indicators were calculated. RESULTS: Infestation indices were 59.7% for house compounds, 4.3% for domestic areas and 58.3% for the peridomestic areas. Intradomicile infestation was significantly associated with housing characteristics. The presence of chicken coops in peridomicilies was associated with an increased risk of infestation. Of the respondents, 80% did not recognize the importance of the peridomiciliary structures for triatomine control and had infested peridomicilies. CONCLUSIONS: The results show the importance of peridomiciles as refuge sites for Triatominae bugs; however, household dwellers do not perceive peridomiciles as areas that favor the presence of vectors. Actions for raising awareness about factors that favor the presence of triatomines are needed to improve the conditions of peridomiciliary environments. <![CDATA[Hansen’s disease deformities in a high risk area in Mozambique: A case study]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100305&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION: Hansen’s disease is no longer a public health problem in Mozambique, since 2008 (incidence under 1 / 10,000 inhabitants). The country is one of the most affected in the world and Nampula province’s Murrupula district (incidence 1.7 / 10,000) has a high deformity rate (22% in 2010). This study aimed to identify high deformity rate associated determinants and proposals for better health program results. METHODS: This study involved a descriptive quantitative survey, systematic observation of patients and health professionals, and a survey of community volunteers. Data were analyzed using Epi Info 7.2. Pearson's chi-square and Fisher’s exact test were used to assess statistical association with deformity, with a significance level of 5% and 95% confidence interval. Ethical procedures followed the Helsinki declaration (2013). RESULTS: Among 238 subjects, 175 were patients and 63 leprosy health staff. Most patients relied on subsistence agriculture facing social exclusion (43, 25%). The waiting time from first symptoms to diagnosis was over one year for 63%. Deformity affected 116 subjects (68%), particularly those who considered the disease as God’s desire (p = 0.01), and practiced traditional treatments (p = 0.001). Among leprosy health staff, 35 (52%) were not trained on diagnosis and management. CONCLUSIONS: High deformity rate is associated with low economic status, the belief that the disease is God’s desire, the use of traditional healers, late diagnosis, and poor disease management. A health education program targeting professionals and population, with infection screening and self-care groups can prevent deformities. <![CDATA[β-Glucan of <em>Candida albicans</em> Cell Wall Extract Inhibits <em>Salmonella</em> Typhimurium Colonization by Potentiating Cellular Immunity (CD8 <sup>+</sup> and CD4 <sup>+</sup> T Cells)]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100306&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION: Antimicrobial resistance has been reported in the drugs used for the treatment of typhoid fever. The immunomodulatory substance β-glucan can be used as an alternative therapy as it potentiates host immunity. The aims of this study are to observe the effect of Candida albicans cell wall (CCW) extract towards host immunity (TCD8+ and TCD4+ cells in spleen, intestinal sIgA) and its capacity to kill Salmonella in the intestine and liver of typhoid fever mice models. METHODS: Typhoid fever mice models were created by infecting mice with S. Typhimurium orally. Mice were divided into four groups: the Non-Infected, Infected, CCW (infected mice treated with 300 µg CCW extract/mouse once a day), and Ciprofloxacin groups (infected mice treated with 15 mg/kg BW ciprofloxacin twice a day). RESULTS: Secretory IgA (sIgA) concentrations of mice in the CCW group remained unchanged. However, their TCD4+ and TCD8+ cells increased substantially compared to those in the Non-Infected group. In the Ciprofloxacin group, sIgA concentrations increased markedly compared to those in the Non-Infected and CCW groups; TCD4+ and TCD8+ cells also increased significantly compared to those in the Infected Group, but not significant compared to those in the CCW group. Colonization of S. Typhimurium in the intestine and liver decreased significantly in the CCW and Ciprofloxacin groups compared to that in the Infected group, with the lowest reduction being found in the Ciprofloxacin group. CONCLUSIONS The inhibition of S. Typhimurium colonization by CCW is associated with the increase in TCD4+ and TCD8+ cells. <![CDATA[Climatic variables associated with dengue incidence in a city of the Western Brazilian Amazon region]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100307&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to examine the impact of climate variability on the incidence of dengue fever in the city of Rio Branco, Brazil. METHODS: The association between the monthly incidence of dengue fever and climate variables such as precipitation, temperature, humidity, and the Acre River level was evaluated, using generalized autoregressive moving average models with negative binomial distribution. Multiple no-lag, 1-month lag, and 2-month lag models were tested. RESULTS: The no-lag model showed that the incidence of dengue fever was associated with the monthly averages of the Acre River level (incidence rate ratio [IRR]: 1.09; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.02-1.17), compensated temperature (IRR: 1.54; 95% CI: 1.22-1.95), and maximum temperature (IRR: 0.68; 95% CI: 0.58-0.81). The 1-month lag model showed that the incidence of dengue fever was predicted by the monthly averages of total precipitation (IRR: 1.21; 95% CI: 1.06-1.39), minimum temperature (IRR: 1.54; 95% CI: 1.24-1.91), compensated relative humidity (IRR: 0.90; 95% CI: 0.82-0.99), and maximum temperature (IRR: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.59-0.97). The 2-month lag model showed that the incidence of dengue fever was predicted by the number of days with precipitation (IRR: 1.03; 95% CI: 1.00-1.06) and maximum temperature (IRR: 1.23; 95% CI: 1.05-1.44). CONCLUSIONS: Considering the impact of global climate change on the region, these findings can help to predict trends in dengue fever incidence. <![CDATA[Association of serum levels of C-reactive protein with CRP-717 T/C polymorphism and viremia in HCV and HBV carriers]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100308&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION: The present study investigated the association of the rs2794521 polymorphism in the CRP gene in individuals with chronic hepatitis B and C, correlating it with markers of hepatic inflammation, fibrosis scores, viral load, and plasma protein levels. METHODS: The study analyzed 185 blood samples obtained from patients with hepatitis B (n=74) and hepatitis C (n=111) and 300 samples from healthy donors. Genotyping was performed by real-time polymerase chain reaction, and protein levels were quantified using the automated immunoturbidimetric method. RESULTS: The TT genotype was the most frequent in all studied groups and was associated with higher plasma levels of the protein but not with the progression of liver disease. Low levels of C-reactive protein were associated with increased viremia and scores indicative of severe fibrosis and cirrhosis. CONCLUSIONS: The present results demonstrated a close relationship between the ability of the virus to replicate and cause liver damage and low serum concentrations of C-reactive protein. Future research may determine if these results can be interpreted as a possible form of escape for the virus by decreasing its action as an opsonin and decreasing phagocytosis, which are functions of C-reactive protein in the immune response. <![CDATA[Agreement between upper endoscopy and esophagography in the diagnosis of megaesophagus in Chagas disease]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100309&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION The diagnosis and classification of megaesophagus can be challenging in patients with Chagas disease. The present study aimed to evaluate the agreement between upper endoscopies and esophagographies for the diagnosis and classification of megaesophagus in Chagas disease. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 50 patients with Chagas disease with upper digestive symptoms was undertaken. Esophagography and upper endoscopy exams were performed to compare diagnoses. Statistical analysis included sensitivity and specificity used to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of upper endoscopies, and measures of agreement: linearly weighted Kappa (κw) and Cohen`s classical Kappa (κ) coefficients with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). RESULTS: Twenty-three patients (46%) were diagnosed with megaesophagus by esophagography. The upper endoscopy sensitivity and specificity for megaesophagus diagnosis were 100% and 33.3%, respectively. Regarding megaesophagus classifications, there was a substantial agreement between the two exams (κw = 0.622; 95% CI: 0.498 to 0.746). Within megaesophagus groups, agreement for group I was slight (κ = 0.096; 95% CI: 0.000 to 0.403); for group II, substantial (κ = 0.703; 95% CI: 0.456 to 0.950); and for groups III and IV, inconclusive (κ = 0.457; 95% CI: 0.000 to 0.967; κ = 0.540; 95% CI: 0.035 to 1.000, respectively). CONCLUSIONS Upper endoscopy has a high sensitivity, but a low specificity to diagnose megaesophagus. Agreement between the two exams varies depending on the megaesophagus grade. Thus, upper endoscopy can be used in the diagnostic workup of a possible Chagas disease megaesophagus, but all identified cases should undergo esophagography. <![CDATA[Superimposing a high-fat diet on <em>Schistosoma mansoni</em> infection affects renin-angiotensin system components in the mouse kidney]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100310&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION: The levels of the full-length form of the (pro)renin receptor (PRR), a component of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), may be reduced in the membranes of kidneys in renal diseases. This study aimed to investigate the RAS components in the kidneys of mice submitted to a combination of a high-fat diet and Schistosoma mansoni infection. METHODS: Female BALB/c mice were maintained on a control or high-fat diet from 3 weeks of age. After 10 weeks on the designated diets, half the mice in each group were infected with S. mansoni cercariae. The blood and kidneys were harvested 8 weeks after infection. RESULTS: The high-fat diet increased the number of eggs in the feces and the number of adult worms in the mesenteric bed. Schistosoma mansoni infection reduced the plasma levels of glucose, triglycerides, and HDL cholesterol in the control and high-fat diet groups. In mice on the control diet, S. mansoni infection resulted in increased expression of IL-6 in the kidneys; however, in mice on the high-fat diet, the levels of IL-6 were reduced and those of superoxide anions were increased. The RAS components evaluated were ACE2, renin, PRR, AT1R, and AT2R, and the levels of PRR were found to be reduced in the kidneys of infected mice on the high-fat diet. CONCLUSIONS: The finding regarding PRR is not yet clear. However, combining a high-fat diet and S. mansoni infection resulted in increased oxidative stress in the kidney that can aggravate hypertension as well as its associated complications. <![CDATA[<em>ERG11</em> gene polymorphisms and susceptibility to fluconazole in <em>Candida</em> isolates from diabetic and kidney transplant patients]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100311&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION: Candidiasis is the most frequent opportunistic mycosis in humans and can cause mortality, particularly in immunodeficient patients. One major concern is the increasing number of infections caused by drug-resistant Candidas trains, as these cannot be efficiently treated with standard therapeutics. The most common mechanism of fluconazole resistance in Candida is mutation of ERG11, a gene involved in the biosynthesis of ergosterol, a compound essential for cell integrity and membrane function. METHODS: Based on this knowledge, we investigated polymorphisms in the ERG11 gene of 3 Candida species isolated from immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients. In addition, we correlated the genetic data with the fluconazole susceptibility profile of the Candida isolates. RESULTS: A total of 80 Candida albicans, 8 Candida tropicalis and 6 Candida glabrata isolates were obtained from the saliva of diabetic, kidney transplant and immunocompetent patients. Isolates were considered susceptible to fluconazole if the minimum inhibitory concentration was lower than 8 μg/mL. The amino acid mutations F105L, D116E, K119N, S137L, and K128T were observed in C. albicans isolates, and T224C and G263A were found in C. tropicalis isolates. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the high number of polymorphisms observed, the mutations occurred in regions that are not predicted to interfere with ergosterol synthesis, and therefore are not related to fluconazole resistance. <![CDATA[Ecology of phlebotomine sand flies in an area of leishmaniasis occurrence in the Xakriabá Indigenous Reserve, Minas Gerais, Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100312&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION: Leishmaniasis is a complex vector-borne infectious diseases caused by protozoan parasites in the genus Leishmania and spread by hematophagous phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae, Phlebotominae). The aim of this study was to investigate the phlebotomine fauna, endophily and exophily of the species found, and possible influence of climatic factors on their populations. METHODS: The study was conducted in the Xakriabá Indigenous Reserve (XIR) in the municipality of São João das Missões in northern Minas Gerais state, Brazil. Insects were collected over three consecutive nights in the last week of each month for 12 months from July 2015 to May 2016 from four houses in four different villages. Two traps were set up in each house: one in the intra-domicile and another in the peri-domicile. RESULTS: A total of 2,012 phlebotomine sand fly specimens representing 23 species and belonging to 10 different genera were captured and identified. Among the studied villages, Riacho do Brejo showed the highest density and diversity of phlebotomine sand flies. The species Lutzomyia longipalpis (80.3%) and Nyssomyia intermedia (7.3%), which are major vectors of visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis, respectively, had the highest population densities, both in the intra- and peri-domicile. No correlation was observed between climatic factors and the density of phlebotomine sand flies. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the present study may contribute to a better understanding and targeting of the measures for preventing and controlling leishmaniasis by the authorities responsible for indigenous health. <![CDATA[IgG1 and IgG4 antibodies against Core and NS3 antigens of hepatitis C virus]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100314&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION: IgG subclasses involved in the immune response to hepatitis C virus (HCV) antigens have been rarely studied. We investigated the immune response mediated by IgG1 and IgG4 antibodies against the recombinant core and NS3 antigens in patients with chronic hepatitis C. METHODS: Sixty patients infected with HCV genotype 1 without antiviral treatment and 60 healthy subjects participated in the study. Serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, HCV viremia, and the presence of cryoglobulinemia and liver fibrosis were determined. We investigated the serum IgG1 and IgG4 antibodies against recombinant HCV core and NS3 non-structural protein antigens using amplified indirect ELISA. RESULTS: Anti-core and anti-NS3 IgG1 antibodies were detected in 33/60 (55%) and 46/60 (77%) patients, respectively, whereas only two healthy control samples reacted with an antigen (NS3). Anti-core IgG4 antibodies were not detected in either group, while 30/60 (50%) patients had anti-NS3 IgG4 antibodies. Even though there were higher levels of anti-NS3 IgG4 antibodies in patients with low viremia (&lt; 8 × 105 IU/mL), IgG1 and IgG4 antibody levels did not correlate with ALT levels, the presence of cryoglobulinemia, or degree of hepatic fibrosis. High production of anti-core and anti-NS3 IgG1 antibodies was observed in chronic hepatitis C patients. In contrast, IgG4 antibodies seemed to only be produced against the NS3 non-structural antigen and appeared to be involved in viremia control. CONCLUSIONS: IgG1 antibodies against structural and non-structural antigens can be detected in chronic hepatitis C, while IgG4 antibodies seem to be selectively stimulated by non-structural HCV proteins, such as the NS3 antigen. <![CDATA[A randomized, open-label clinical trial comparing the long-term effects of miltefosine and meglumine antimoniate for mucosal leishmaniasis]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100315&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION: The treatment of mucosal leishmaniasis (ML) is difficult due to the toxicity and route of administration of standard drugs. Miltefosine is an oral agent used for leishmaniasis treatment; however, no data exist regarding its use for ML in Brazil. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy of miltefosine for ML treatment compared to that of pentavalent antimonial in a pilot study. METHODS: We performed a randomized clinical trial with two parallel groups. The tested intervention consisted of miltefosine 1.3-2 mg/kg/day (two capsules) for 28 days or intravenous 20 mg SbV/kg/day of meglumine antimoniate (N-MA) for 30 days. The final endpoint was defined as complete healing of the lesion four years after treatment. We also analyzed an early endpoint at 90 days after treatment. RESULTS: Forty patients were included in this study: each experimental group comprised 20 patients. Applying a multivariate model in an intention-to-treat analysis, we observed that patients treated with miltefosine had a cure probability 2.08 times greater (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.03-4.18) than those treated with N-MA at 90 days after treatment. At the final endpoint, we observed no differences in cure probability between miltefosine and N-MA (relative risk = 0.66; 95% CI = 0.33-1.32). With respect to adverse reactions, significant differences between groups were related to gastrointestinal effects, which were more frequent in the miltefosine group. CONCLUSIONS: Miltefosine may be an interesting alternative for treating ML because of its oral administration and cure rate after long-term follow-up. <![CDATA[Asymptomatic <em>Plasmodium</em> infection in a residual malaria transmission area in the Atlantic Forest region: Implications for elimination]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100316&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION: Elimination of malaria in areas of interrupted transmission warrants careful case assessment to avoid the reintroduction of this disease. Occasional malaria cases are reported among visitors of the Atlantic Forest area of Brazil, while data on residents of this area are scarce. METHODS: A sectional study was carried out to examine 324 individuals living in a municipality where autochthonous cases were detected. RESULTS: Asymptomatic Plasmodium infections were detected in 2.8% of the individuals by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), with one case of P. falciparum (0.3%), two cases of P. vivax (0.6%), and six cases of P. malariae (1.9%). The thick blood smears were negative in all individuals. Serological tests performed in 314 subjects were reactive in 11.1%, with 3.5% for P. falciparum and 7.7% for P. vivax. A subsample of 42 reactive individuals for any Plasmodium species showed P. malariae in 30.9% of specimens. Individuals who entered the Atlantic Forest region were 2.7 times more likely to exhibit reactive serology for P. vivax compared with individuals who did not enter this region (p&lt;0.05). Children &lt;15 years had a higher chance of reactive serology for P. falciparum and P. vivax than individuals ≥15 years of age (p&lt;0.05). Individuals living in the Paraiso district had a higher chance of reactive serology for P. vivax compared to other districts (p&lt;0.05). No associations were found between sex, past exposure to malaria, or serological response to antibodies of any Plasmodium species. CONCLUSIONS: The implications of these results for the elimination of malaria were discussed. <![CDATA[Pain and Quality of Life in Human T-cell Lymphotropic Virus Type 1-Associated Myelopathy or Tropical Spastic Paraparesis After Home-Based Exercise Protocol: A Randomized Clinical Trial]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100317&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION: Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1-associated myelopathy or tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) causes, among other abnormalities, chronic pain that may impair quality of life (QOL). Home protocols can help those who have difficulty attending rehabilitation centers. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of a home-based exercise protocol on pain and QOL in people with HAM/TSP. METHODS: A randomized clinical trial of people with HAM/TSP (World Health Organization criteria) classified as probable or definite. The supervised group (SG) underwent training for 12 weeks and continued the protocol at home for another 12 weeks; the unsupervised group (UG) performed the same protocol at home without physical therapist supervision for 24 weeks; and the control group (CG) maintained the usual care. QOL was assessed by the Short Form-36 health survey and the pain condition by the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI). The Chi-square, analysis of variance, Kruskal-Wallis, and Friedman tests (5% alpha) were used for the analyses. The intention-to-treat method was adopted in case of follow-up losses. Record number RBR-849jyv/UTN: U1111-1176-2858. RESULTS: Of 56 participants, 49 completed the protocol. Mean pain was moderately reduced (&gt;30%) in the UG and CG and mildly reduced (20%) in the SG. Loss in the vitality score of QOL in the CG was noted. CONCLUSIONS: The protocol generated mild and moderate pain relief and reduced losses in the functional QOL in the treatment groups. <![CDATA[Comparative assessment of the replication efficiency of dengue, yellow fever, and chikungunya arboviruses in some insect and mammalian cell lines]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100318&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION: Insect cell cultures play an essential role in understanding arboviral replication. However, the replicative efficiency of some of these viruses such as dengue (DENV), yellow fever (YFV), and chikungunya (CHIKV) in a new cellular substrate (Lulo) and in the other two recognized cell lines has not been comparatively assessed. METHODS: Vero, C6/36, and Lulo cell lines were infected with DENV, YFV, and CHIKV. The viral progeny was quantified through plaque assays and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, while for DENV2, the findings were confirmed by immunofluorescence antibody assay. RESULTS: The higher DENV2 titer (from multiplicity of infection 0.001) was obtained on day four post-infection in C6/36 and on day six in Vero cells, while the Lulo cell line was almost impossible to infect under the same conditions. However, C6/36 showed the highest values of viral RNA production compared to Vero cells, while the quantification of the viral RNA in Lulo cells showed high levels of viral genomes, which had no correlation to the infectious viral particles. CONCLUSIONS: C6/36 was the most efficient cell line in the alpha and flavivirus production, followed by Vero cells. Thus, Lulo cells may be a useful substrate to study the mechanisms by which cells evade viral replication. <![CDATA[Evaluation of the transcriptional immune biomarkers in peripheral blood from Warao indigenous associate with the infection by <em>Mycobacterium tuberculosis</em>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100319&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION: Biomarkers are critical tools for finding new approaches for controlling the spread of tuberculosis (TB), including for predicting the development of TB therapeutics, vaccines, and diagnostic tools. METHODS: Expression of immune biomarkers was analyzed in peripheral blood cells stimulated and non-stimulated with M. tuberculosis antigens ESAT-6, CFP10 and TB7.7. in Warao indigenous individuals. These biomarkers may be able to differentiate TB states, such as active tuberculosis (ATB) cases and latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) from non-infected controls (NIC). A real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) assay was performed on 100 blood samples under non-stimulation or direct ex vivo conditions (NS=50) and stimulation conditions (S=50). RESULTS: The findings are shown as the median and interquartile range (IQR) of relative gene expression levels of IFN-γ, CD14, MMP9, CCR5, CCL11, CXCL9/MIG, and uPAR/PLAUR immune biomarkers. MMP9 levels were significantly higher in the LTBI-NS and LTBI-S groups compared with the NIC-NS and NIC-S groups. However, CCR5 levels were significantly lower in the LTBI-S group compared with both NIC-NS and NIC-S groups. CCL11 levels were significantly lower in the LTBI-S group compared with the NIC-NS group. CONCLUSIONS: Preliminary findings showed that MMP9 immune biomarkers separated LTBI indigenous individuals from NIC indigenous individuals, while CCR5, CCL11, CD14, and IFN-γ did not differentiate TB states from NIC. MMP9 may be useful as a potential biomarker for LTBI and new infected case detection among Warao indigenous individuals at high risk of developing the disease. It may also be used to halt the epidemic, which will require further validation in larger studies. <![CDATA[Epidemiological and clinical profile of infective endocarditis at a Brazilian tertiary care center: an eight-year prospective study]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100320&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION: Infective endocarditis (IE) is a systemic infectious disease requiring a multidisciplinary team for treatment. This study presents the epidemiological and clinical data of 73 cases of IE in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. METHODS This observational prospective cohort study of endocarditis patients during an eight-year study period described 73 episodes of IE in 70 patients (three had IE twice). Community-associated (CAIE) and healthcare-acquired infective endocarditis (HAIE) were diagnosed according to the modified Duke criteria. The collected data included demographic, epidemiologic, and clinical characteristics, including results of blood cultures, echocardiographic findings, surgical interventions, and outcome. RESULTS: Analysis of data from the eight-year study period and 73 cases (70 patients) of IE showed a mean age of 46 years (SD=2.5 years; 1-84 years) and that 65.7% were male patients. The prevalence of CAIE and HAIE was 32.9% and 67.1%, respectively. Staphylococcus aureus (30.1%), Enterococcus spp. (19.1%), and Streptococcus spp. (15.0%) were the prevalent microorganisms. The relevant signals and symptoms were fever (97.2%; mean 38.6 + 0.05°C) and heart murmur (87.6%). Vegetations were observed in the mitral (41.1%) and aortic (27.4%) valves. The mortality rate of the cases was 47.9%. CONCLUSIONS: In multivariate analysis, chronic renal failure (relative risk [RR]= 1.60; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-2.55), septic shock (RR= 2.19; 95% CI 1.499-3.22), and age over 60 years (RR= 2.28; 95% CI 1.44-3.59) were indirectly associated with in-hospital mortality. The best prognosis was related to the performance of cardiovascular surgery (hazard ratio [HR]= 0.51; 95% CI 0.26-0.99). <![CDATA[Schistosomiasis in the Middle Paranapanema river region, state of São Paulo, Brazil: Does it matter today for public health?]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100321&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION: The Middle Paranapanema watershed is known for the transmission of schistosomiasis, and there have been autochthonous cases since 1952. This study aimed to describe this disease in space and time and evaluate its current importance as a public health problem. METHODS: Thematic maps showing the risk areas for transmission of schistosomiasis, using scan statistics, and flow maps were created in the period 1978-2016. Incidence was calculated, and the existence of spatial dependence between autochthonous and imported cases was evaluated using Ripley’s K12-function. Species of snails were identified in high-risk clusters. RESULTS: A total of 1,511 autochthonous cases were reported in eight of the 25 municipalities in the study area, of which 92.8% occurred in Ourinhos. A total of 2,189 imported cases were reported (27% in Ourinhos and 20% in Assis), mainly originating in the states of Paraná and Minas Gerais. Clusters of autochthonous and imported cases with higher risk were identified in Ourinhos, Assis and Ipaussu. However, over the years, the cases began to occur in low density in Ourinhos and no longer in other municipalities in the region. The cluster detected in the period 2007-2016 in Ourinhos still has risk for the transmission of schistosomiasis. K12-function analysis indicated positive spatial dependence between autochthonous and imported cases. CONCLUSIONS: The study showed that, currently, schistosomiasis as a public health problem in Middle Paranapanema is restricted to Ourinhos. This fact may be related to the presence of Biomphalaria glabrata at a specific point and low coverage of basic sanitation. <![CDATA[Determination of antibiotic resistance genes and virulence factors in <em>Escherichia coli</em> isolated from Turkish patients with urinary tract infection]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100322&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION : Escherichia coli ranks among the most common sources of urinary tract infections (UTI). METHODS: Between November 2015 and August 2016, 90 isolates of E. coli were isolated from patients at Rize Education and Research Hospital in Turkey. Antibiotic susceptibility was determined for all isolates using the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. These E. coli isolates were also screened for virulence genes, β-lactamase coding genes, quinolone resistance genes, and class 1 integrons by PCR. RESULTS: With respect to the antibiotic resistance profile, imipenem and meropenem were effective against 98% and 90% of isolates, respectively. A high percentage of the isolates showed resistance against β lactam/β lactamase inhibitor combinations, quinolones, and cephalosporins. PCR results revealed that 63% (57/90) of the strains carried class 1 integrons. In addition, a high predominance of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) was observed. The qnrA, qnrB, and qnrS genes were found in 24 (26.6%), 6 (6.6%), and 3 (3.3%), isolates, respectively. The most common virulence gene was fim (82.2%).The afa, hly, and cnf1 genes were detected in 16.6%, 16.6%, and 3.3% of isolates, respectively. Moreover, we observed eleven different virulence patterns in the 90 E. coli isolates. The most prevalent pattern was fım, while hly-fım, afa-aer-cnf-fım, aer-cnf, afa-aer, and afa-cnf-fım patterns were less common. CONCLUSIONS: Most of the E. coli virulence genes investigated in this study were observed in E. coli isolates from UTI patients. Virulence genes are very important for the establishment and maintenance of infection. <![CDATA[Synanthropic triatomines (Hemiptera: Reduviidae): infestation, colonization, and natural infection by trypanosomatids in the State of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100323&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION The ecoepidemiological situation in the State of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil is characterized by frequent invasion and colonization of domiciliary units (DUs) by several triatomine species, with high rates of natural infection by Trypanosoma cruzi. METHODS: We evaluated the possibility of vector transmission of T. cruzi based on records of the occurrence of domiciled triatomines collected by the Secretariat of State for Public Health from 2005 to 2015. During this period, 67.7% (113/167) of municipalities conducted at least one active search and 110 recorded the presence of insects in DUs. These activities were more frequent in municipalities considered to have a high and medium-level risk of T. cruzi transmission. RESULTS Of 51,569 captured triatomines, the most common species were Triatoma brasiliensis (47.2%) and T. pseudomaculata (40.2%). Colonies of T. brasiliensis, T. pseudomaculata, T. petrocchiae, Panstrongylus lutzi, and Rhodnius nasutus were also recorded in the intradomicile and peridomicile. Natural infection by trypanosomatids was detected in 1,153 specimens; the highest rate was found in R. nasutus (3.5%), followed by T. brasiliensis (2.5%) and T. pseudomaculata (2.4%). There have been high levels of colonization over the years; however, not all infested DUs have been sprayed. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report of intradomicile and peridomicile colonization by P. lutzi. These results demonstrate the risk of new cases of infection by T. cruzi and reinforce the need for continuous entomological surveillance in the State of Rio Grande do Norte. <![CDATA[Differences in resistance profiles and virulence genes among methicillin-resistant and methicillin-susceptible <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> of different lineages at a public tertiary hospital]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100324&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION Staphylococcus aureus is a major nosocomial pathogen that is associated with high virulence and the rapid development of drug resistance. METHODS We analyzed and compared the antimicrobial resistance, virulence profiles, and molecular epidemiology of 67 S. aureus strains, including 36 methicillin-sensitive (MSSA) and 31 methicillin-resistant (MRSA) strains recovered from a public hospital located in south-eastern Brazil. RESULTS The clones circulating in this hospital presented a great diversity, and the majority of the strains were related to clones responsible for causing worldwide epidemics: these included USA100 (New York/Japan clone), USA300, and USA600. The 31 MRSA (22 SCCmecII and 9 SCCmecIV) and 36 MSSA strains exhibited low resistance against gentamicin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. No MRSA strain showed resistance to tetracycline. Virulence gene carriage was more diverse and abundant in MSSA than in MRSA. Of the evaluated adhesion-related genes, ebpS was the most prevalent in both MSSA and MRSA strains. The genes bbp and cna showed a strong association with MSSA strains. CONCLUSIONS Our findings reinforce the idea that MSSA and MRSA strains should be carefully monitored, owing to their high pathogenic potential. <![CDATA[Low Frequency Of Regulatory B-Cells And Increased CD4<sup>+</sup> and CD8<sup>+</sup> Interferon-γ-producing cells in patients with tropical spastic paraparesis associated with human T-cell lymphotropic virus type]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100325&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION: Tropical spastic paraparesis/HTLV-1 associated myelopathy (TSP/HAM) is a disease caused by human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-I) that mainly infects CD4 T cells-for example, those of the CD4+CD25hiFOXP3+ [Treg] phenotype-where it inhibits forkhead box protein P3 (FOXP3) expression and promotes interferon-γ (IFN-γ) expression. However, the role it exerts on regulatory B cells (CD19+CD24hiCD38hi; Breg) is unknown. METHODS: The frequencies of Treg and Breg cells was evaluated and the Th1 profiles were assessed in TSP/HAM patients and healthy control subjects. RESULTS: Low percentages of Breg cells and high production of IFN-γ were observed in patients compared to those in healthy control subjects. CONCLUSIONS: The low percentage of Breg cells in patients and the increase in the frequency of Th1 cells suggest an imbalance in the control of the inflammatory response that contributes to the immunopathogenesis of TSP/HAM. <![CDATA[Descriptive study of suspected congenital Zika syndrome cases during the 2015-2016 epidemic in Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100326&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION: Clinical and epidemiological data on suspected congenital Zika syndrome (CZS) cases from southern Mato Grosso (MT) in Brazil during the Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak in 2015-2016 were evaluated. METHODS: This is a descriptive case series study of newborns whose mothers were suspected cases of ZIKV infections during their pregnancies. The medical records of all the suspected CZS cases (mothers and newborns) treated by the specialized ambulatory service from June 2015 to August 2016 were analyzed. RESULTS: Twenty suspected CZS cases were included in these analyses. They were categorized into four groups based on the clinical and laboratory findings: confirmed cases (n=1), highly probable cases (n=13), moderately probable cases (n=5), and somewhat probable cases (n=1). The mothers tested negative for STORCH (syphilis, toxoplasmosis, other infections, rubella, cytomegalovirus infection, and herpes simplex) and other important congenital infections; however, specific ZIKV tests were not performed during the study period. Microcephaly was observed in the majority of these newborns, and all the patients showed altered cranial computed tomography image findings. Extracranial abnormalities such as arthrogryposis, and otological and ophthalmological manifestations were also observed. CONCLUSIONS: Although ZIKV was not confirmed to cause the congenital malformations, this study demonstrated that the clinical and epidemiological findings associated with a STORCH exclusion strengthened the CZS diagnosis. The suspected cases in MT occurred simultaneously with the first CZS cases reported in Brazil, suggesting ZIKV circulation in the study region during the same period. <![CDATA[Seroprevalence of <em>Trypanosoma cruzi</em> infection among blood donors in the state of Bahia, Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100327&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION: Chagas disease (CD) affects 5.7-7.0 million individuals worldwide, and its prevalence reached 25.1% in the state of Bahia, Brazil. There is an association between the prevalence of CD, the socioeconomic status of the population, and the risk of re-emergence due to non-vectorial transmission, such as blood transfusion. This study determined the seroprevalence of T. cruzi infection among blood donors in the state of Bahia, located in northeastern Brazil, and their epidemiological profile during a 10-year period. METHODS: We performed a descriptive cross-sectional study involving a database review. Data were collected from patients with non-negative results for T. cruzi infection during a 10-year period. RESULTS: A total of 3,084 (0.62%) samples were non-negative for T. cruzi infection in an initial serological screening, and 810 (0.16%) samples were non-negative in the second screening. The correlation between infection and age (30 years or older) and between infection and lower educational level (12 years or less) in the first and second screening was statistically significant. The seroprevalence of T. cruzi infection was higher in men in the first screening. In addition, 99.52% of the municipalities of Bahia had at least one case of CD. Livramento de Nossa Senhora and Salvador presented the highest disease prevalence and recurrence, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The seroprevalence of T. cruzi infection in these populations was lower than that found in other studies in Brazil but was comparatively higher in densely-populated areas. The demographic characteristics of our population agreed with previous studies. <![CDATA[Local and systemic effects caused by <em>Crotalus durissus terrificus, Crotalus durissus collilineatus</em>, and <em>Crotalus durissus cascavella</em> snake venoms in swiss mice]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100328&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION: Crotalus envenomations cause serious complications and can be fatal without appropriate treatment. Venom isoforms present and inter/intraspecific variations in the venom composition can result in different symptoms presented by bites by snakes from the same species but from different geographical regions. We comparatively evaluated the local and systemic effects caused by Crotalus durissus terrificus (Cdt), C.d. collilineatus (Cdcolli), and C.d. cascavella (Cdcasc) envenomation. METHODS: Venom chromatography was performed. Proteolytic, phospholipase, and LAAO activities were analyzed. Edema, myotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, and coagulation alterations were evaluated. RESULTS: The venom SDS-PAGE analyses found the presence of convulxin, gyroxin, crotoxin, and crotamine in Cdt and Cdcolli venoms. Crotamine was not present in the Cdcasc venom. Cdt, Cdcollli, and Cdcasc venoms had no proteolytic activity. Only Cdcasc and Cdt venoms had phospholipase activity. LAAO activity was observed in Cdcolli and Cdcasc venoms. Cdcolli and Cdcasc venoms caused 36.7% and 13.3% edema increases, respectively. Cdt venom caused a 10% edema induction compared to those by other venoms. All venoms increased TOTAL-CK, MB-CK, and LDH levels (indicating muscle injury) and ALT, AST, GGT, and ALP levels (markers of liver damage) and were able to induce a neuromuscular blockade. Urea and creatinine levels were also altered in both plasma and urine, indicating kidney damage. Only Cdcolli and Cdcasc venoms increased TAPP and TAP. CONCLUSIONS: Together, these results allow us to draw a distinction between local and systemic effects caused by Crotalus subspecies, highlighting the clinical and biochemical effects produced by their respective venoms. <![CDATA[Association of vitamin D3, <em>VDR</em> gene polymorphisms, and LL-37 with a clinical form of Chagas Disease]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100329&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION: Chagas disease (CD) is an important public health problem in Brazil and worldwide. Aging and obesity are important matters in patients with CD, as is hypovitaminosis D3, which can decrease the quality of life of these patients. Immunomodulation mediated by vitamin D3, especially the production of antimicrobial peptides such as cathelicidin LL-37, might be related to the severity and symptoms of CD. This study aimed to determine the serum levels of vitamin D and LL-37 and VDR gene polymorphisms in patients with chronic CD. METHODS: This study included male patients with cardiac and indeterminate clinical forms of CD. Clinical, anthropometric, and blood parameters were obtained. Serum levels of 25(OH)D3 and LL-37 were determined by chemiluminescence and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay respectively. Fok (rs731236), Bsm (rs1544410), Apa (rs7975232), and Taq (rs731236) polymorphisms of the VDR gene were investigated by PCR-RFLP. RESULTS: Sixty-four patients were included in the study: 18 of the cardiac form and 46 of the indeterminate form. No differences in age, ethnicity, BMI, arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus, or dyslipidemias were observed between groups. However, the serum levels of 25(OH)D3, but not of LL-37, were lower in the cardiac form group. The association among polymorphisms, vitamin D, and clinical form was not significant. CONCLUSIONS: Decreased levels of vitamin D suggest an association with the cardiac form of CD. Studies investigating the roles of vitamin D and LL-37 in the immune response and their associations with VDR polymorphisms and disease susceptibility are necessary. <![CDATA[Prevalence of Infection of <em>Biomphalaria glabrata</em> by <em>Schistosoma mansoni</em> and the risk of urban Schistosomiasis mansoni in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100330&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION: Biomphalaria glabrata is considered to be responsible for the incidence of schistosomiasis in Brazil. Therefore, surveillance of areas where schistosomiasis is prevalent is fundamental for public health planning. This study was aimed to evaluate B. glabrata populations in water bodies of the city of Salvador, determine their distribution, estimate the prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni infections, characterize shed cercariae, and identify transmission foci. METHODS: Malacological surveys were carried out in 17 water collections from Salvador. Snail species were identified based on shell and mantle characteristics. Snails were evaluated for S. mansoni infection by exposure to light and via real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) using S. mansoni-18S rRNA subunit specific primers. RESULTS: 1,403 B. glabrata were collected. Classical cercarial shedding indicated that 5 snails (0.4%) were positive for S. mansoni. A higher prevalence of infections was found in Horta de Saramandaia (5.5%) and Lagoa do IAT (1.9%). Non-Schistosoma larvae, such as Xiphidiocercaria, Strigeidae, Spirorchiidae and Clinostomidae, were observed in 3.2% of the snails. S. mansoni DNA was detected in 6.2% snails via qPCR. CONCLUSIONS: B. glabrata is widely distributed in Salvador, as indicated by 7 water collections associated with a risk of schistosomiasis transmission. To our knowledge, this is the first study to identify B. glabrata eliminating cercariae of Clinostomidae, Strigeidae, and Spirorchiidae in Salvador. We propose that qPCR may be employed in combination with classical cercarial shedding. Estimating S. mansoni prevalence in snails by only considering the results of light exposure method classical into account may underestimate the problem. <![CDATA[Surveillance of multidrug-resistant bacteria in pediatric and neonatal intensive care units in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100331&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION: Multi-drug-resistant bacteria surveillance (MDR) systems are used to identify the epidemiology of MDR bacteria in neonates and children. This study aimed to describe the patterns by which MDR bacteria colonize and infect neonatal (NICU) and pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) patients in the state of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. METHODS A cross-sectional survey was performed using electronic data on NICU and PICU patients reported to the Rio de Janeiro State MDR bacteria surveillance system. All healthcare institutions that reported at least one case during the study period were included. RESULTS Between 2014 and 2017, 10,210 MDR bacteria cases, including 9261 colonizations and 949 infections, were reported. Among the colonizations, 5379 occurred in NICUs and 3882 in PICUs, while 405 infections occurred in NICUs and 544 in PICUs. ESBL producing Klebsiella sp and E. coli were the most reported colonization-causing agents in NICUs (1983/5379, 36.9%) and PICUs (1494/3882; 38.5%). The main causing bacteria reported in catheter-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI), ventilator associated pneumonia, and catheter-associated urinary tract infection in NICUs were Klebsiella sp and E.coli (56/156, 35.9%), carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria (CRGNB) (22/65, 33.9%), and CRGNB (11/36, 30.6%) respectively, while in PICUs, they were MRSA (53/169, 31.4%), CRGNB (50/87, 57.4%), Klebsiella sp and E.coli (18/52, 34.6%), respectively. CONCLUSIONS MDR Gram-negative bacteria (ESBL producers and carbapenem-resistant bacteria) were the most reported agents among MDR bacteria reported to Rio de Janeiro surveillance system. Except for CLABSI in children, they caused all device-associated infections in NICUs and PICUs. <![CDATA[Prevalence of self-reported dengue infections in Manaus Metropolitan Region: a cross-sectional study]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100332&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION: Dengue is an endemic and epidemic disease in Brazil, with a high burden of disease. Amazonas State has a high risk of transmission. This study aimed to assess the self-reported prevalence of dengue in adults living in Manaus Metropolitan Region. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted with adults living in Manaus Metropolitan Region in 2015. We performed a three-phase probabilistic sampling to collect participants’ clinical and sociodemographic data. Self-reported dengue infection in the previous year was the primary outcome. Descriptive statistics and Poisson regression analysis with robust variance were used to calculate the prevalence ratio (PR) of dengue infections with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). Multilevel analysis including city and neighborhood variables was calculated. All analyses considered the complex sampling. RESULTS: Among the 4,001 participants, dengue in the previous year was self-reported by 7.0% (95% CI 6.3%-7.8%). Dengue was more frequent in women(PR 1.51; 95% CI 1.06-2.13), elderly participants (≥60 years old, PR 2.54; 95% CI 1.19-5.45), White and Asian participants (PR, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.11-2.23), and individuals who had not received endemic agent visits (PR, 2.28; 95% CI, 1.31-3.99). After multilevel analysis, sex was no longer a significant variable, with the remaining associations still significant. CONCLUSIONS: Seven out of 100 inhabitants of Manaus Metropolitan Region reported dengue in the previous year. Dengue was predominantly observed in women, elderly individuals, White and Asian individuals, and individuals who did not receive endemic agent visits. The setting plays an important role in dengue infections. <![CDATA[Plasmid-mediated <em>mcr-1</em> gene in <em>Acinetobacter baumannii</em> and <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em>: first report from Pakistan]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100333&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION: The increased use of colistin against infections caused by Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa has resulted in colistin resistance. The purpose of this study was to detect plasmid-mediated mcr-1 gene in colistin-resistant A. baumannii and P. aeruginosa isolates. METHODS: A total of 146 clinical isolates of A. baumannii (n = 62) and P. aeruginosa (n = 84) were collected from the four largest tertiary care hospitals in Peshawar, Pakistan. All bacterial isolates were phenotypically screened for multidrug resistance using the Kirby-Baur disc diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of colistin in all isolates was phenotypically performed using dilution methods. mcr-1 gene was detected through polymerase chain reaction and the nucleotide sequence of amplicon was determined using Sanger sequencing. RESULTS: Approximately 96.7% A. baumannii and 83.3% P. aeruginosa isolates were resistant to multiple antibiotics. Colistin resistance was found in 9.6% (6/62) of A. baumannii and 11.9% (10/84) of P. aeruginosa isolates. Among 16 colistin resistant isolates, the mcr-1 gene was detected in one A. baumannii (1.61% of total isolates; 16.6% of colistin resistant isolates) and one P. aeruginosa strain (1.19% of total isolates; 10% of colistin resistant isolates). Nucleotide BLAST showed 98-99% sequence similarity to sequences of the mcr-1 gene in GenBank. CONCLUSIONS: Our study reports, for the first time, the emergence of plasmid-mediated mcr-1-encoded colistin resistance in multidrug resistant strains of A. baumannii and P. aeruginosa. Further large scales studies are recommended to investigate the prevalence of this mode of resistance in these highly pathogenic bacteria. <![CDATA[High rate of detection of OXA-23-producing <em>Acinetobacter</em> from two general hospitals in Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100334&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION In recent decades, the prevalence of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter isolates has increased, and the production of oxacillinase (OXA)-type carbapenemases is the main mechanism underlying resistance. We evaluated OXA production from 114 Acinetobacter isolates collected between March and December 2013 from different clinical specimens of patients in two hospitals (Hospital 1 [n = 61] and Hospital 2 [n = 53]) located in Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. We also evaluated the genetic diversity of OXA-producing isolates. METHODS All the isolates were identified through the automated system Vitek II and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry MALDI-TOF MS as belonging to the A. baumannii-A. calcoaceticuscomplex. Antimicrobial susceptibility profiles were verified through agar diffusion tests. The presence of OXA-encoding genes was confirmed by PCR. The genetic diversity of isolates positive for carbapenemase production was analyzed through pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. RESULTS There was a high rate of resistance to carbapenems in the isolates (imipenem: 96%; meropenem: 92%) from both hospitals. Moreover, a high percentage (95.6%) of OXA-23-positive isolates was observed for both hospitals, indicating that this was the main mechanism of carbapenem-resistance among the studied population. In addition, most isolates (96.5%) were positive for bla OXA-51. A high genetic diversity and a few major genotypes were found among the OXA-23-positive isolates analyzed. Only intra-hospital dissemination was observed. CONCLUSIONS The elevated dissemination of bla OXA-23-like observed among Acinetobacter isolates from both the studied hospitals highlights the need for continuous epidemiological surveillance in these institutions. <![CDATA[Human parvovirus B19 genotype 1 in suspected dengue patients of Tefé, Amazonas State, Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100335&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION: Human parvovirus B19 (B19V) is a common pathogen, which on infection causes variety of clinical conditions from benign self-limiting exanthematous disease and other similar pathologies to fetal death. METHODS: We collected 341 serum samples between the first and fourth day after the onset of symptoms from all patients suspected of dengue fever who were attended at Regional Hospital of Tefé. Initially, patients were screened for malaria by blood smear test and negative samples were sent to Fundação de Medicina Tropical Doutor Heitor Vieira Dourado (FMT-HVD) situated in Manaus (AM) for dengue testing using semi-nested multiplex PCR. Further, we investigated 44 malaria and dengue-negative samples of children for B19V DNA by nested-PCR. Positive samples were analyzed by BLAST against entire public non-redundant nucleotide database and genotyped by phylogenetic analyses using neighbor-joining clustering method. RESULTS: Eight samples (18.2%) were found to be PCR positive. Fever, headache, ocular pain, and/or muscle pain were reported as the most frequent symptoms by the patients and none were diagnosed with rash at the time of sample collection. Phylogenetic analysis of major capsid protein 2 (VP2) and VP3 coding region showed high similarity with B19V genotype 1. CONCLUSIONS: Our results reveal the spread of B19V genotype 1 in Tefé. Moreover, our results emphasize the significance of laboratorial differential diagnosis using molecular techniques in patients with acute febrile, and thereby aid the health surveillance system in improving patient care even in the remote areas of Amazon. <![CDATA[Epidemiological survey of hepatitis C in a region considered to have high prevalence: the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100336&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is affected by demographic, virological, clinical, and lifestyle-related factors and varies in different regions in Brazil or worldwide. The present study aimed to clarify the epidemiological patterns of HCV infection in the interior region of Brazil. METHODS: This study was conducted in the Southern Triangle Macro-region of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, according to the guidelines of the National Program for the Prevention and Control of Viral Hepatitis. The participants answered a structured questionnaire on social and epidemiological factors. Immunochromatographic rapid tests were used for the qualitative detection of antibodies against HCV in whole blood (Alere HCV® Code 02FK10) in adult subjects by a free-standing method. RESULTS: Of 24,085 tested individuals, 184 (0.76%) were anti-HCV positive. The majority of anti-HCV-positive individuals were born between 1951 and 1980 (n=146 [79.3%]), with 68 women and 116 men. Identified risk factors included syringe and/or needle sharing (p = 0.003), being in prison (p = 0.004), and having tattoos or piercings (p = 0.005) and were significantly associated with the decade of birth. CONCLUSIONS: The study shows the importance of testing populations at risk for HCV infection, including incarcerated individuals, those with tattoos or piercings, those who share or have shared syringes or needles, and those in high-risk birth cohorts (1950s, 1960s, and 1970s) in the Southern Triangle Macro-region. <![CDATA[Development of a natural molluscicide prototype kit (MoluSchall) for the control of schistosomiasis mansoni transmission]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100337&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION In Brazil, Biomphalaria glabrata, B. tenagophila, and B. straminea are intermediate hosts of Schistosoma mansoni, the etiological agent of schistosomiasis mansoni. Molluscicide use is recommended by the WHO for controlling the transmission of this parasite. Euphorbia milii latex has shown promising results as an alternative molluscicide. Thus, a natural molluscicide prototype kit based on freeze-dried E. milii latex was developed and evaluated against Biomphalaria spp. METHODS E. milii latex was collected, processed, and lyophilized. Two diluents were defined for freeze-dried latex rehydration, and a prototype kit, called MoluSchall, was produced. A stability test was conducted using prototype kits stored at different temperatures, and a toxicity assay was performed using Danio rerio. Additionally, MoluSchall was tested against B. glabrata under semi-natural conditions according to defined conditions in the laboratory. RESULTS MoluSchall was lethal to three Brazilian snail species while exhibiting low toxicity to D. rerio. Regardless of storage temperature, MoluSchall was stable for 24 months and was effective against B. glabrata under semi-natural conditions, with the same LD100 as observed under laboratory conditions. CONCLUSIONS MoluSchall is a natural, effective, and inexpensive molluscicide with lower environmental toxicity than existing molluscicides. Its production offers a possible alternative strategy for controlling S. mansoni transmission. <![CDATA[Upregulation of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 in renal tissue in severe dengue in humans: Effects on endothelial activation/dysfunction]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100338&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION: Dengue is an important mosquito-borne disease in tropical and subtropical regions. Adhesion molecules have not been systematically characterized in the renal tissue of patients with severe dengue (SD). The objective of this study was to detect viral antigens in samples from patients that evolved with SD, correlating with the expression of ICAM-1, VCAM-1, VE-cadherin, and E-selectin to contribute to a better understanding of the pathophysiology of SD. METHODS: Kidney specimens from patients with SD were selected according to clinical and laboratorial data and submitted to histological and immunohistochemistry analysis. A semiquantitative evaluation was performed considering positive immunostaining in 20 glomeruli. RESULTS: Viral antigens were mainly detected in distal tubules. The intense immunostaining of VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 was observed. The expression of E-selectin was discrete, and VE-cadherin expression varied from mild to moderate. VCAM-1 was slightly intense in the glomerular capsule; the expression of ICAM-1 was diffuse. E-selectin was diffuse, and VE-cadherin varied from mild to moderate. The most frequent histological findings were glomerular congestion, mild glomerulitis, acute renal injury, and glomerular atrophy. CONCLUSIONS: The results appear to demonstrate an imbalance between vascular endothelial permeability regulating events in renal lesions in SD. The increase in the expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 is an in-situ indicator of higher permeability with a consequent influx of cells favoring the inflammation of the endothelium. These molecules are important in the pathophysiology of the disease and provide the possibility of developing new markers for the evaluation, clinical follow-up, and therapeutic response of patients with SD. <![CDATA[Prevalence of Bowel Symptoms in Patients Infected with Human T-Lymphotropic type 1 Virus]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100339&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION: Bowel dysfunction is frequent in patients with spinal cord diseases, but little is known about the prevalence of bowel symptoms in human T-lymphotropic virus-(HTLV-1) infected individuals. The purpose of this study is to determine the frequency of bowel symptoms in HTLV-1 infected individuals and their correlation with the degree of neurologic disease. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study comparing the frequency of bowel symptoms in HTLV-1-infected individuals* and seronegative donors (controls). Patients answered a questionnaire, the Rome III Criteria was applied, and stool consistency was evaluated by the Bristol Stool Form Scale. The individuals were classified as HTLV-1 carriers, probable HTLV-1 myelopathy and definitive HTLV-1 associated myelopathy or tropical spastic paraparesis (definitive HAM / TSP)**. RESULTS: We studied 72 HTLV-1 infected individuals and 72 controls with equal age and gender distribution. Constipation was the most frequent complaint, occurring in 38 % of HTLV-1 individuals and in 15 % of the controls. In comparison to the seronegative controls, the probability of constipation occurrence was approximately 18 times higher in definitive HAM / TSP patients. Straining, lumpy or hard stools, sensation of anorectal obstruction/blockage, fewer than 3 defecations per week, flatulence, soiling, evacuation pain, and bleeding were also more frequent in the HTLV-1 patients than in the controls. Moreover, bowel symptoms were more frequent in patients with definitive or probable HAM / TSP than in carriers. CONCLUSIONS: Bowel symptoms were more frequent in HTLV-1-infected patients than in seronegative controls and the frequency of bowel symptoms correlated with the severity of neurologic disease. <![CDATA[Evaluation of functional disability after Chikungunya infection]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100340&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION: Chikungunya (CHIK) is caused by the Chikungunya virus, which is an Alphavirus of the Family Togaviridae transmitted to humans through female mosquitoes of the genus Aedes. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted involving the administration of a questionnaire addressing sociodemographic and health variables and the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire on general pain to patients with CHIK in the City of Imperatriz, Brazil, between January and December 2017. RESULTS Data of a total of 130 patients were evaluated. The mean age was 52 years (standard deviation=13.3); majority of the patients were female (n=120) with a prevalence of 38.0% for functional disability. Statistical differences were noted for marital status (p=0.037), presence/absence of comorbidities (p=0.050), and the use of medications prior to the diagnosis of CHIK (p=0.050), use of methotrexate (p=0.030), use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (p≤0.035), and use of nonhormonal anti-inflammatory drugs (p=0.001). CONCLUSIONS Patients in the chronic phase of CHIK present functional disability, thus alerting healthcare professionals to the importance of implementing actions aimed at an adequate treatment in all phases of the disease, mainly related to pain treatment and motor rehabilitation. <![CDATA[Spatial distribution of triatomine bugs in a Chagas disease endemic region in Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100341&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION: Trypanosoma cruzi is the etiological agent of Chagas disease (CD), a zoonotic infection transmitted by triatomine bug vectors to human beings. Although the story of this parasitic infection was born in Brazil and here this has made major step forward information, the same cannot be said about the actual distribution of the triatomine vector in several areas of this country. The aim of this study was to assess the occurrence of triatomine species in an endemic region for CD in Northeastern Brazil. METHODS: A retrospective study was performed using data obtained from 2008 to 2017. All information was provided by the V Gerência Regional de Saúde of the state of Pernambuco. The spatial distribution of triatomine species was analyzed by drawing a map using the Quantum geographic information system. RESULTS: A total of 4,694 triatomine specimens (469.4 ± 221.2 per year) were collected during the period 2008-2017, with 94.5% (4,434/4,694) at the intradomicile and 5.5% (260/4,694) at peridomicile environment. Of all arthropods collected, 92.5% (4,340/4,694) and 7.5% (354/4,694) were adults and nymphs, respectively. The species most frequently detected were Panstrongylus lutzi (30.36%), Triatoma brasiliensis (26.12%), Triatoma pseudomaculata (22.43%), and Panstrongylus megistus (20.54%). CONCLUSIONS: These data contribute to a better understanding of the distribution of T. cruzi infection in the Northeastern region of Brazil. Preventive measures based on vector control should be implemented in the study area in order to reduce the burden this neglected tropical disease. <![CDATA[Phage Therapy as an Approach to Control <em>Salmonella enterica</em> serotype Enteritidis Infection in Mice]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100342&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION: Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) is a cause of food-borne human illness. Given the prevalence of antibiotic resistance of Salmonella Enteritidis and the lack of antibiotic efficacy in future years, its replacement with other agents is necessary. One of the most useful agents is bacteriophages. METHODS S. Enteritidis was identified using a multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay. The effective bacteriophages were isolated from hospital wastewater samples. The effects of the bacteriophages were evaluated both in vitro and in vivo. RESULTS The phage SE20 belonged to the Podoviridae family, and the genome size was 40 kb. The evaluation of phage SE20 at variable pH ranges showed its susceptibility to pH &lt; 3 and pH &gt; 12. The animal model showed that mice infected with S. Enteritidis developed hepatomegaly and splenomegaly, but did not experience gastrointestinal complications after receiving the bacteriophages. CONCLUSIONS The results of this study suggest that phage SE20 is a promising candidate for controlling salmonellosis caused by Salmonella Enteritidis. <![CDATA[Rheumatological Manifestations Associated with Viral Hepatitis B or C]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100343&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION Rheumatological findings and rheumatic diseases may be associated with hepatitis virus infection. This study assessed the frequency of these manifestations in a reference unit in Acre, Brazil. METHODS This was a cross-sectional study with a convenience sample of patients having their first consultation at the rheumatology outpatient clinics of a referral unit in Rio Branco, Acre, from March to November 2017. Sociodemographic, clinical, laboratory, and imaging data registereds using a standardized questionnaire form. RESULTS Among the 600 patients with rheumatic complaints, 3.0% were newly diagnosed with hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV), and 8.7% were previously diagnosed with hepatitis. Among the 70 patients with hepatitis, 54.3% were carriers of HBV and 45.7% of HCV. For patients infected with HBV and HCV, arthralgia was the most prevalent rheumatic manifestation in 97.4% and 90.6%, followed by myalgia in 81.6% and 65.6%, and arthritis in 26.3% and 40.6% of patients, respectively, according to the descriptive analysis performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software. In comparative analyses using the chi-squared test, despite the fact that fibromyalgia was the most prevalent rheumatic disease only the Rheumatoid Arthritis there were differences in distribution between the carriers of HCV (18.8%) and HBV (2.6%). According to the Fisher’s exact test, hypothyroidism was the most frequent comorbidity in patients with HCV (21.9%). CONCLUSIONS An increased frequency of musculoskeletal manifestations, better than those reported in the medical literature, in patients infected with HBV and HCV was observed. <![CDATA[Epidemiological features, echocardiographic findings, and parasite load in patients with Chagas disease]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100344&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION Chagas disease is a major public health problem that is endemic in Brazil and Latin America. This study aimed to determine the socioeconomic, demographic, and clinical characteristics of 171 patients (mean age, 45 years; female, 65%) with Chagas disease at Hospital Universitário de Brasília, Federal District, Brazil. METHODS We implemented this cross-sectional study using a clinical epidemiological questionnaire, electrocardiography, echocardiography, and quantitative detection of Trypanosoma cruzi DNA in blood using qRT-PCR. RESULTS Among the patients, 26.3% had a full elementary education, and 13.2% were illiterate. Most (63.6%) were economically classified as class C, and 51.5% were born in Bahia state. A total of 62.0% participants reported previous contact with the triatomine bug. The clinical forms of the disease were indeterminate (69.51%), cardiac (15.24%), digestive (10.37%), and mixed (4.88%). The most common electrocardiographic abnormality was complete right bundle branch block in association with a divisional anterosuperior block. Only 14.6% of the patients complied with benznidazole medication for at least 60 days, and 164 of them were assessed by echocardiography. The parasite load was positive in 56% of the patients. CONCLUSIONS: Chagas disease affected mostly women, with the indeterminate chronic form of the disease. <![CDATA[Impact of vaccination on the incidence of varicella hospitalizations in a state in Southeast Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100345&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to analyze cases of complicated varicella and the impact of varicella vaccination in Minas Gerais, Brazil. METHODS: This was a time series study of a territorial basis using data on varicella cases from 2010 to 2016, which was provided by the State Health Department of Minas Gerais on . Descriptive statistics were used for the analysis, and the generalized linear regression model proposed by Prais-Winsten was used for the time tendency, adopting a significance level of 5% and the integrated autoregressive modeling of moving averages. RESULTS: There were 1,635 cases of varicella; out of which cellulitis (44%) was the predominant complication. The home-acquired cases were 38.9% and 464 cases (40.6%) were not previously vaccinated. There was a significant decrease in the incidence coefficient when comparing the pre- and post- immunization periods, from 1.95 cases/100,000 inhabitants in 2010 to 0.24 cases/100.000 inhabitants in 2016 (p&lt;0.05). There was a higher incidence of cases recorded among males, with higher prevalence in the age group of 1-4 years (54.7%). Lethality was higher between 5-9 years of age (44%). Mortality was higher in the age group of 0-4 years and among females (2.58/100,000 inhabitants/year). The overall trend of the incidence coefficient was a decreasing one, with an annual percentage variation. CONCLUSIONS: The number of complicated varicella cases notified decreased, coincidentally, in the post-immunization period. However, the immunization coverage period was restricted for the assessment of the correlation between immunization coverage and incidence. <![CDATA[Frequency and factors associated with <em>Toxoplasma gondii</em> infection in pregnant women and their pets in Ilhéus, Bahia, Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100346&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION: Toxoplasmosis is an asymptomatic disease that can lead to systemic disease in the fetus of pregnant women with primary infection. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of toxoplasmosis, associated factors, and correlation between the serology of pregnant women and their pets, in the municipality of Ilhéus, Bahia, Brazil. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 196 pregnant women and their cats or dogs (n=89). Semi-structured interviews were conducted and serum samples from the pregnant women were tested to detect IgM and IgG antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii, and avidity tests were performed for IgM-positive samples. The serum collected from pets were tested for IgG antibodies, and IgM antibodies in cats. A non-conditional logistic regression analysis was performed to identify infection-associated factors. RESULTS: IgG and IgM antibodies were detected in 67.9% (133/196) and 1.5% (3/196) samples, respectively, for women with an avidity of over 60%. Age ≥ 25 and the presence of cats in the vicinity were found to be associated with infection, while the level of education and previous orientation toward prevention of toxoplasmosis were protective factors in pregnant women. IgG antibodies were detected in 46.1% (41/89) of the animals, and cats were found to be negative for IgM. For the animals, age ≥ 1 year was a factor associated with infection. There was no correlation between serology of the pregnant women and the animals (p=0.15). CONCLUSIONS: An elevated prevalence of toxoplasmosis was detected in the region. Therefore, the adoption of preventive measures by public healthcare bodies is recommended. <![CDATA[<em>Ascaris lumbricoides</em> coinfection reduces tissue damage by decreasing IL-6 levels without altering clinical evolution of pulmonary tuberculosis or Th1/Th2/Th17 cytokine profile]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100347&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION: Immunological control of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection is dependent on the cellular immune response, mediated predominantly by Th1 type CD4+ T cells. Polarization of the immune response to Th2 can inhibit the host immune protection against pathogens. Patients with tuberculosis coinfected with helminths demonstrate more severe pulmonary symptoms, a deficiency in the immune response against tuberculosis, and an impaired response to anti-tuberculosis therapy. METHODS: We evaluated the cellular immune response and the impact of the presence of Ascaris lumbricoides on the immune and clinical response in pulmonary tuberculosis patients. Ninety-one individuals were included in the study: 38 tuberculosis patients, 11 tuberculosis patients coinfected with Ascaris lumbricoides and other helminths, 10 Ascaris lumbricoides patients, and 34 non-infected control individuals. Clinical evolution of pulmonary tuberculosis was studied on 0, 30, 60, and 90 days post-diagnosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Ascaris lumbricoides. Furthermore, immune cells and plasma cytokine profiles were examined in mono/coinfection by Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Ascaris lumbricoides using flow cytometry. RESULTS: There were no statistical differences in any of the evaluated parameters and the results indicated that Ascaris lumbricoides infection does not lead to significant clinical repercussions in the presentation and evolution of pulmonary tuberculosis. CONCLUSIONS: The association with Ascaris lumbricoides did not influence the Th1, Th2, and Th17 type responses, or the proportions of T lymphocyte subpopulations. However, higher serum levels of IL-6 in tuberculosis patients may explain the pulmonary parenchymal damage. <![CDATA[Analysis of macrophage subtypes and annexin A1 expression in lesions of patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100348&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION: Cutaneous leishmaniasis is caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania and transmission occurs through the bite of sandflies. It is an infectious disease, which affects skin and mucosa. The aim was to quantify the macrophages M1 and M2 and the annexin A1 expression in the skin lesions of patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis. METHODS: Skin biopsies from patients (n = 50) were analyzed and classified according to the lesion type as: exudative cellular reaction, exudative granulomatous reaction, exudative necrotic reaction, exudative necrotic-granulomatous reaction. Using the immunofluorescence technique, macrophages were identified by CD163 marker, differentiated by anti-MHCII and anti-CD206 antibodies, and annexin A1 expression was determined by arbitrary unit (a.u.) densitometry. RESULTS: In M1 macrophages, a greater expression of this protein was observed in the exudative cellular reaction type lesions (136.3 ± 2.6 a.u., assuming mean and standard derivation) when compared to the expression in the lesions of exudative granulomatous reaction, exudative necrotic reaction and exudative necrotic-granulomatous reaction patients (108.0 ± 2.3, 121.6 ± 3.2 and 124.7 ± 2.4 a.u., respectively). Regarding M2 macrophages, it was observed that patients with exudative cellular reaction lesion also had a higher expression of this protein (128.8 ± 2.6 a.u.), when compared to the expression in the lesions of exudative granulomatous reaction, exudative necrotic reaction and exudative necrotic-granulomatous reaction patients (105.6 ± 2, 113.9 ± 2.8, 114.3 ± 2.1 a.u., respectively). CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that annexin A1 is assisting macrophages in the phagocytosis process of patients with exudative cellular reaction lesion type. <![CDATA[Correlation between the cytokine profile and anticongestive medication in patients with chronic chagasic cardiopathy]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100349&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION: Chronic chagasic cardiopathy (CCC) is essentially a dilated cardiomyopathy in which a subacute, but constant chronic inflammatory process causes progressive destruction of the heart tissue. The action of proinflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interferon gamma (IFN-γ), and anti-inflammatory cytokines, like interleukin IL-10 and IL-17, plays a fundamental role in the immunopathogenesis and evolution of disease. Early anti-congestive therapy, aimed at changing the morbidity and mortality rate, has been shown to reduce disease progression and to alter patients’ immune response pattern. METHODS: This cross-sectional study aimed to evaluate the profile of Th1 and Th17 cytokines and IL-17, TNF-α, and IFN-γ expressions in different stages of CCC. Forty patients affected by chronic Chagas disease were divided into different groups according to the stage of the pathology. In agreement with the Brazilian consensus on Chagas disease, patients were classified as presenting an undetermined form, a cardiac form and a digestive form. Serum IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-10, and IL-17 were evaluated. RESULTS: Lower serum IFN-γ concentrations were detected in patients receiving angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (p = 0.0182), but not in those using angiotensin receptor blockers (p = 0.0783). Patients using amiodarone and aldosterone antagonist presented higher serum TNF-α concentrations (p = 0.0106 and 0.0187, respectively). IL-10 and IL-17 levels did not differ between the study groups (p = 0.7273 and p = 0.6697, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that the cytokine profile and disease progression are altered by anti-congestive medications commonly prescribed for CCC. <![CDATA[Malaria and fish farming in the Brazilian Amazon Region: a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats analysis]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100350&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION: The fish farming program in Acre is as an alternative program to generate income and employment and has promising regional, national, and international markets. While the economic importance of fish farming in the Jurua Region is clear, one must address its contribution to increase malaria transmission. METHODS This was a qualitative study. The answers of the 16 key informants were organized into the following: (1) the healthcare services structure; (2) conscience, perception, and behaviors; and (3) socioeconomic and political issues. Each answer was classified as weaknesses, strengths, opportunities, and threats. RESULTS Regarding healthcare services, the frequency of household visits was reduced, and subjects presenting with malaria symptoms were required to visit a healthcare unit to be diagnosed and treated. Regarding individual’s conscience, perception, and behavior, malaria was considered an insignificant disease, and a large proportion of the population were engaged in health practices that put them at risk in contacting with malaria vectors. Regarding political and economic issues, there were economic and infrastructure barriers for the development of a productive activity, and the insufficient credit or formalization of their properties prevented their access to governmental incentives and the financial market. CONCLUSIONS Support to fish farmers for low-cost inputs was not observed, and appropriate knowledge regarding the impact of the absence of maintenance and abandonment of fish tanks was insufficient. Moreover, insufficient healthcare services prevented not only the treatment of individuals with malaria but also the control of this disease. <![CDATA[Comparison between the Mini-Mental State Examination and Montreal Cognitive Assessment as a Cognitive Screening Tool in Patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100351&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION: The number of human immunodeficiency virus-associated neurocognitive disorders has increased, reaching more than 50% of the cases. However, there are currently no substantial data on the screening methods for this disease. This study aimed to evaluate and compare the Mini-Mental State Examination to the Montreal Cognitive Assessment in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. METHODS: This was an observational study comprising 82 human immunodeficiency virus-positive individuals with and without cognitive complaints. RESULTS: Positive correlation (p&lt;0.001) between the Mini-Mental State Examination and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment test scores was observed, but the mean scores revealed that the Mini-Mental State Examination showed worse performance for trails (p&lt;0.001), cube copying (p&lt;0.001), and clock drawing (p&lt;0.001) than the Montreal Cognitive Assessment. CONCLUSIONS: The Mini-Mental State Examination and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment tests should be used concomitantly for the assessment of human immunodeficiency virus-associated neurocognitive disorders, but visuoexecutive and visuospatial dysfunctions are better evaluated using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment test than the Mini-Mental State Examination. <![CDATA[The use of meta-analysis in infectious disease surveillance: Is it a relevant tool?]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100500&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION: The number of human immunodeficiency virus-associated neurocognitive disorders has increased, reaching more than 50% of the cases. However, there are currently no substantial data on the screening methods for this disease. This study aimed to evaluate and compare the Mini-Mental State Examination to the Montreal Cognitive Assessment in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. METHODS: This was an observational study comprising 82 human immunodeficiency virus-positive individuals with and without cognitive complaints. RESULTS: Positive correlation (p&lt;0.001) between the Mini-Mental State Examination and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment test scores was observed, but the mean scores revealed that the Mini-Mental State Examination showed worse performance for trails (p&lt;0.001), cube copying (p&lt;0.001), and clock drawing (p&lt;0.001) than the Montreal Cognitive Assessment. CONCLUSIONS: The Mini-Mental State Examination and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment tests should be used concomitantly for the assessment of human immunodeficiency virus-associated neurocognitive disorders, but visuoexecutive and visuospatial dysfunctions are better evaluated using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment test than the Mini-Mental State Examination. <![CDATA[West Nile virus infection in Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100501&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION: The number of human immunodeficiency virus-associated neurocognitive disorders has increased, reaching more than 50% of the cases. However, there are currently no substantial data on the screening methods for this disease. This study aimed to evaluate and compare the Mini-Mental State Examination to the Montreal Cognitive Assessment in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. METHODS: This was an observational study comprising 82 human immunodeficiency virus-positive individuals with and without cognitive complaints. RESULTS: Positive correlation (p&lt;0.001) between the Mini-Mental State Examination and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment test scores was observed, but the mean scores revealed that the Mini-Mental State Examination showed worse performance for trails (p&lt;0.001), cube copying (p&lt;0.001), and clock drawing (p&lt;0.001) than the Montreal Cognitive Assessment. CONCLUSIONS: The Mini-Mental State Examination and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment tests should be used concomitantly for the assessment of human immunodeficiency virus-associated neurocognitive disorders, but visuoexecutive and visuospatial dysfunctions are better evaluated using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment test than the Mini-Mental State Examination. <![CDATA[Fighting Rheumatic Heart Disease: What are the next moves?]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100502&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION: The number of human immunodeficiency virus-associated neurocognitive disorders has increased, reaching more than 50% of the cases. However, there are currently no substantial data on the screening methods for this disease. This study aimed to evaluate and compare the Mini-Mental State Examination to the Montreal Cognitive Assessment in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. METHODS: This was an observational study comprising 82 human immunodeficiency virus-positive individuals with and without cognitive complaints. RESULTS: Positive correlation (p&lt;0.001) between the Mini-Mental State Examination and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment test scores was observed, but the mean scores revealed that the Mini-Mental State Examination showed worse performance for trails (p&lt;0.001), cube copying (p&lt;0.001), and clock drawing (p&lt;0.001) than the Montreal Cognitive Assessment. CONCLUSIONS: The Mini-Mental State Examination and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment tests should be used concomitantly for the assessment of human immunodeficiency virus-associated neurocognitive disorders, but visuoexecutive and visuospatial dysfunctions are better evaluated using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment test than the Mini-Mental State Examination. <![CDATA[Zika virus infection three years after the microcephaly outbreak: A meeting report]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100503&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION: The number of human immunodeficiency virus-associated neurocognitive disorders has increased, reaching more than 50% of the cases. However, there are currently no substantial data on the screening methods for this disease. This study aimed to evaluate and compare the Mini-Mental State Examination to the Montreal Cognitive Assessment in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. METHODS: This was an observational study comprising 82 human immunodeficiency virus-positive individuals with and without cognitive complaints. RESULTS: Positive correlation (p&lt;0.001) between the Mini-Mental State Examination and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment test scores was observed, but the mean scores revealed that the Mini-Mental State Examination showed worse performance for trails (p&lt;0.001), cube copying (p&lt;0.001), and clock drawing (p&lt;0.001) than the Montreal Cognitive Assessment. CONCLUSIONS: The Mini-Mental State Examination and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment tests should be used concomitantly for the assessment of human immunodeficiency virus-associated neurocognitive disorders, but visuoexecutive and visuospatial dysfunctions are better evaluated using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment test than the Mini-Mental State Examination. <![CDATA[Natural history of experimental arthritis induced by <em>Paracoccidioides brasiliensis</em> in wistar rats]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100600&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION: Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is the most prevalent systemic mycosis in Latin America. This study aimed to evaluate the natural history of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis-induced experimental arthritis of the knee joints in Wistar rats. METHODS: Rats were randomly allocated to either an absolute control group, or 15-day, 45-day, or 90-day experimental (fungus-inoculated) groups. RESULTS: Experimental groups developed classic signs of articular PCM. Titers of anti-gp43 were observed to increase during the interval from 15 to 45 days post-inoculation. CONCLUSIONS: Articular arthritic lesions were induced and progressed during the study period in all experimental groups. <![CDATA[Morphological differentiation between seven Brazilian populations of <em>Haemagogus capricornii</em> and <em>Hg. janthinomys</em> (Diptera: Culicidae) using geometric morphometry of the wings]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100601&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION: Haemagogus capricornii and Hg. janthinomys females are considered morphologically indistinguishable. We analyzed morphometric variability between Brazilian populations of these species using wing geometric morphometry. METHODS: Size and shape at intra- and interspecific levels were analyzed in 108 Hg. capricornii and Hg. janthinomys females. RESULTS: Geometric morphometry indicated size and shape variables can differentiate these species at interspecific level. However, at intraspecific level, results show relative differentiation. Two populations of Hg. capricornii had a smaller centroid size with no significant differences between them, whereas all Hg. janthinomys populations showed significant differences. CONCLUSIONS: Both species were correctly identified by geometric morphometry. <![CDATA[Serological status of childbearing-aged women for <em>Toxoplasma gondii</em> and cytomegalovirus in northern Kosovo and Metohija]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100602&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION: Toxoplasma gondii and cytomegalovirus (CMV) are pathogens associated with congenital anomalies. METHODS: Serum was collected from 79 reproductive-age women and tested for IgM and IgG antibodies to T. gondii and CMV. RESULTS: Seropositivity for T. gondii was detected in 24.1% of women and CMV in 96.2%. High seropositivity for CMV was found for all ages. The highest seropositivity for T. gondii was observed among older participants. CONCLUSIONS: T. gondii remains an important pathogen owing to low seropositivity. <![CDATA[Performance of an immuno-rapid malaria <em>Pf</em>/<em>Pv</em> rapid diagnostic test for malaria diagnosis in the Western Brazilian Amazon]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100603&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION: Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for detecting Plasmodium antigens have become increasingly common worldwide. We aimed to evaluate the accuracy of the Immuno-Rapid Malaria Pf/Pv RDT in detecting Plasmodium vivax infection compared to standard thick blood smear (TBS) under microscopy. METHODS: Hundred and eighty-one febrile patients from the hospital’s regular admissions were assessed using TBS and RDT in a blinded experiment. RESULTS: RDT showed a sensitivity of 98.9%, specificity of 100%, and accuracy of 99.5% for P. vivax infection when compared to TBS. CONCLUSIONS: The RDT is highly accurate, making it a valuable diagnostic tool for P. vivax infection. <![CDATA[Prevalence of urodynamic changes with risk for upper urinary tract damage in neuroschistosomiasis patients]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100604&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to identify the prevalence of urodynamic changes with an associated risk of developing upper urinary tract damage in neuroschistosomiasis patients. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted, wherein68 patients were admitted for analysis of urodynamics, urea and creatinine levels, and uroculture. RESULTS: Blood test results did not indicate kidney failure. There were cases of asymptomatic bacteriuria. Common symptoms were frequent nocturia and detrusor overactivity. Results of low compliance and low cystometric capacity were both statistically significant (p = 0.001 and p = 0.002, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: A high prevalence of negative urodynamic changes were found in neuroschistosomiasis patients. <![CDATA[Popular names for bushmaster (<em>Lachesis muta</em>) and lancehead (<em>Bothrops atrox</em>) snakes in the Alto Juruá region: repercussions for clinical-epidemiological diagnosis and surveillance]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100605&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION: The popular names “surucucu” and “jararaca” have been used in literature for Lachesis muta and Bothrops atrox snakes, respectively. We present the popular names reported by patients who suffered snakebites in the Alto Juruá region. METHODS: Fifty-seven (76%) patients saw the snakes that caused the envenomations and were asked about their popular names and sizes. RESULTS: The snakes Bothrops atrox, referred to as “jararaca,” were recognized as being mainly juveniles (80.7%) and “surucucu” as mainly adults (81.8%). CONCLUSIONS: The name “surucucu” is used in the Alto Juruá region for the snake B. atrox, mainly for adult specimens. <![CDATA[Anti-<em>Candida</em> and anti-quorum sensing activity of airborne microorganisms detected by a rapid method]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100606&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION: Introducing new antibiotics to the clinic is critical. METHODS: We adapted a plate method described by Kawaguchi and coworkers in 20131 for detecting inhibitory airborne microorganisms. RESULTS: We obtained 51 microbial colonies antagonist to Chromobacterium violaceum, purified and retested them, and of these, 39 (76.5%) were confirmed. They comprised 24 bacteria, 13 fungi, and 2 yeasts. Among the fungi, eight (61.5%) produced active extracts. Among the bacterial, yeast, and fungal strains, 17 (44.7%) and 12 (31.6%) were active against Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The proposed screening method is a rapid strategy for discovering potential antibiotic producers. <![CDATA[Biofilm formation by blood isolates of <em>Candida parapsilosis</em> sensu stricto in the presence of a hyperglycidic solution at comparable concentrations of total parenteral nutrition]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100607&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION: Administration of total parenteral nutrition (TPN) via catheters increases the risk for candidemia from Candida parapsilosis. METHODS: C. parapsilosis sensu stricto blood isolates were evaluated for ability total biomass biofilm formation and morphogenesis in presence of glucose at TPN equivalent concentrations. RESULTS: Biofilms were increased at high glucose concentrations (25-30%) compared to the control medium. Significant increase in filamentous forms was observed in cultures with 30% glucose. CONCLUSIONS: Biofilm formation by C. parapsilosis sensu stricto in hyperglycidic medium may contribute to its pathogenic potential for fungemia related to TPN catheters. <![CDATA[Stress conditions in the host induce persister cells and influence biofilm formation by S<em>taphylococcus epidermidis</em> RP62A]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100608&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION: Studies have demonstrated that pathogens react to the harsh conditions in human tissues by inducing mechanisms that promote survival. METHODS: Persistence and biofilm-forming ability were evaluated during stress conditions that mimic those in the host. RESULTS: Carbon-source availability had a positive effect on Staphylococcus epidermidis RP62A adhesion during hypoxia, accompanied by a decrease in pH. In contrast, iron limitation led to decreased surface-adherent biomass, accompanied by an increase medium acidification and lactate levels. Interestingly, iron starvation and hypoxia induced persister cells in planktonic culture. CONCLUSIONS: These findings highlight the role of host stress in the virulence of S. epidermidis. <![CDATA[Temporal and spatial distribution of American tegumentary leishmaniasis in north Paraná: 2010-2015]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100609&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION: Describing the general aspects of American tegumentary leishmaniasis enables the identification of the epidemiological scenario of the disease and the development of preventive actions. METHODS: We analyzed the records of patients with American tegumentary leishmaniasis in north Paraná between 2010 and 2015. RESULTS: We identified 108 cases (mostly in 2014) with the following characteristics: male individuals, rural workers, and ages averaging 56.8 years. Isolated ulcerated lesions were predominant, and Glucantime® was the most frequently used drug. CONCLUSIONS: American tegumentary leishmaniasis remains endemic and affects mostly men found in areas surrounded by woods; its treatment is partially efficient considering its side effects and incidence of recurrences. <![CDATA[TGF-β1 polymorphism in American tegumentary leishmaniasis in a Southern Brazilian population]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100610&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION: Genetic polymorphisms define the cytokine production leading to susceptibility or resistance to diseases. We studied the cytokine polymorphism in the development of tegumentary leishmaniasis (TL). METHODS: Genotyping of TNF-α, TGF-β1, IFN-γ, IL-6, and IL-10 were performed by polymerase chain reaction assay. RESULTS: G and C alleles of TGF- β1 (codon 25) were the most common in controls and patients, respectively. G/G was the most frequent genotype in controls, and G/C and C/C in patients. CONCLUSIONS: G/G genotype of codon 25 in TGF-β1 appeared to confer resistance, and G/C and C/C genotypes, susceptibility to TL in this population. <![CDATA[Congenital Chagas disease: alert of research negligence]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100611&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION: Chagas disease (CD), a neglected endemic disease in Latin America, has acquired new epidemiological characteristics with an increase in the importance of alternative transmission routes such as congenital transmission. We evaluated the scientific research on this subject. METHODS: We searched the Scielo, BVS, and PubMed databases from 2006 to 2017. RESULTS: We identified a small number of published articles, mostly in journals with an impact factor less than 3.0. Studies on human congenital transmission of CD were carried out in only seven different countries. CONCLUSIONS: Our data highlight the lack of research on congenital CD. <![CDATA[Use of Kisser glycerol gelatin to prepare microscope slides of Phlebotomine sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae)]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100612&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION: Appropriate preservation of specimens is important for taxonomic identification. In sandfly research, various methods have been used for slide preparation; however, high cost, low commercial availability, and associated hazards make their use impossible in some studies. Therefore, the efficacy of Kisser glycerol gelatin for sandfly slide preparation was tested. METHODS: Kisser glycerol gelatin, as a substitute for Canada balsam and Berlese’s fluid, was used for mounting sandflies. RESULTS: Forty-two mounted specimens were created and maintained even after 14 months. CONCLUSIONS: Use of Kisser glycerol gelatin is simple and efficient for preparing microscope slides of sandflies. <![CDATA[Circulation of spotted fever group rickettsiae among dogs seropositive for <em>Leishmania</em> spp. in an urban area of Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100613&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION: Dogs play an epidemiological role in several vector-borne diseases that affect human and animal health worldwide. We aimed to identify rickettsial circulation among dogs with canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) from a region endemic for both diseases. METHODS: CVL-seropositive dogs were screened for spotted fever group rickettsiae using an indirect immunofluorescence assay. RESULTS: Among the CVL-positive dogs, anti-Rickettsia rickettsii antibodies were identified in one asymptomatic and one oligosymptomatic dog. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows low circulation of antibodies to R. rickettsii in CVL-seropositive dogs. It is recommended that surveillance studies in dogs should continue in order to monitor this scenario. <![CDATA[<em>Plasmodium falciparum</em> malarial parasites from Brazil lack artemisinin resistance-associated mutations in the <em>kelch13</em> gene]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100614&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION Mutations in the propeller domain of the Plasmodium falciparum kelch13 (k13) gene are associated with artemisinin resistance. METHODS: We developed a PCR protocol to sequence the pfk13 gene and determined its sequence in a batch of 50 samples collected from 2003 to 2016 in Brazil. RESULTS: We identified 1 K189T substitution located outside the propeller domain of the PfK13 protein in 36% of samples. CONCLUSIONS: Although the sample size is relatively small, these results suggest that P. falciparum artemisinin-resistant mutants do not exist in Brazil, thereby supporting the continuation of current treatment programs based on artemisinin-based combination therapy. <![CDATA[Reemerging diseases in Brazil: sociodemographic and epidemiological characteristics of syphilis and its under-reporting]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100615&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION: This paper analyzed sociodemographic and epidemiological data of individuals with syphilis as well as the compulsory reporting of the disease, for being a reemerging disease in Brazil. METHODS: General information and sociodemographic, epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory data were verified in compulsory reporting. RESULTS: From 2010 to 2016, 157 reporting forms were explored. Acquired and gestational syphilis occurred predominantly in those 20 to 29 years of age and those who did not complete secondary education. Compulsory reporting forms were not complete. CONCLUSIONS: The number of syphilis cases has varied over the years in the city. Incomplete compulsory reporting was noted. <![CDATA[New record and extended geographical distribution of <em>Aedes fluviatilis</em> (Lutz, 1904) in Ceará, northeastern Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100616&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION Aedes fluviatilis(Lutz, 1904) is considered a potential vector of yellow fever and dengue viruses and is naturally infected by Wolbachia. METHODS In March 2018, during a field activity in the municipality of Saboeiro, 163 mosquito larvae were collected in a dammed area of the Jaguaribe River. RESULTS Of the larvae collected, 143 (87.7%) were identified asAe. fluviatilis. CONCLUSIONS We report the first documentation of Ae. fluviatilis in the municipality of Saboeiro, northeastern Brazil. It is important to conduct additional entomological surveys to characterize the local Culicidae fauna. Ignoring the presence and dispersion of this vector could be a public health risk. <![CDATA[Rapid Detection of Sepsis using CESDA: the <em>Caenorhabditis elegans</em> Sepsis Detection Assay]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100617&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans was used as a biological sensor to detect the urine of sepsis patients (CESDA assay). METHODS C. elegans was aliquoted onto the center of assay plates and allowed to migrate towards sepsis (T) or control (C) urine samples spotted on the same plate. The number of worms found in either (T) or (C) was scored at 10-minute intervals over a 60-minute period. RESULTS The worms were able to identify the urine (&lt;48 hours) of sepsis patients rapidly within 20 minutes (AUROC=0.67, p=0.012) and infection within 40 minutes (AUROC=0.80, p=0.016). CONCLUSIONS CESDA could be further explored for sepsis diagnosis. <![CDATA[The role of pregnant women with rash in the Zika virus sentinel surveillance]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100618&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION: The state of São Paulo has been monitoring cases of microcephaly and pregnant women presenting with acute rash, through CeVeSP. METHODS: This was a descriptive study focusing on pregnant women with rash and the outcome of their pregnancy, based on the notifications through the CeVeSP. RESULTS: During 2016, 2,209 cases of pregnant women with rash were reported and investigated. Of these, 36.6% were confirmed. Of the pregnant women who tested positive for ZIKV, 6.4% did not have a favorable outcome. CONCLUSIONS Our results allowed the characterization of pregnant women exposed to ZIKV and the outcome of pregnancy. <![CDATA[Vaccination against influenza in elderly people: factors associated with acceptance and refusal of the vaccine]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100619&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION Immunization is the primary method of preventing influenza. The objective of this study was to describe reasons and determine causes of acceptance or refusal of the influenza vaccine by elderly people. METHODS: This cross-sectional and descriptive study included elderly patients (aged &gt;60 years) from the City of Jundiai, São Paulo, Brazil. RESULTS: The sample comprised 185 people; 71.9% reported receiving the vaccine and 21% claimed to have experienced complications. CONCLUSIONS: The vaccination coverage was below the national goal; the reasons for not being vaccinated was “did not want to receive the vaccine”, in addition to “forgot”. <![CDATA[Syphilis in female sex workers: an epidemiological study of the highway system of the state of Pará, northern Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100620&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION: Female sex workers (FSWs) are considered a bridge for transmission of pathogens from high-risk to general populations. We assessed the epidemiological status of syphilis in FSWs along the Pará highway system. METHODS: Two hundred and twenty-two FSWs were interviewed and samples were analyzed using rapid qualitative tests and real-time polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: The prevalence of syphilis was high (36.94%). The high rate of prostitution, use of illicit drugs, and search for financial resources increased Treponema pallidum transmission through unprotected sex. CONCLUSIONS: Several characteristics of FSWs were identified, which reinforce the need for measures guaranteeing their health and protection. <![CDATA[Quality of life of people with HIV/AIDS - the influence of social determinants and disease-related factors]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100621&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION: This study assessed the quality of life (QoL) of people with HIV/AIDS. METHODS: This cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted at a specialized HIV/AIDS health facility of the Brazilian Public Health Service. Data were collected using the HIV/AIDS-Targeted Quality of Life (HAT-QoL) instrument. RESULTS: The study included 109 participants. Among the many significant statistical associations found in the study, the variables that had a greater effect on the domains assessed by the instrument were educational level, occupation, financial situation, ethnicity, and symptomatology. CONCLUSIONS: Sociodemographic factors and HIV/AIDS-related aspects were influential in the QoL of people living with HIV/AIDS. <![CDATA[Extractivism of palm tree fruits: A risky activity because of snakebites in the state of Acre, Western Brazilian Amazon]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100622&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION: We present here the risk from snakebites because of palm extractivism in western Amazonia. METHODS: The data were extracted from a cross-sectional sample study, from January 2016 to April 2018, at the Juruá Regional Hospital of Cruzeiro do Sul (Acre). RESULTS: There were 14 Bothrops incidents involving males, most of them occurring during the harvesting of “açaí” (Euterpe precatoria). CONCLUSIONS: During the harvesting of “açaí,” there is the risk of the presence of B. atrox on the ground near the palm tree, and of B. bilineatus at the top of the palm tree. <![CDATA[Prevalence of HIV and associated factors among visceral leishmaniasis cases in an endemic area of Northeast Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100623&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION Cases of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and HIV co-infection have increased worldwide. We investigated the prevalence of HIV and associated factors among VL patients in Sergipe state, Brazil. METHODS We conducted a population-based study of all cases of VL and HIV reported in Sergipe from 1999 to 2015. RESULTS We studied a total of 917 patients; 41 (4.5%) co-infection cases were detected. VL-HIV co-infected patients were more likely to have weight loss, cough, treatment failure or loss to follow-up and death. CONCLUSIONS The prevalence of VL-HIV co-infection was high and co-infected patients were more likely to have adverse outcomes. <![CDATA[First report of <em>Panstrongylus lignarius</em> (Walker, 1873) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae) in the State of Acre, Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100624&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION: This communication reports the first occurrence of Panstrongylus lignarius in the State of Acre, Brazil. METHODS: A specimen of P. lignarius was collected from a residence in a rural area of the municipality of Rio Branco, Acre, Western Amazon. RESULTS: This new report of P. lignarius extends the distribution of this species to eight Brazilian states, and also increases the number of species of Triatominae described from the state of Acre from nine to ten. CONCLUSIONS: The occurrence of P. lignarius deserves attention, since this species has the potential for domiciliation and transmitting Trypanosoma cruzi. <![CDATA[IgE antibodies from schistosomiasis patients to recognize epitopes in potato apyrase]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100625&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION: High percentages of structural identity and cross-immunoreactivity have been reported between potato apyrase and Schistosoma mansoni ATP diphosphohydrolase (SmATPDases) isoforms, showing the existence of particular epitopes shared between these proteins. METHODS: Potato apyrase was employed using ELISA, western blot, and mouse immunization methods to verify IgE reactivity. RESULTS: Most of the schistosomiasis patient’s (75%) serum was seropositive for potato apyrase and this protein was recognized using western blotting, suggesting that parasite and plant proteins share IgE-binding epitopes. C57BL/6 mice immunized with potato apyrase showed increased IgE antibody production. CONCLUSIONS: Potato apyrase and SmATPDases have IgE-binding epitopes. <![CDATA[Binational burden of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in Oiapoque, Amapá State, Brazil, bordering French Guiana]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100626&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION: American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is regarded as a public health problem in the Oiapoque basin, between Brazil and French Guiana. METHODS Data on ACL occurrence/epidemiological profile and etiology were sourced from Brazilian health services and a reference laboratory. Rainfall correlation was also analyzed. RESULTS: Majority of the ACL cases were observed in adult men working as gold miners. ACL incidence peaks appeared to be linked to periods 2 months after the dry season. Migratory flow was found to be a non-negligible complicating factor in epidemiological surveillance. CONCLUSIONS: Binational strategies are required to minimize exposure for high-risk populations. <![CDATA[Accumulation of oocysts of <em>Cryptosporidium parvum</em> in <em>Biomphalaria glabrata</em> (Pulmonata:Planorbidae) under experimental conditions]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100627&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION: Cryptosporidium oocysts are easily transported to various aquatic environments. The objective of this study was to evaluate B. glabrata mollusks exposed to food containing C. parvum oocysts. METHODS: Six experimental groups were used with B. glabrata either exposed or not to C. parvum oocysts. Microscopic and molecular diagnostics were conducted in water samples and tissues of B. glabrata. RESULTS: By light microscopy, C. parvum oocysts were identified in the water of the exposed groups. C. parvum DNA was not detected in water but was detected in tissue samples. CONCLUSIONS: Further studies should be conducted under natural conditions. <![CDATA[Bronchiolitis Hospitalization in Southern Brazil from 2002 to 2012: A Count Time-series Approach]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100628&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION: Because the antibody neutralizing respiratory syncytial virus (anti-RSV) has a short period of immunization and high cost, the identification of regions and months of highest occurrence of bronchiolitis is very important. METHODS: An Autoregressive Conditional Poisson model was constructed for count data and compared to the standard time-series Poisson regression model. RESULTS: The metropolitan area of Paraná presented the highest average occurrence from May to July. CONCLUSIONS: The constructed model presented a better fit and allowed prediction of when and where the bronchiolitis hospitalizations are distributed. <![CDATA[The topical treatment of old world cutaneous leishmaniasis with gentian violet along with cryotherapy: a pilot single-blind randomized controlled clinical trial]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100629&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION: The promising non-clinical antileishmanial effects of gentian violet (GV) encouraged us to evaluate the additive effect of GV on cryotherapy. METHODS: For 8 weeks, 59/161 cutaneous leishmaniasis patients/lesions underwent cryotherapy alone (group 1) or cryotherapy accompanied by 1% GV application (group 2). The primary endpoint was clinical response. RESULTS: Ultimately, 54.7% and 45.3% of the significantly cured lesions belonged to groups 1 and 2, respectively, which was not statistically significant. The clinical response was significantly different between the two groups at the end of the fourth week. CONCLUSIONS: Although the clinical response of the two groups was significantly different at the end of the fourth week, application of GV did not increase the efficacy of cryotherapy. <![CDATA[Spatiotemporal patterns of AIDS incidence among adults in São Paulo, Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100630&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION: AIDS remains a major public health concern in Brazil. METHODS: This study investigated spatiotemporal patterns of reported AIDS cases among adults in São Paulo between 2000 and 2016, and their associations with human development index. RESULTS: In the early 20th century, the more developed administrative districts (ADs) indicated higher AIDS incidences among men. From the 2010s, ADs with lower development indicate higher rates of the disease among women. CONCLUSIONS: The results are useful to support the planning of actions aimed at controlling the incidence and transmission of AIDS in certain areas, based on diversification by gender and risk populations. <![CDATA[Survival analysis of patients with sepsis in Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100631&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to analyze the survival of septic patients and to assess prognostic factors. METHODS: Patients with sepsis, severe sepsis, and septic shock were followed up and clinical and laboratory data were collected. The sepsis-related organ failure assessment (SOFA) score was calculated. RESULTS: The overall 30-day survival rates of patients with sepsis, severe sepsis, and septic shock were 86.3%, 72.5%, and 20%, respectively. Mortality was related to old age, septic shock, coagulopathy, lactate level, and high SOFA score among other factors. CONCLUSIONS: Identification of prognostic variables may reduce sepsis-related mortality. <![CDATA[Clinical and epidemiology evaluation of Aids-infected patients hospitalized between 2011 and 2016 in the Santos region of Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100632&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION: We assessed the clinical-epidemiological profile of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients in the Santos region (São Paulo state) with the highest AIDS prevalence in Brazil. METHODS Information was extracted from records of 409 AIDS-infected patients hospitalized between 2011 and 2016. RESULTS: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was diagnosed in 24.7% of patients during admission, and 39.6% of already diagnosed patients received highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) irregularly. The mortality rate was 19.1%, and the main secondary manifestations were neurotoxoplasmosis and tuberculosis. CONCLUSIONS: AIDS patients in the Santos region had high rates of late diagnosis and low treatment adherence. <![CDATA[Clinico-immunological spectrum of American tegumentary leishmaniasis and leprosy coinfection: A case series in Southeastern Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100633&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION: American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) and leprosy share common areas of prevalence, but reports of coinfection are scarce. METHODS: We report a series of 9 ATL-leprosy cases and discuss the association. An integrative diagram to analyze the clinico-immunological features of coinfection with both diseases. RESULTS: Nine patients with leishmaniasis (5 cutaneous, 3 mucocutaneous, 1 disseminated case) exhibited concurrent infection with distinct clinical forms of leprosy. Our diagram-based analysis evidenced a divergent clinico-immunological spectrum for each disease in 8 out of 9 cases. CONCLUSIONS: The spectrum of ATL-leprosy comorbidity suggests that the host has a specific immune response against each pathogen. <![CDATA[Different susceptibilities of <em>Aedes aegypti</em> and <em>Aedes albopictus</em> larvae to plant-derived products]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100634&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION: Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus are important vectors that transmit arboviruses to human populations. METHODS: Natural products were obtained and tested against larvae collected from the field in Fortaleza, capital of Ceará state. RESULTS: The essential oils of Syzygium aromaticum (Ae. aegypti LC50 = 32.7 ppm and Ae. albopictus LC50 = 138.1 ppm) and Croton nepetaefolius (Ae. aegypti LC50 = 81.7 ppm and Ae. albopictus LC50 = 76.1 ppm) showed the most intense larvicidal activity. CONCLUSIONS: The essential oils and methyl esters showed greater larvicidal activity than did the ethanol extracts. <![CDATA[Clinical and laboratory profiles of children with severe chikungunya infection]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100635&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION: Chikungunya infection presents with distinct clinical features depending on the patient age group. METHODS: Medical records of children with positive IgM for the chikungunya virus who were hospitalized in a pediatric ward in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil were analyzed. RESULTS: Fourteen children with a median age of 4 months (36 days to 15 years) were included. All patients presented with fever persisting for an average of 5 days. The joints were involved in 6 (42.8%) children, and 8 (57.1%) children presented with bullous rash. CONCLUSIONS: Systemic involvement and atypical clinical manifestations characterize severe forms of chikungunya infection in children. <![CDATA[Use of pharmaceutical nanotechnology for the treatment of leishmaniasis]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100636&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION: Leishmaniasis is a global public health concern. Currently available treatments are associated with considerable side effects. The use of nanotechnology has shown promise for improving efficacy and bioavailability and minimizing side effects. METHODS: This study investigated available literature, including patents and scientific articles, to identify advances in the use of nanotechnology for the treatment of leishmaniasis. RESULTS: Our findings revealed a stable number of patents and scientific articles published over the past five years. CONCLUSIONS: There is a need to intensify research on the use of nanotechnology for the treatment of leishmaniasis. <![CDATA[Increase in the diagnosis of mycobacteremia after the implementation of semi-automated blood culture at a Brazilian public health laboratory]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100637&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION The prevalence of hematogenous dissemination of mycobacteria is high in immunosuppressed patients. The isolation of mycobacteria in culture remains the standard procedure. METHODS This is a cross-sectional study based on the results of solid (Löwenstein-Jensen medium) and semi-automated liquid (BACTEC 9240) blood cultures, obtained from the Lacen-GO database. RESULTS The implementation of a semi-automated procedure resulted in an increase of 61.5% and 350.0% in the positive results for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and nontuberculous mycobacteria, respectively. This technique also accelerated the detection of positive results. CONCLUSIONS Semi-automated liquid blood culture showed a better performance in the diagnosis of mycobacteremia. <![CDATA[Cost-effectiveness analysis of diagnostic-therapeutic strategies for visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100638&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is fatal if not diagnosed and treated. This study aimed to estimate the cost-effectiveness of diagnostic-therapeutic alternatives for VL in Brazil. METHODS: A decision model estimated the life expectancy and costs of six diagnostic-therapeutic strategies. RESULTS: IT LEISH + liposomal amphotericin B emerged the best option, presenting lower costs and higher effectiveness. DAT-LPC + liposomal amphotericin B showed an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of US$ 326.31 per life year. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate the feasibility of incorporating DAT and designating liposomal amphotericin B as the first-line drug for VL in Brazil. <![CDATA[Adverse events in patients with leprosy on treatment with thalidomide]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100639&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION: Thalidomide, used to treat erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL), is associated with severe adverse events (AEs) and is highly teratogenic. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted on thalidomide-treated patients with ENL. AEs and selected variables were investigated through interviews and assessment of medical records. Odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were estimated via logistic regression. RESULTS: Peripheral neuropathy symptoms and deep vein thrombosis (DVT) were the most common AEs reported. Although women of reproductive age used contraceptives, &lt;50% of patients reported using condoms. Polypharmacy was associated with all endpoints, except DVT. CONCLUSIONS: Pharmacovigilance is crucial to prevent harmful thalidomide-associated AEs. <![CDATA[Confirmation of the occurrence of <em>Panstrongylus rufotuberculatus</em> (Champion, 1899) in the state of Acre, Western Amazon]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100640&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract: INTRODUCTION This study aimed to confirm the occurrence of Panstrongylus rufotuberculatus in the state of Acre, Brazil. METHODS The four specimens of P. rufotuberculatus were obtained from the entomological collection of the Zoobotanical Park of the Federal University of Acre (UFAC). RESULTS Confirmation of the occurrence of this species in the state of Acre increases the number of species already registered, from nine to ten. CONCLUSIONS The necessity to develop further studies was verified, especially with the domiciliary process of P. rufotuberculatus, resulting in tracing prophylactic measures against the vector transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi. <![CDATA[Honey bee envenoming in Santa Catarina, Brazil, 2007 through 2017: an observational, retrospective cohort study]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100641&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION: We evaluated the epidemiological and clinical profile of reported cases of bee sting incidents in Santa Catarina, Brazil. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included all reported cases of bee sting incidents among the population of Santa Catarina from 2007 to 2017. RESULTS: In total, 8,912 cases were reported, corresponding to an overall rate of 12.3/100,000 population. The mean age was 29,8 years with 60.2% men. The lethality rate was 0.2%. CONCLUSIONS: Santa Catarina has a high incidence rate of bee stings, which is higher than the national average. The data presented in this study may be underestimated. <![CDATA[Seroprevalence of <em>Neospora caninum</em> and <em>Toxoplasma gondii</em> in dogs from an urban area of North-eastern Brazil: a spatial approach]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100642&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION: The present study aimed to assess the seroprevalence and spatial distribution of Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii in dogs. METHODS: Blood samples (n = 241) were collected and analyzed for the presence of anti-N. caninum and anti-T. gondii antibodies. The spatial distribution was evaluated using kernel density estimation (KDE). RESULTS Anti-N. caninum and anti-T. gondii antibodies were detected in 24.06% (58/241) and 9.54% (23/241) of samples, respectively. A heterogeneous spatial distribution of positive dogs was observed across the city. CONCLUSIONS These data are pivotal for better understanding the dynamics of infection caused by these protozoa in the canine population. <![CDATA[Schistosomiasis mansoni in the northeast region of brazil: temporal modeling of positivity, hospitalization,and mortality rates]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100643&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION We aimed to analyze trends in Schistosomiasis positivity, mortality, and hospitalization rates in Northeast Brazil. METHODS We conducted an ecological study using data from the Brazilian Schistosomiasis Control Program, and Hospital and Mortality Information Systems. A joinpoint regression model was used for temporal analysis. RESULTS The positivity(−4.7%;p&lt;0.001) and hospitalization(−17.7%;p&lt;0.001) rates declined globally, while the mortality remained stationary (−0.8%;p&gt;0.05). However, the hospitalization in Alagoas(27.1%;p&lt;0.001) and Pernambuco (35.1%;p&lt;0.001), and the mortality in Bahia(2.9%;p&lt;0.001) and Sergipe(4.1%;p&lt;0.001), increased. CONCLUSIONS Schistosomiasis mansoni represents an important public health problem in Pernambuco, Alagoas, Sergipe, and Bahia. <![CDATA[Descriptive analysis of syphilis cases reported in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil identifies failure in treatment]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100644&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION: Syphilis infection remains an alarming public health problem worldwide. METHODS: This study analyzed syphilis cases listed in the Information System on Diseases of Compulsory Declaration (SINAN) of Mato Grosso do Sul state in Brazil between January 2013 and December 2014. RESULTS: Most of the evaluated syphilis cases would have been preventable through public education, particularly congenital syphilis in children of previously diagnosed mothers and infection by untreated sexual partners. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence rate of syphilis could be reduced by improving prevention through counselling on the risk of infection, improving access to condoms, and increasing the frequency of diagnostic tests. <![CDATA[Occurrence of triatomines in an urban residential complex in the municipality of Rio Branco, Acre, South-Western Amazon]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100645&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION: This study describes the occurrence of triatomines, and their positivity for trypanosomatids, in a residential complex in Rio Branco, Acre, Brazil. METHODS: Triatomines were collected through direct capture in a home environment. Positivity analysis for trypanosomatids was performed by PCR assays. RESULTS Collected insects consisted of 31 Rhodnius robustus, 4 Rhodnius montenegrensis, and 1 Panstrongylus geniculatus specimens. All were adults, with no presence of domiciliation, and with an infection rate of 30.6%. CONCLUSIONS Future studies are recommended in other locations of Rio Branco in order to develop a georeference database of the occurrence of triatomines in urban areas. <![CDATA[Prevalence of cryptococcosis in Atlántico, department of Colombia assessed with an active epidemiological search]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100646&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION Cryptococcosis is the second most frequent cause of opportunistic infections in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients in Colombia. We aimed to determine the prevalence of cryptococcosis in the Colombian department of Atlántico. METHODS An active search for cryptococcosis cases was conducted between 2015 and 2017 in health institutions by distributing surveys to clinicians and characterizing samples phenotypically and genotypically. RESULTS Thirty-eight cryptococcosis cases were identified (81.6% men, 76.3% HIV patients). The calculated annual prevalence was 5.08/1 million inhabitants. Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii VNI was isolated in 34 cases. CONCLUSIONS These results provide the basis for passive surveillance of cryptococcosis. <![CDATA[Serological and molecular retrospective analysis of hepatitis E suspected cases from the Eastern Brazilian Amazon 1993-2014]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100647&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION We evaluated the anti-hepatitis E virus (HEV) antibody prevalence and HEV-RNA in archived serum samples of non-A-C hepatitis, or suspected cases of HEV infection from the Eastern Brazilian Amazon from 1993 to 2014. METHODS Serum samples (n = 318) were tested using ELISA and immunoblotting, and screened for HEV-RNA by RT-qPCR. RESULTS Anti-HEV IgM and IgG were detected in 3.4% (11/318) and 5.9% (19/318) of the samples, respectively. All samples were HEV-RNA negative. CONCLUSIONS HEV was detected at a low prevalence. Broader serological and molecular evaluation of HEV infection in the Amazon region should be carried out. <![CDATA[Relationships between phagocytosis, mucoid phenotype, and genetic characteristics of <em>Klebsiella pneumoniae</em> clinical isolates]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100648&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION The relationships between phagocytosis, and mucoid phenotype, plasmid profile and virulence, and resistance genetic characteristics of Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolates were evaluated. METHODS Thirty isolates were used to determine the mucoid aspect. Four were selected for analysis of phagocytosis by alveolar macrophages. RESULTS Thirty percent of the samples presented the mucoid phenotype. The phagocytosis rate ranged from 21.5% to 43.43%. Phagocytosis was not correlated with the plasmid profile, but was apparently correlated with mucoid phenotype and antibiotic susceptibility. CONCLUSIONS: Several virulence factors act in parallel in K. pneumoniae to impair host defense. <![CDATA[Decreased uric acid levels in the acute phase of <em>Plasmodium vivax</em> malaria]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100649&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION Uric acid is one of the compounds associated with the inflammatory process in malaria. It acts as an indicator of cellular damage by activating the immune response and inflammatory process. METHODS: We measured serum concentrations of uric acid in 60 symptomatic patients before and after treatment for malarial infections caused by Plasmodium vivax. RESULTS: Lower serum concentrations of uric acid were found during the acute phase of P. vivax malaria compared to those in its convalescent phase (p &lt; 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Patients in the acute phase of malaria had lower uric acid levels than those in its convalescent phase. <![CDATA[Anti-Hepatitis B Antibody Levels In Immunized Medical Students: Are They At Risk?]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100650&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION Medical students have an occupational risk for hepatitis B (HB). This study sought to determine anti-HBs and anti-HBc IgG levels in vaccinated students, check their seroconversion, and correlate this with vaccination. METHODS One hundred and forty-three students’ blood samples and their vaccination schedules were analyzed. RESULTS: 65.7% were positive for anti-HBs; however, anti-HBs was absent in 34.3%. Only two samples were positive for anti-HBc IgG. CONCLUSIONS More than 30% of students did not have minimum protective levels. Comparing HBV vaccination and anti-HBs reactivity, the majority of reactive individuals received their last dose within the past 16 years. <![CDATA[Genotypes of clinical varicella-zoster virus isolates from Manaus, Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100651&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION: Vaccination against varicella-zoster virus (VZV) has been effective and safe in countries that routinely administer the vaccine. Brazil began universal VZV vaccination in 2013. This study aimed to identify VZV genotypes present in Manaus, Brazil prior to widespread immunization. METHODS: Vesicular lesions or cerebral-spinal-fluid samples were collected from patients diagnosed with VZV, herpes zoster, or meningitis/encephalitis. DNA was extracted, amplified, and sequenced. RESULTS: Half the isolates were clade-5 viruses and the remaining were divided between the European clades 1 and 3. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides insights into the circulating VZV genotypes in Manaus prior to widespread vaccination. <![CDATA[Emergence of <em>bla</em> <sub>NDM-1</sub> associated with the <em>aac(6’)-Ib-cr</em>, <em>acrB, cps,</em> and <em>mrkD</em> genes in a clinical isolate of multi-drug resistant <em>Klebsiella pneumoniae</em> from Recife-PE, Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100652&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION: The emergence of New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM) is concernig because it reduces the antibiotic therapy options for bacterial infections. METHODS: Resistant and virulent genes from an isolate of Klebsiella pneumoniae derived from a patient with sepsis in a hospital in Recife-PE, Brazil, were investigated using PCR and DNA sequencing. RESULTS: bla NDM-1, aac(6’)-Ib-cr and acrB resistance genes, and cps and mrkD virulence genes were detected. CONCLUSIONS To our knowledge, this is the first report on bla NDM-1 in Recife-PE. This detection alerts researchers to the need to control the spread of bla NDM-1 resistance gene by this bacterium in Brazil. <![CDATA[Knowledge about HIV/AIDS in older adults using the services of Family Health Strategy]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100653&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION: This study evaluated knowledge about HIV/AIDS in elders using the services of Family Health Strategy. METHODS: Cross-sectional, descriptive, and analytical study involving 238 participants. Mini-Mental State Examination and QHIV3I were applied. RESULTS: About 30% of participants had active sexual lives and 5.5% used condoms consistently. The question with the highest score of right answers was about transmission through needles (95%) and the lowest (52.5%) was about whether individuals infected with the virus always displayed symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: It is necessary to train health professionals to develop actions that encourage elders to take preventive measures. <![CDATA[Reduction of relative handgrip strength and cardiometabolic risk in individuals with HIV/AIDS]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100654&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION: Low handgrip strength (HS) is associated with cardiometabolic alterations that have affected people with HIV/AIDS. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study performed in adults receiving antiretroviral treatment. HS was evaluated using a dynamometer and divided by body weight to obtain the relative strength. The association between relative HS and overweight, increased waist circumference (WC), high body fat percentage, glycemia, and lipid ratios were assessed using logistic regression. RESULTS: Low relative HS was identified in 35% of participants and associated with increased WC (odds ratio = 9.7; 95% confidence interval = 2.8-33.0). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of low HS was high and associated with increased WC. <![CDATA[Chicken eggs as a surveillance tool for malaria and leishmaniasis vector presence]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100655&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION: Malaria and leishmaniases are transmitted by vectors during blood-feeding. Vector-infected animals develop antibodies against the vector’s saliva. This study evaluated IgY antibody detection in the chicken eggs exposed to bites from Migonemyia migonei, Lutzomyia longipalpis and Anopheles aquasalis. METHODS: We used ELISA to quantify the antibody levels in the sera and exposed chicken eggs. RESULTS: High IgY levels were observed following immunization; furthermore, higher reactivity was observed in the eggs and species-specific immune response was observed post final immunization. CONCLUSIONS: Chicken eggs can be used as sentinels to surveil vector saliva antibodies. <![CDATA[Effect of artemisinin-piperaquine treatment on the electrocardiogram of malaria patients]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100656&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION: Concern regarding the cardiotoxicity of antimalarials has been renewed because of their potential to cause QT/QTc interval prolongation related to torsade de pointes (TdP). Artemisinin-piperaquine (AP) is considered an effective artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) for malaria. METHODS: This study involved a retrospective analysis of clinical data of 93 hospitalized malaria patients who had received AP orally. Electrocardiograms (ECGs) were obtained at specific time points in the original study. RESULTS: Some cases of QT prolongation were observed. However, no TdP was found. CONCLUSIONS: AP may cause QT interval prolongation in some malaria patients but may not lead to TdP. <![CDATA[Addressing travelers’ perception of risk in pre-travel care: Reports from a travel clinic in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100657&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION: Travel medicine is aimed at promoting health risk reduction. However, travelers’ perception of risk is subjective and may influence implementation of recommendations. This study reports on travelers’ perception of risk, pre-travel characteristics, and recommended interventions. METHODS: This is a descriptive cross-sectional study. RESULTS: This study included 111 individuals. Most travelers (74%) perceived their risk as low. Significant differences in travel-related risk perception between practitioners and travelers were observed (Gwet’s agreement coefficient [AC1] 0.23; standard error 0.10; 95% confidence interval 0.02-0.44). CONCLUSIONS: Future studies should investigate the relationship between travelers’ perception of risk and implementation of recommendations. <![CDATA[Epidemiological and TNFα polymorphism evaluation in patients with cryptococcal meningitis treated at a referral hospital in North Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100658&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION: The present study evaluated the epidemiology of cryptococcal meningitis and TNFα gene polymorphisms in patients at a reference hospital in northern Brazil. METHODS: Samples from 25 patients infected with Cryptococcus spp. were collected to confirm the infection and to analyze the TNFα gene polymorphisms. RESULTS: Cryptococcus neoformans was detected as the predominant etiological agent (100%) in HIV-positive patients. No genetic polymorphic changes were found. CONCLUSIONS: No correlation was observed between the analyzed TNFα polymorphisms and cryptococcal meningitis. <![CDATA[Polymorphism in the interleukin-10 gene is associated with overactive bladder phenotype associated with HTLV-1 infection]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100659&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-associated inflammatory diseases are not well understood; however, their clinical manifestations may be influenced by the host genetic background. METHODS We genotyped 298 individuals with HTLV-1 and 380 controls for interleukin-10 (IL10) gene variants-rs3024496, rs1800871, rs1800896-and used logistic regression analysis to determine their association with clinical phenotypes. RESULTS No association with HTLV-1 infection was observed. However, allele A of rs1800896 (1082bp upstream) was associated with protection against neurological impairment, specifically overactive bladder (OR=0.447, 95% CI 0.28-0.70, p=0.001). CONCLUSIONS Our data suggests that IL10 regulation ameliorates neurological damage in HTLV-1 infections. <![CDATA[Antifungal efficiency of chemically and thermally-activated acrylic resins after surface treatment using poly (diallyldimethylammonium chloride)]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100660&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION: Acrylic resins are used in the preparation of facial prostheses and may be colonized by fungi. Here, we verified the antifungal efficacy of this material after surface treatment using poly (diallyldimethylammonium chloride). METHODS: Acrylic resin specimens with and without surface treatment were subjected to tests for fungistatic and fungicidal activities. Standard strains of Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger were used. RESULTS: After surface treatment, the fungistatic and fungicidal efficacies of the resins against C. albicans and fungistatic action against A. niger were verified. CONCLUSIONS: The surface treatment was a determinant of the antifungal activity of the material. <![CDATA[Non-venomous snakebites in the Western Brazilian Amazon]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100661&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION: In this study, we examined the clinical manifestations, laboratory evidence, and the circumstances of snakebites caused by non-venomous snakes, which were treated at the Regional Hospital of Juruá in Cruzeiro do Sul. METHODS: Data were collected through patient interviews, identification of the species that were taken to the hospital, and the clinical manifestations. RESULTS: Eight confirmed and four probable cases of non-venomous snakebites were recorded. CONCLUSIONS: The symptoms produced by the snakes Helicops angulatus and Philodryas viridissima, combined with their coloration can be confused with venomous snakes (Bothrops atrox and Bothrops bilineatus), thus resulting in incorrect bothropic snakebite diagnosis. <![CDATA[HIV/AIDS in small cities in Midwest Santa Catarina, south of Brazil: Clinical and epidemiological aspects, opportunistic infections.]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100662&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION: We avaluated the clinical features, epidemiology, opportunistic infections and coinfections of HIV/AIDS patients. METHODS: We analyzed the records of 143 patients receiving antiretroviral therapy at a public center in the Midwest of Santa Catarina, south of Brazil, from December 2014 to September 2015. RESULTS: Most were male, Caucasian, married, with low education level, and aged 31-50 years. Heterosexual transmission was the most common infection route. Regarding coinfection, 3.5% had hepatitis C, 2.1% hepatitis B, 4.2% syphilis, and 4.9% tuberculosis; 38.5% had opportunistic infections. CONCLUSIONS: HIV infection follows the national trend, but hepatitis B and C coinfection rates were higher, while tuberculosis rate was lower. <![CDATA[Nocturnal Activity Rhythm of <em>Nyssomyia intermedia</em> (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) in Campus Fiocruz Mata Atlântica, an American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Transmission Area, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100663&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION: Nyssomyia intermedia is an important vector of American cutaneous leishmaniasis. METHODS: Sand flies were captured in a Shannon trap and after landing on human collectors and retrieved monthly. Nocturnal activity was estimated using a log-linear model. RESULTS: Peak sand fly collection in the Shannon trap occurred in summer and winter, and peak fly collection on humans occurred in spring and summer. CONCLUSIONS: Ny. intermedia was captured in both the hottest and coldest months, indicating its adaptability to different seasons and the possibility of disease transmission at any time of the year in Campus Fiocruz Mata Atlântica, Brazil. <![CDATA[Adherence to malaria prophylaxis among travelers from a middle-income country]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100664&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION: Malaria is the main cause of death by infection among travelers and is preventable through a combination of chemoprophylaxis and personal protective measures. METHODS: Travelers were interviewed by phone 28-90 days after returning, to assess adherence to pre-travel advice for malaria prevention. RESULTS: A total 57 travelers were included. Adherence to chemoprophylaxis was significantly higher among participants prescribed mefloquine (n=18; 75%) than doxycycline (n=14; 45%). Adherence to mosquito repellent and bed net use was 65% and 67%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Adherence to malaria prophylaxis was lower than expected. Further studies testing innovative approaches to motivate travelers’ compliance are required. <![CDATA[Phylogenetic analysis of Dengue-2 serotypes circulating in mangroves in Northern Cordoba, Colombia]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100665&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION: In this study, we aimed to identify DENV-2 subtypes in Aedes aegypti pools collected between 2011 and 2017 in a rural area of Northern Cordoba, Colombia (“La Balsa”). METHODS: RT-PCR was performed to analyze the capsid/pre-membrane region (C-PrM). Sequencing and phylogenetic bayesian inference using reference DENV-2 sequences were performed. RESULTS: Twelve pools that tested positive for DENV-2 were characterized based on the C-PrM region and grouped under the Asian/American clade. CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first to report the DENV-2 Asian-American subtype in a rural area of Cordoba region, which is associated with severe dengue and local epidemics. <![CDATA[HPA-1a/1b could be considered a molecular predictor of poor prognosis in chronic hepatitis C]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100666&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION: HPA polymorphism has been associated with HCV presence and fibrosis progression in chronic hepatitis C. However, it is unknown if there is an association between HPA-1 polymorphism and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate HPA-1 polymorphism in the presence of HCC. METHODS: PCR-SSP was used to perform HPA genotyping on 76 HCV-infected patients. RESULTS: There was no association between patients with and without HCC. There was significant difference in HPA-1 genotypic frequency distribution between HCC and F1/F2 fibrosis degree. CONCLUSIONS: The HPA-1a/1b polymorphism appears to be more associated with liver damage progression than with HCC presence. <![CDATA[Spatial distribution of <em>Aedes aegypti</em> (Diptera: Culicidae) in vulnerable areas for the transmission of arboviruses]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100667&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION: Areas at risk of transmission of arboviruses have been monitored using ovitraps. This study aimed to evaluate the spatial distribution of Aedes aegypti in vulnerable areas for the transmission of arboviruses and assess the influence of climatic conditions on the infestation of these culicids. METHODS: Ovitraps were installed in Agrestina, Pernambuco, Northeastern Brazil. RESULTS: Overall, 44,936 eggs were collected, and the indexes of infestation varied. Relative humidity was significantly associated with the infestations. CONCLUSIONS: Using ovitraps, entomologic indexes and analysis of climatic factors might be good strategies for monitoring vulnerable areas for the transmission of arboviruses. <![CDATA[Standardization of Antigenemia and qPCR Cut-off Values in Whole Blood for the Detection of Cytomegalovirus Disease in HIV Patients]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100668&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION: We defined the cut-off values of the antigenemia and cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA tests in HIV/AIDS patients to identify CMV disease. METHODS: A total of 97 samples from 68 patients with and without CMV disease were analyzed by viral DNA detection and antigenemia assay. RESULTS: Qualitative and quantitative results significantly differed between assays. The cut-off values for the antigenemia and qPCR assays were 1.5 positive cells/200,000 leukocytes and 3.715 log/mL, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Antigenemia and qPCR are suitable for monitoring CMV disease in HIV patients, however, the threshold values should be determined within the centers where the patients are monitored. <![CDATA[Emergence of <em>aph(3’)-VI</em> and accumulation of aminoglycoside modifying enzyme genes in KPC-2-possessing <em>Enterobacter aerogenes</em> isolates from infections and colonization in patients from Recife-PE, Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100669&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to characterize genes of aminoglycoside modifying enzymes (AMEs) in colonizing and infecting isolates of E. aerogenes harboring bla KPC from patients at a public hospital in Recife-PE, Brazil. METHODS: We analyzed 29 E. aerogenes clinical isolates resistant to aminoglycosides. AMEs genes were investigated by PCR and sequencing. RESULTS: Colonizing and infecting isolates mainly presented the genetic profiles aac(3)-IIa/aph(3’)-VI or ant(2”)-IIa/aph(3’)-VI. This is the first report of aph(3’)-VI in E. aerogenes harboring bla KPC in Brazil. CONCLUSIONS: The results highlight the importance in establishing rigorous methods for the surveillance of resistance genes, especially in colonized patients. <![CDATA[<em>Origanum vulgare</em> L. essential oil inhibits the growth of carbapenem-resistant gram-negative bacteria]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100670&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION: Plant products are sources for drug development against multidrug resistant bacteria. METHODS The antimicrobial activity of Origanum vulgare L. essential oil (OVeo) against carbapenem-resistant strains was assessed by disk-diffusion, microdilution (REMA-Resazurin Microtiter Assay), and time kill assays. RESULTS Carbapenemase production was confirmed for all strains. OVeo exhibited a minimum inhibitory concentration of 0.059% v/v for Klebsiella pneumoniae and Serratia marcescens, and of 0.015 % v/v for Acinetobacter baumannii. A decrease in cell count was observed after a 4 h treatment. CONCLUSIONS OVeo antimicrobial effect was rapid and consistent, making it a candidate for developing alternative therapeutic options against carbapenem-resistant strains. <![CDATA[Comparison of methodologies for detecting <em>Trypanosoma cruzi</em> parasites by microscopic observation of microhematocrit capillary tubes]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100671&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION: The microscopic examination of microhematocrit tubes (mHCT) has been proposed as the gold standard for acute and congenital Chagas disease diagnosis. We compared different mHCT methodologies detecting T. cruzi parasites in the blood. METHODS: The rotating method, water mount, and immersion oil methods were compared for their suitability, sensitivity, and specificity. RESULTS: The rotating method was easier, faster, and more sensitive than the others with 100% specificity. CONCLUSIONS: The rotating method is feasible for laboratory technicians with standard training in microscopic techniques and is recommended for the diagnosis of acute Chagas disease in primary health care facilities. <![CDATA[Vaccination coverage and immunity against hepatitis B in public health dentists]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100672&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION: Occupational exposure is a major risk factor for hepatitis B (HB) transmission. METHODS: Vaccination coverage and immunity verification from 64 dentists of the Brazilian Unified Health System were investigated. An immunochromatographic method was used to verify immunity against the disease. RESULTS: Overall, 77.77% of participating dentists completed the vaccination schedule; 37.50% had negative anti-HBs test results. Furthermore, 60.93% of participants never underwent anti-HBs tests and 40% did not know how to correctly interpret results. CONCLUSIONS: Numerous dentists were not immune to the disease. Few participants previously performed the test, with many not knowing how to interpret the results. <![CDATA[Occurrence of triatomines (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) in domestic and natural environments in Novo Remanso, Itacoatiara, Amazonas, Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100673&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION The present study reports the presence of triatomines in natural, peridomestic, and intradomicile environments in Itacoatiara municipality, state of Amazonas, a non-endemic region for Chagas disease. METHODS Active search was performed inside tree trunks, and palm trees, residences, and peridomiciles localized near the forest area. RESULTS: Twenty adults and ten triatomines nymphs were collected, fifteen of which were from natural forests, thirteen from intradomiciles, and two from peridomicile areas. CONCLUSIONS: The new records of adults and nymphs of triatomines in the intra- and peridomiciles suggest the adoption of prophylactic measures for vector surveillance in the study area. <![CDATA[HTLV 1/2 Prevalence and risk factors in individuals with HIV/AIDS in Pernambuco, Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100674&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION: Apart from masking the diagnosis of AIDS in patients with HIV/AIDS, human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV), when present, also increases the risk of myelopathies and neurological disease in these patients. METHODS: Disease prevalence was estimated by ELISA and confirmed by Western blot. RESULTS: The coinfection rate was 1.5% (11/720); 10 of 11 patients had HTLV-1, and the remaining one had HTLV-2. The majority were male, over 40 years old, and of pardo color (ethnicity). CONCLUSIONS: There was no association between the risk factors examined and HTLV/HIV coinfection. This is the first study to report the occurrence of HTLV-2 in Pernambuco. <![CDATA[<em>Salmonella</em> Panama: Genetic Diversity of the Isolates Collected from Human and Non-human Sources]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100675&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION Salmonella enterica serovar Panama belongs to the D1 serogroup and is frequently associated with nontyphoidal salmonellosis in humans. This study aimed to characterize isolates collected from Northeast Brazil by phenotypic and molecular methods. METHODS Forty four S. Panama strains were examined for antimicrobial susceptibility, virulence genes, and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) types. RESULTS All strains were susceptible to antibiotics (except for streptomycin), presented classical virulence factors, and could be clustered into four groups and 18 pulsotypes. CONCLUSIONS This work calls for continuous surveillance for the emergence of antibiotic resistance and new clones in a geographical area. <![CDATA[Attributable fraction of congenital syphilis due to the lack of prenatal care]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100676&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION: Although congenital syphilis is preventable, its incidence has increased in Brazil. METHODS: In this ecological study, a Bayesian spatio-temporal model was used to estimate the attributable fraction of congenital syphilis cases due to the lack of prenatal care recorded between 2010 and 2015 in the state of São Paulo, Southeast Brazil. RESULTS: For the year 2016, it was estimated that between 79.4% and 95.3% of the congenital syphilis cases among women who did not have prenatal care could have been prevented. CONCLUSIONS: A significant proportion of congenital syphilis cases can be prevented if prenatal care coverage is expanded. <![CDATA[Physical disabilities due to leprosy in Alagoas State, Northeast Brazil: a temporal and spatial modeling]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100677&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION: Monitoring disability trends is required to evaluate leprosy elimination. We assessed the trends in disability indicators and its association with space in Alagoas, Brazil. METHODS: We conducted an ecological study in all leprosy cases from 2006 to 2016. Disability indicators were analyzed using the joinpoint regression model. RESULTS: The proportion of new cases with grade 2 disability at diagnosis ranged from 4.7% to 11.9% (annual percent change, 1.4; P= 0.7), while at discharge, it ranged from 0.0% to 12.3% (annual percent change, -21.8; P= 0.2). CONCLUSIONS: Disability indicators had a stable trend over the study period. <![CDATA[Post-surgical atypical mycobacteriosis in 125 patients in Rio de Janeiro]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100678&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION: The growing incidence of post-surgical atypical mycobacteriosis (PSAM) may be related to the increased use of low- and medium-complexity video-assisted surgery. METHODS: Between April 2007 and June 2009, 125 patients were referred from the State Health Department of Rio de Janeiro for the treatment of confirmed, probable, or suspected PSAM. RESULTS: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was the most frequent surgical procedure (48.8%) among patients. Clarithromycin, ethambutol, and terizidone were used to treat 113 patients for a mean duration of 226 days. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the need for multidrug therapy and long treatment duration, most included patients adhered to treatment and experienced cure without relapse. <![CDATA[Prevalence of HCV infection in a prison population of the greater Florianópolis area]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100679&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION The present study aimed to estimate the prevalence of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in a prison population. METHODS: A total of 147 individuals were interviewed and subjected to venipuncture for collection of blood sample. The study population consisted of male individuals who attended the health unit of the state penitentiary of Florianópolis. RESULTS: The prevalence of HCV infection was 5.4%. Regarding behavioral variables, 95 (64.6%, p&lt;0.0507) subjects reported consuming alcohol and 7 (4.8%, p&lt;0.0476) reported having already used injectable drugs. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of HCV infection in the studied population was higher than that in the general populations. <![CDATA[Evaluation of DPP<sup>®</sup> and SNAP<sup>®</sup> Rapid Tests for diagnosis of <em>Leishmania infantum</em> canine infections]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100680&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION: Visceral leishmaniasis is a disease that affects humans, wildlife, and domestic species. Since dogs play a key role in urban Leishmania spp. transmission, the Brazilian government maintains the Monitoring and Control Program of Visceral Leishmaniasis (VLMCP) in endemic regions, which promotes awareness campaigns aiming to enhance the control of the infection. The VLMCP recommends the Dual Path Platform (DPP®) canine visceral leishmaniasis test (Bio-Manguinhos, Brazil) for screening and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to confirm the infection. The DPP® test is produced and distributed by the Health Ministry to the Municipal Health Centers responsible for the local VLMCP. The test is not available to all the clinics, forcing some veterinarians to use other rapid tests for screening and diagnosis of this disease in their daily routine. METHODS: The present study was conducted to compare the performance of the DPP® and SNAP® tests using sera from the dogs with confirmed infections of L. infantum and from the dogs with no previous testing, residing in areas with a low Leishmania infection. RESULTS: There was 97.0% agreement between the two tests. Sensitivity and specificity of the SNAP® test were 96.3% and 100%, respectively. Agreement between both the antibody tests and the parasitological detection methods was 96.8%. The DPP® test had 95.8% sensitivity and 100% specificity. CONCLUSIONS: The SNAP® and the DPP® tests were virtually equivalent in terms of detection of canine antibodies against L. infantum, and both the tests demonstrated high and similar levels of sensitivity and specificity. <![CDATA[Brazil’s first free-mating laboratory colony of <em>Nyssorhynchus darlingi</em>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100681&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION: The lack of highly-productive Nyssorhynchus darlingi laboratory colonies limits some studies. We report the first well-established laboratory colony of Ny. darlingi in Brazil. METHODS: Mosquitoes were collected from Porto Velho and were reared at the Laboratory of Fiocruz/RO. After induced mating by light stimulation in the F1 to F6, the subsequent generations were free mating. Larvae were reared in distilled water and fed daily until pupation. RESULTS: In 11 generations, the colony produced a high number of pupae after the F5 generation. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate the potential for permanently establishing Ny. darlingi colonies for research purposes in Brazil. <![CDATA[Viral etiology of acute respiratory infections in children in Southern Iran]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100682&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION: Prevalence of influenza A virus (Flu-A), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and human metapneumovirus (hMPV) was assessed in children with acute respiratory infections (ARIs). METHODS: Nasopharyngeal aspirates and throat swabs were subjected to real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect RSV and Flu-A and to conventional PCR to detect hMPV. RESULTS: Of the 156 children assessed, 93 (59.6%) carried at least one virus, with 35.9% positive for RSV, 14.1% for hMPV, and 9.6% for Flu-A. The prevalence of co-infections was 2.6%. CONCLUSIONS: The high detection rate may reflect increased sensitivity of real-time PCR compared to traditional PCR and viral culture. <![CDATA[Larvicidal activity of essential oil from <em>Vitex negundo</em> and <em>Vitex trifolia</em> on dengue vector mosquito <em>Aedes aegypti</em>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100683&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION: The ability of Vitex trifolia and Vitex negundo essential oils to kill Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus larvae was evaluated. METHODS: The larvae were treated with their respective essential oils at 50-125 ppm concentration. RESULTS: LC50 and LC90 for V. trifolia against Ae. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus, and those for V. negundo against Ae. aegypti were 57.7+0.4, 77.9+0.9 ppm and 55.17+3.14, 78.28+2.23 ppm, and 50.86+0.9, 73.12+1.3 ppm, respectively. Eucalyptol and caryophyllene were the major components in Vitex trifolia and Vitex negundo essential oil, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed potential larvicidal properties of essential oil from V. trifolia. <![CDATA[Rabies virus monitoring in bat populations in Rondônia state, Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100684&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION: The Jirau hydroelectric power plant built in Rondônia state has environmental impacts that could be relevant to rabies outbreaks. METHODS: Bat populations were monitored for rabies by fluorescent antibody testing and simplified fluorescent inhibition microtesting between 2010 and 2015. RESULTS: All 1,183 bats tested negative for rabies. The prevalence of rabies antibodies was 17.5% in 1,049 bats. CONCLUSIONS: The rabies antibody dosage was not reactive in samples collected before the environmental changes, and there was a progressive increase in subsequent collections that could indicate an increase in rabies virus circulation among bats and risk of a rabies outbreak. <![CDATA[Larvicidal and adulticidal effects and ultrastructural changes of larvae midgut epithelium of <em>Musca domestica</em> (Diptera: Muscidae) fed with <em>Bacillus thuringiensis</em> var. <em>kyushuensis</em>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100685&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION: Musca domestica is resistant to many insecticides; hence, biological control is a suitable alternative. METHODS: We evaluated the lethality of strain Btk176 towards the larval and adult M. domestica and the histopathological effects in the larvae midgut. RESULTS: We observed 99% larval and 78.9% adult mortality within 48 hours of spore ingestion (dosage, 2.4×108 CFU/ml). The histopathological effects were consistent with cytotoxicity. PCR analysis showed the presence of the cry1Ba gene. Transmission electron microscopy revealed a bipyramidal parasporal body. Thurigiensin activity was not detected. CONCLUSIONS: The serovar, Btk176 might be a potential biocontrol agent for houseflies. <![CDATA[Test for <em>Borrelia spp.</em> in bats in an urban area in the South of Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100686&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION: We investigated the occurrence of relapsing fever (RF) causing Borrelia genus spirochetes in synanthropic bats from the municipality of Maringá, Paraná, South of Brazil. METHODS: Tissue samples from the wings of bats were collected monthly from April 2013 to February 2014 and extracted DNA was used to evaluate the presence of RF causing Borrelia spp. RESULTS: All bat tissues tested negative for RF causing Borrelia spp. CONCLUSIONS: Borrelia spp. do not occur in chiropterans from Maringá. <![CDATA[Brazilian Spotted Fever Prevention through a Nonlethal Capybara Population Control Strategy]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100687&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION: Brazilian spotted fever (BSF), a lethal tick-borne Rickettsioses (2000 - 2018 &gt;600 human deaths) involving synanthropic capybara as host. METHODS: We introduced an alternative to mitigate human-capybara conflicts and epidemiologic concerns of BSF. Complex aspects like transmission dynamics, risk areas, host mobility, and birth rate control, were considered to develop a prevention strategy using an anti-GnRH vaccine. RESULTS: The propositioned immunocontraceptive potentially remove and prevent the spread of BSF from endemic areas. CONCLUSIONS: We propose the anti-GnRH vaccine as a BSF prevention strategy based on these favorable results. <![CDATA[Clinical profile and factors associated with hospitalization during a Chikungunya epidemic in Ceará, Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100688&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to characterize the clinical-epidemiological profile of Chikungunya virus infection and the factors associated with hospitalization during the peak of the most recent epidemic period in Brazil (2016-2017). METHODS Two official databases of the State Health Secretariat of Ceará were used, and a total of 182,731 notifications were analyzed. RESULTS Independent factors associated with hospital admission were chronic kidney disease (OR 4.56, 95% CI 3.36-6.17), hypertension (OR 1.90, 95% CI 1.69-2.14), leukopenia (OR 1.89, 95% CI 1.56-2.30) and diabetes mellitus (OR 1.70, 95% CI 1.44-1.99). CONCLUSIONS The pre-existing comorbidities have shown the potential to destabilize the patients' clinical status. <![CDATA[A major chikungunya epidemic with high mortality in northeastern Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100689&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION Chikungunya causes fever and severe and persistent joint pain. METHODS We reported a chikungunya outbreak that occurred in Ceará State, Brazil between 2016 and 2017 with emphasis on epidemiological characterization of cases, high number of deaths, mortality-associated factors, and spatial and temporal spread of the epidemic among municipalities. RESULTS: In November 2015, the first autochthonous cases of chikungunya were confirmed in Ceará, Brazil. In 2016-2017, 195,993 cases were reported, with an incidence of 2,186.5/100,000 inhabitants and 244 confirmed deaths. CONCLUSIONS: Rapid transmission and high mortality rate are serious problems, especially in regions with co-circulating arboviruses. <![CDATA[Hepatitis E seroprevalence and associated risk factors in Croatian liver transplant recipients]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100690&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION Solid-organ transplant recipients are at risk of hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection. We analyzed the seroprevalence/risk factors of HEV in Croatian liver transplant recipients. METHODS Two hundred forty-two serum samples were tested for HEV immunoglobuline IgG/IgM and HEV RNA. Sociodemographic data and risk factors were collected using a questionnaire. RESULTS HEV IgG seroprevalence rate was 24.4%. Positive/equivocal HEV IgM were found in two patients. HEV RNA was not detected. Logistic regression showed that older age, female gender, rural area/farm, water well, and septic tank were associated with HEV seropositivity. CONCLUSIONS This study revealed a high exposure rate to HEV in Croatian liver recipients. <![CDATA[Biological characteristics of <em>Meccus phyllosomus pallidipennis</em> (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae) fed on two different hosts]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100691&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION: Different blood meal sources can affect biology of triatomines. METHODS: We studied the influence of two different blood meal sources (rabbits and hens) on five biological parameters in Meccus phyllosomus pallidipennis and collected biological parameters. RESULTS: The cohort fed on rabbits had a shorter median life-cycle and lower mortality rate than that fed on hens. Both cohorts required a similar number of blood meals to reach adulthood. Median longevity and number of blood meals for adults were similar between both cohorts. CONCLUSIONS The studied parameters reflect the high grade of adaptation of M. p. pallidipennis feeding on different hosts. <![CDATA[Risk mapping of visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100692&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION: Brazil experiences a large number of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) cases. Our objective was to examine both spatial patterns of dispersion and space-time trends for this disease. METHODS: We used all autochthonous confirmed cases of VL in Brazil from 2001 to 2017. RESULTS: Throughout Brazil, 53,715 human cases of VL were recorded. The Northeast, Southeast, and Midwest regions of Brazil were the most affected areas and presented a higher risk of transmission. Regarding spatiotemporal variation, significant differences were observed each year, with a peak in 2005. CONCLUSIONS: The dynamics of VL showed a clear non-random pattern of spread in Brazil. <![CDATA[<em>Mycobacterium tuberculosis</em> spoligotypes and drug-resistant characterization from Beira compared to genotypes circulating in Mozambique]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100693&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION Mozambique is one of three countries with high prevalence of tuberculosis (TB), TB/human immunodeficiency virus coinfection, and multidrug-resistant TB. We aimed to describe Mycobacterium tuberculosis spoligotypes circulating among drug resistant (DR) strains from Beira, Mozambique comparing them with genotypes in the country. METHODS: We performed spoligotyping of 79 M. tuberculosis suspected of DR-TB compared all spoligotype patterns published on the international database and PubMed. RESULTS: Both in Beira and Mozambique (n=578), the main clades were Latin-American-Mediterranean, East-African-Indian, Beijing and T, with no extensively DR TB cases. CONCLUSIONS: Beira and Mozambique share the same population genetic structure of M. tuberculosis. <![CDATA[Survey of Trypanosoma (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae) Infection in Monte Negro Municipality, State of Rondônia, Western Amazon, with First Record of <em>T. evansi</em> in the state.]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100694&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract INTRODUCTION: Trypanosomes can infect humans and animals. This is the first record of the occurrence of Trypanosoma evansi in Rondônia. METHODS: Blood samples were collected from 7 dogs and 22 humans. Furthermore, triatomines and tabanids were collected. RESULTS: It was observed that 42.8% of the dogs tested positive for T. evansi and 14.3% presented mixed infection; 15% of the triatomines tested positive for flagellates identified as T. cruzi TCI (3 specimens), T. cruzi TCI, and T. rangeli (1 specimen), and one with T. cruzi TCV. Two tabanids were infected with T. theileri. CONCLUSIONS: These findings may benefit vector control strategies. <![CDATA[Good response to pentamidine isethionate in a case of Mucosal Leishmaniasis caused by <em>Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis</em> that was difficult to treat: Case Report]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100700&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract In Brazil, meglumine antimoniate is the first drug of choice for mucosal leishmaniasis treatment followed by amphotericin B and pentamidine isethionate. We report the case of a patient with severe mucosal lesions caused by Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis that were difficult to treat. Over a 14-year period, the patient showed low adherence and three treatment attempts with meglumine antimoniate failed. Additionally, there was an unsatisfactory response to liposomal amphotericin B and nephrotoxicity when using amphotericin B deoxycholate that persisted after new treatment attempt with liposomal amphotericin B. Finally, healing was achieved with pentamidine isethionate and maintained during nine months of monitoring. <![CDATA[Septic arthritis caused by <em>Salmonella enterica</em> serotype Rubislaw: A case report]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100701&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract An eleven-year-old boy presented with fever and hip pain, with limited mobility of the right side of the hip. Computed tomography scan revealed an increased volume of the right coxo-femoral joint, requiring surgical drainage of purulent secretion, from which Salmonella enterica was isolated. After four weeks of treatment with third-generation cephalosporin, he was discharged with a favorable evolution. Invasive disease caused by Salmonella spp represents a small proportion of salmonellosis cases, although it is responsible for greater rates of hospitalization, morbidity and mortality. Children under 5 years, elders over 60 years and immunodeficient patients have greater risk for invasive salmonellosis. <![CDATA[De novo histoid leprosy in a Colombian patient with multiple skin nodules on the ears and extremities]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100702&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Histoid leprosy is an uncommon form of lepromatous leprosy with distinct clinical, histopathological, immunological, and bacteriological features. This variant usually occurs in multibacillary patients who have irregular or inadequate treatment. Herein, we report a case of de novo histoid leprosy diagnosed in a patient from Cali, Colombia. In endemic areas, histoid leprosy should be in the differential diagnosis of any patient presenting with skin nodules. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment are recommended for mitigating the impact of histoid leprosy cases, which are important reservoirs of Mycobacterium leprae. <![CDATA[Visceral leishmaniasis mimicking systemic lupus erythematosus]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100703&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), or kala-azar, a serious disease resulting from a systemic infection caused by a protozoan of the genus Leishmania, is potentially fatal to humans. According to data from Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação (Brazil's Information System for Notifiable Diseases) from 2015 to 2016, 6,489 new cases were recorded in Brazil in 22 of the 27 federative units. In addition to typical clinical findings, VL may be associated with autoimmune phenomena, including simulating systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We present the first case of autochthonous VL mimicking SLE in Santa Catarina in southern Brazil. <![CDATA[Visceral leishmaniasis in pregnant women from Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil: A case report and literature review]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100704&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in pregnant is considered rare. We present the case of a woman with 24 gestational weeks presenting fever, hepatosplenomegaly, pancytopenia, and inversion of albumin/globulin ratio. Anti-rK39 was positive and amastigotes were visualized on myelogram. Treatment with LAmB showed disease improvement. The newborn was born healthy at term, with delivery performed without complications. As VL in pregnancy can progress to death and complications for the mother-fetus binomial, inclusion of VL in the differential diagnosis of patients from endemic areas with compatible clinical picture is mandatory. Treatment with LAmB demonstrates safety and high cure rates in pregnancy. <![CDATA[Challenging Management of Hepatitis B infection in Ankylosing Spondylitis Patients in an Endemic Area during Immunosuppressive Therapy]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100705&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Hepatitis B infection is a global health issue. When considering patients with rheumatic diseases, this is no different. By using immunosuppressant drugs, such as DMARDs and biologics, viral reactivation is possible, leading to serious consequences on the patient. We report 3 cases of association between ankylosing spondylitis and hepatitis B with the use of immunosuppressant drugs. Case 1 was a patient with previous HBV infection using DMARD. Cases 2 and 3 were patients chronically infected by HBV during immunosuppressant therapy. The management of HBV infection during immunosuppressant therapy is challenging and needs multidisciplinary support. <![CDATA[First case report of cryptococcosis due to <em>Cryptococcus decagattii</em> in a pediatric patient in Argentina]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100706&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract We report the first case of cryptococcosis due to Cryptococcus decagattii in an immunocompetent pediatric patient from an indigenous community in Argentina with a successful outcome. Two isolates (blood, cerebrospinal fluid) were genotyped by restriction fragment length polymorphism of the orotidine monophosphate pyrophosphorylase (URA5) gene as VGIV and identified by multi-locus sequence typing as C. decagattii. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry identification indicated genotype VGIII. The minimum inhibitory concentration of amphotericin B, fluconazole, itraconazole, and voriconazole was determined (cerebrospinal fluid: 0.25, 16, 0.12, and 0.12, blood: 0.25, 4, 0.12, and 0.06, respectively, all in mg/L). <![CDATA[Congenital toxoplasmosis: the challenge of early diagnosis of a complex and neglected disease]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100707&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract The objective of this study was to report a case of congenital toxoplasmosis that illustrates the difficulties in diagnosing this disease. The case highlights the lack of prophylactic guidelines and shortcomings in the gestational screening process. It demonstrates the peculiarities of the non-specific clinical picture of the infection acquired during pregnancy and identifies the challenges of ophthalmological and high-sensitivity exams in newborns that are crucial for an early diagnosis. These factors contribute to a delay in early treatment of both the mother and the newborn. The lack of skill and expertise of clinical physicians to manage the disease is also addressed. <![CDATA[Cervical brucellar spondylitis causing incomplete limb paralysis]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100708&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Brucellosis, a zoonosis with worldwide distribution, is a systemic infection caused by bacteria of the genus Brucella. Meanwhile, brucellosis often causes complications, such as osteoarticular involvement, and spondylitis is the most prevalent and important clinical form. Here, is a case of cervical brucellar spondylitis causing incomplete limb paralysis in a middle-aged male. The diagnosis was based on clinical history, and supported by Brucella serology and magnetic resonance imaging. Quadruple antibacterial treatment continued for four weeks. In this case, the epidural abscess causing spinal cord compression resolved without surgery. In addition, the patient had recovered from most of the neurologic deficits. <![CDATA[First report of treatment failure in a patient with cutaneous leishmaniasis infected by <em>Leishmania (Viannia) naiffi</em> carrying <em>Leishmania</em> RNA virus: a fortuitous combination?]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100709&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract We report the case of a 32-year-old man from Rio de Janeiro, who was infected in the Amazon region of Brazil by Leishmania (Viannia) naiffi. Generally, patients with L. naiffi cutaneous leishmaniasis exhibit a good therapeutic response to either pentavalent antimonials or pentamidine. However, after pentamidine treatment, this patient’s infection evolved to therapeutic failure. To understand this clinical outcome, we investigated the presence of the Leishmania RNA virus (LRV) in parasites isolated from the cutaneous lesion; herein, we discuss the possible association between a poor response to pentamidine therapy and the presence of the LRV. <![CDATA[A case of envenomation caused by <em>Oxybelis fulgidus</em> (Serpentes, Colubridae) in Brazilian Amazon]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100710&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract A case of a bite inflicted by Oxybelis fulgidus in the wilds of Amazon is reported. The patient was a 67-year-old man who presented with dizziness, tachycardia and local pain, with erythema and bleeding in his left arm. The venom of Oxybelis fulgidus, a neotropical rear-fanged snake, contains one of the four three-finger toxins already isolated from colubrid snakes, called fulgimotoxin. He was treated with oral analgesics and returned to the ambulatory in 48 hours, with good evolution. We report tirst authenticated case of adult Oxybelis fulgidus with signs of mild local envenoming without evidence of systemic envenoming. <![CDATA[Unusual vaginal bleeding due to a leech bite in a girl from a tropical area: A case report]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100711&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract This study describes the isolation of a leech following the presentation of unusual vaginal bleeding. Vaginal bleeding in children due to a leech bite is very rare. This is the first report of severe bleeding in a virgin 14-year-old girl from Mashhad, Iran due to the presence of a leech in the vagina. <![CDATA[Chronic <em>Cystoisospora belli</em> infection in an HIV/AIDS patient treated at the specialized assistance service in Porto Velho County - Rondônia.]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100712&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Cystoisospora belli infection manifests as diarrhea, and can potentially progress to malabsorption in HIV patients. Here, we report a case of C. belli infection in an HIV/AIDS patient with chronic diarrhea symptoms for at least 2 years. Coproscopic analyses based on direct technique and modified Ziehl-Neelsen technique without a commercial kit were performed. The current case report highlights the protocol to be adopted in coproscopic analyses applied to HIV patients. The importance of including the appropriate parasitological testing of patients with chronic intestinal isosporiasis in parasitological test routines must be considered. <![CDATA[Successful treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis with intralesional meglumine antimoniate: A case series]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100713&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a high-morbidity, vector-borne disease endemic to Colombia. Unlike conventional systemic antileishmanial therapy, intralesional meglumine antimoniate administration has fewer adverse effects and can be as effective and safe. We describe 12 patients treated with intralesional meglumine antimoniate: seven with primary and five with recurrent lesions. The majority (11/12) met all cure criteria after 1-7 sessions of meglumine antimoniate administration (1-5 mL). Adverse effects comprised mainly of local pain and edema. Intralesional meglumine antimoniate administration could be an excellent alternative treatment for uncomplicated CL; however, controlled clinical trials are needed to test the efficacy and safety thereof. <![CDATA[Schistosomal Myeloradiculopathy - A case report]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100714&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract The most common neurological impairments related to schistosomiasis involve the lower portions of the medulla and the cauda equina. A 22-year-old woman, with no history, signs, or symptoms of hepatointestinal schistosomiasis, presented with lumbar pain associated with acute paresthesia and paresis of the right lower limb. Spinal schistosomiasis was suspected based on the disease progression and radiological findings, and the diagnosis was confirmed after cerebrospinal fluid analysis. The authors emphasize this pathology as important as a differential diagnosis in similar clinical scenarios, especially in endemic areas, because both early diagnosis and treatment are essential to avoid permanent sequelae. <![CDATA[Detection of HIV-1 infections in blood donors during the pre-seroconversion window period in São Paulo, Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100715&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract By decreasing the pre-seroconversion window period, nucleic acid testing (NAT) has improved the safety of blood products and reduced the risk of transfusion-transmitted infections. Between 2011 and 2017, NAT determinations for approximately 898,202 donations were performed at Fundação Pró-Sangue/Hemocentro de São Paulo (FPS-HSP). Three seronegative HIV-viremic donations were detected. The NAT yield rate per million donations was 3.34 for HIV, and the acute HIV-1 infections detected are described, followed by a brief review of the situation in Brazil. <![CDATA[Human pulmonary dirofilariasis with secondary myocarditis]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100716&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Dirofilariasis is a little-known zoonosis, with dogs and cats as definitive hosts. It is caused by nematodes and transmitted by mosquito bites. We report the case of a 67-year-old man with a consumptive syndrome with two subpleural pulmonary opacities. A transthoracic lung biopsy revealed a Dirofilaria worm. Myocardial nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) demonstrated dilated cardiomyopathy after myocarditis related to dirofilariasis. Human infection is rare and occurs accidentally. The most common radiological alteration is a mainly subpleural coin lesion. Dirofilariasis is a neglected emergent disease and knowledge about it is important for differential diagnoses from neoplastic pulmonary nodules. <![CDATA[Envenomation by an opisthoglyphous snake, <em>Erythrolamprus aesculapii</em> (Dipsadidae), in southeastern Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100717&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Snakebites by aglyphous or opisthoglyphous snakes are common in Brazil. We report a case of snakebite by the opisthoglyphous Erythrolamprus aesculapii. The victim presented with pain, edema, and bleeding at the bite site, along with erythema, similar to a Bothrops envenomation. In this type of snakebite, if the snake is not brought to the hospital, the victim may receive unnecessary serum therapy, with the risk of adverse reactions to the antivenom. The possibility of reducing after-effects with anti-inflammatory drugs and early antibiotic therapy for secondary infection need to be further investigated, preferably in multicenter studies, while observing good clinical practice. <![CDATA[First description of a clinical case of murine typhus in Campeche, Mexico]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100718&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Murine typhus is a flea-borne disease caused by Rickettsia typhi, which was first detected in Mexico in 1927. It was not until 1996 that the first systematized study involving this pathogen was conducted in two coastal states of Mexico. We now report the first confirmed case of murine typhus in the state of Campeche, which occurred in a male patient who exhibited fever, thrombocytopenia, hyperbilirubinemia, and a rash. Furthermore, the patient reported having had previous contact with Rickettsia reservoirs. <![CDATA[Earliest identification of New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase 1 (NDM-1) in <em>Acinetobacter pittii</em> in Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100719&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract We report the occurrence in Brazil of the bla NDM-1 gene in Acinetobacter pittii, prior to the previously described first reports regarding the species Providencia rettgeri and Enterobacter hormaechei. Clinical isolates were investigated by polymerase chain reaction followed by bidirectional sequencing, and species was confirmed by 16S rDNA sequencing and matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight spectrometry. A. pittii carrying bla NDM-1 was confirmed in a patient with no national or international travel history, or transfer from another hospital. The findings warn of the possibility of silent spread of bla NDM-1 to the community. <![CDATA[Childhood Sarcoidosis mimicking Tuberculosis:A case report]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100720&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Sarcoidosis is a rare multisystem chronic inflammatory disease in children. We present a case of a five-year-old child with clinical features mimicking several diseases, including tuberculosis. After failure of treatment based on the suspected diagnosis, an axillary lymph node biopsy showed noncaseating granulomas compatible with sarcoidosis and appropriate treatment was then started. <![CDATA[Subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis due to <em>Cladophialophora bantiana</em>: a first case report in an immunocompetent patient in Latin America and a brief literature review]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100721&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract We report a rare case of subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis caused by Cladophialophora bantiana in an immunocompetent patient in Amazonas, Brazil. This dematiaceous fungus has been mainly associated with life-threatening infections affecting the central nervous systems of immunosuppressed patients. We present the clinical, laboratory, and therapeutic aspects, and in vitro susceptibility test results for different antifungal drugs. A brief review of the cases reported in the literature over the past 20 years has also been discussed. According to the literature review, the present case is the first report of subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis due to C. bantiana in an immunocompetent patient in Latin America. <![CDATA[Reactivation of Chagas disease in a heart transplant patient infected by sylvatic <em>Trypanosoma cruzi</em> discrete typing unit I]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100722&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Heart transplantation is an effective treatment for Chagas disease patients with severe cardiomyopathy. However, Trypanosoma cruzi reactivation is of great concern. The T. cruzi parasite is classified into six discrete typing units (DTUs identified as TcI-TcVI). It is unknown whether there is an association between T. cruzi genetic lineages and the different clinical manifestations of the disease. We report the case of a 51-year-old man who received a heart transplantation and presented with a reactivation of the disease. The molecular characterization of the parasite showed that the reactivation was related to specific infection by a DTU I (TcISYL) parasite. <![CDATA[Should arboviruses be the only diagnosis hypothesis in pregnant women in endemic areas presenting with a rash?]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100723&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Listeria is an unusual pathogen that causes neonatal infection with high morbidity and mortality. We present the case of a premature newborn whose mother had a rash during pregnancy; the newborn had severe early sepsis because of Listeria monocytogenes and histopathologically suggestive findings of the placenta. Obstetricians and neonatologists should suspect listeriosis in cases with compatible epidemiological history, clinical features, and examination findings of the placenta. <![CDATA[First reported case of clinical fascioliasis in Santa Catarina, Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100724&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Fascioliasis is a food-borne anthropozoonotic disease caused by Fasciola hepatica that affects multiple hosts, including humans. We herein report the first case of human fascioliasis in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. A 57-year-old female patient complaining of abdominal pain was admitted to the hospital for a clinical investigation. The diagnosis of F. hepatica was confirmed by ultrasound and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Authorities of the Northern coast of Santa Catarina were notified to investigate other cases and risk factors for contamination. The disease is also prevalent in cattle, which could pose as a potential route for infection. <![CDATA[Septic shock caused by the under-recognized bacterium <em>Eggerthella lenta</em> in a 61-year-old male with a periurethral abscess: a case report]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100725&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Eggerthella lenta is a gram-positive anaerobic bacillus that has been associated with life-threatening infections. Bacteremia is always clinically significant and is mostly but not always associated with gastrointestinal disease. We present a unique case of abrupt deterioration and rapid development of septic shock secondary to periurethral abscess caused by E. lenta infection. This case highlights the atypical clinical presentation, risk factors, uncommon source of infection, challenges in therapy, and outcome of this infrequent infection. There is still a gap in the understanding of E. lenta pathogenicity, and more literature is needed to establish clear management recommendations. <![CDATA[Hemorrhagic stroke following viper bites and delayed antivenom administration: three case reports from the Western Brazilian Amazon]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100726&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Snakebites were included by the World Health Organization in their list of neglected diseases. In Latin America, most snakebites are caused by species of the Viperidae family, notably by the genus Bothrops. Bothrops atrox accounts for 90% of the cases of envenoming in the Brazilian Amazon. In this report, we present a series of three cases of snakebites that evolved with hemorrhagic stroke due to delays in the access to antivenom in the Brazilian Amazon, being fundamental for diagnosis to validate the clinical suspicion and make decisions that would improve the treatment and prognosis of the patients. <![CDATA[Simultaneous occurrence of Kaposi sarcoma and tuberculosis; Kaposi sarcoma and lymphoma in the same lymph node: a report on two HIV-positive patients from Zimbabwe]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100727&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Reports of simultaneous infections and neoplasms in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) are occasionally seen in the literature. However, coexistent lymphoma with tuberculosis, and Kaposi sarcoma (KS) with tuberculosis occurring in the same lymph node is rare. Coexistent lesions pose diagnostic difficulties. In this article, we report two HIV-positive patients from Zimbabwe who displayed KS and tuberculosis; KS and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in the same lymph node. We found only one similar case presentation in the literature, which was reported in India. <![CDATA[Secondary syphilis with pulmonary involvement mimicking lymphoma: a case report]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100728&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract We present a case of atypical presentation of secondary syphilis with extensive lymph node involvement and pulmonary lesions, initially suspected as lymphoma. The patient presented with weight loss, dry cough, chest pain, palpable lymph nodes in several peripheral chains, and multiple pulmonary nodules and masses on chest imaging. The key features for secondary syphilis diagnosis were a lymph node biopsy suggestive of reactive lymphadenopathy, positive serologic tests for syphilis, and complete recovery after antisyphilitic treatment. <![CDATA[Therapeutic failure after regimen with artemether-lumefantrine combination therapy: a report of three cases in Benin City, Nigeria]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100729&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is recommended by the World Health Organization for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria. Currently, there appears to be a downward trend in the efficacy of ACT in some parts of sub-Saharan Africa because some patients have been positive for Plasmodium parasite 3 days after artemether-lumefantrine treatment. We reported three cases of possible parasite resistance to artemether-lumefantrine therapy. All subjects had complete parasite clearance when treated with other antimalarial drugs. This observation necessitates the urgent need to re-evaluate artemether-lumefantrine medication in Nigeria since it is one of the most commonly used ACT drug. <![CDATA[Venom concentrations in blisters and hemorrhagic bullae in a patient bitten by a Taiwan habu (<em>Protobothrops mucrosquamatus</em>)]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100800&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is recommended by the World Health Organization for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria. Currently, there appears to be a downward trend in the efficacy of ACT in some parts of sub-Saharan Africa because some patients have been positive for Plasmodium parasite 3 days after artemether-lumefantrine treatment. We reported three cases of possible parasite resistance to artemether-lumefantrine therapy. All subjects had complete parasite clearance when treated with other antimalarial drugs. This observation necessitates the urgent need to re-evaluate artemether-lumefantrine medication in Nigeria since it is one of the most commonly used ACT drug. <![CDATA[Herpes simplex virus transmission following brown howler monkey (<em>Alouatta guariba</em>) bite]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100801&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is recommended by the World Health Organization for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria. Currently, there appears to be a downward trend in the efficacy of ACT in some parts of sub-Saharan Africa because some patients have been positive for Plasmodium parasite 3 days after artemether-lumefantrine treatment. We reported three cases of possible parasite resistance to artemether-lumefantrine therapy. All subjects had complete parasite clearance when treated with other antimalarial drugs. This observation necessitates the urgent need to re-evaluate artemether-lumefantrine medication in Nigeria since it is one of the most commonly used ACT drug. <![CDATA[Histopathological findings of nucleus pulposus in lumbar brucellar spondylodiscitis]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100802&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is recommended by the World Health Organization for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria. Currently, there appears to be a downward trend in the efficacy of ACT in some parts of sub-Saharan Africa because some patients have been positive for Plasmodium parasite 3 days after artemether-lumefantrine treatment. We reported three cases of possible parasite resistance to artemether-lumefantrine therapy. All subjects had complete parasite clearance when treated with other antimalarial drugs. This observation necessitates the urgent need to re-evaluate artemether-lumefantrine medication in Nigeria since it is one of the most commonly used ACT drug. <![CDATA[Multivesicular hydatid cyst of the kidney]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100803&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is recommended by the World Health Organization for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria. Currently, there appears to be a downward trend in the efficacy of ACT in some parts of sub-Saharan Africa because some patients have been positive for Plasmodium parasite 3 days after artemether-lumefantrine treatment. We reported three cases of possible parasite resistance to artemether-lumefantrine therapy. All subjects had complete parasite clearance when treated with other antimalarial drugs. This observation necessitates the urgent need to re-evaluate artemether-lumefantrine medication in Nigeria since it is one of the most commonly used ACT drug. <![CDATA[Envenomation by a juvenile pit viper (<em>Bothrops atrox</em>) presumed to be dead]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100804&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is recommended by the World Health Organization for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria. Currently, there appears to be a downward trend in the efficacy of ACT in some parts of sub-Saharan Africa because some patients have been positive for Plasmodium parasite 3 days after artemether-lumefantrine treatment. We reported three cases of possible parasite resistance to artemether-lumefantrine therapy. All subjects had complete parasite clearance when treated with other antimalarial drugs. This observation necessitates the urgent need to re-evaluate artemether-lumefantrine medication in Nigeria since it is one of the most commonly used ACT drug. <![CDATA[Biett’s sign: a hallmark sign of secondary syphilis]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100805&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is recommended by the World Health Organization for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria. Currently, there appears to be a downward trend in the efficacy of ACT in some parts of sub-Saharan Africa because some patients have been positive for Plasmodium parasite 3 days after artemether-lumefantrine treatment. We reported three cases of possible parasite resistance to artemether-lumefantrine therapy. All subjects had complete parasite clearance when treated with other antimalarial drugs. This observation necessitates the urgent need to re-evaluate artemether-lumefantrine medication in Nigeria since it is one of the most commonly used ACT drug. <![CDATA[Treatment of hepatic alveolar echinococcosis infringing the inferior vena cava]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100806&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is recommended by the World Health Organization for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria. Currently, there appears to be a downward trend in the efficacy of ACT in some parts of sub-Saharan Africa because some patients have been positive for Plasmodium parasite 3 days after artemether-lumefantrine treatment. We reported three cases of possible parasite resistance to artemether-lumefantrine therapy. All subjects had complete parasite clearance when treated with other antimalarial drugs. This observation necessitates the urgent need to re-evaluate artemether-lumefantrine medication in Nigeria since it is one of the most commonly used ACT drug. <![CDATA[Secondary syphilis: a woman with flat condyloma]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100807&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is recommended by the World Health Organization for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria. Currently, there appears to be a downward trend in the efficacy of ACT in some parts of sub-Saharan Africa because some patients have been positive for Plasmodium parasite 3 days after artemether-lumefantrine treatment. We reported three cases of possible parasite resistance to artemether-lumefantrine therapy. All subjects had complete parasite clearance when treated with other antimalarial drugs. This observation necessitates the urgent need to re-evaluate artemether-lumefantrine medication in Nigeria since it is one of the most commonly used ACT drug. <![CDATA[Cerebral and mediastinal abscesses caused by <em>Nocardia asiatica</em> in an hiv-infected patient]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100808&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is recommended by the World Health Organization for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria. Currently, there appears to be a downward trend in the efficacy of ACT in some parts of sub-Saharan Africa because some patients have been positive for Plasmodium parasite 3 days after artemether-lumefantrine treatment. We reported three cases of possible parasite resistance to artemether-lumefantrine therapy. All subjects had complete parasite clearance when treated with other antimalarial drugs. This observation necessitates the urgent need to re-evaluate artemether-lumefantrine medication in Nigeria since it is one of the most commonly used ACT drug. <![CDATA[Extensive vesiculobullous exanthema following chikungunya fever in a 13-year-old patient]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100809&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is recommended by the World Health Organization for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria. Currently, there appears to be a downward trend in the efficacy of ACT in some parts of sub-Saharan Africa because some patients have been positive for Plasmodium parasite 3 days after artemether-lumefantrine treatment. We reported three cases of possible parasite resistance to artemether-lumefantrine therapy. All subjects had complete parasite clearance when treated with other antimalarial drugs. This observation necessitates the urgent need to re-evaluate artemether-lumefantrine medication in Nigeria since it is one of the most commonly used ACT drug. <![CDATA[Bedbugs: Unwelcome Travel Companions]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100810&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is recommended by the World Health Organization for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria. Currently, there appears to be a downward trend in the efficacy of ACT in some parts of sub-Saharan Africa because some patients have been positive for Plasmodium parasite 3 days after artemether-lumefantrine treatment. We reported three cases of possible parasite resistance to artemether-lumefantrine therapy. All subjects had complete parasite clearance when treated with other antimalarial drugs. This observation necessitates the urgent need to re-evaluate artemether-lumefantrine medication in Nigeria since it is one of the most commonly used ACT drug. <![CDATA[An unusual dark macular lesion in the plantar region of a child]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100811&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is recommended by the World Health Organization for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria. Currently, there appears to be a downward trend in the efficacy of ACT in some parts of sub-Saharan Africa because some patients have been positive for Plasmodium parasite 3 days after artemether-lumefantrine treatment. We reported three cases of possible parasite resistance to artemether-lumefantrine therapy. All subjects had complete parasite clearance when treated with other antimalarial drugs. This observation necessitates the urgent need to re-evaluate artemether-lumefantrine medication in Nigeria since it is one of the most commonly used ACT drug. <![CDATA[Bone involvement in paracoccidioidomycosis]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100812&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is recommended by the World Health Organization for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria. Currently, there appears to be a downward trend in the efficacy of ACT in some parts of sub-Saharan Africa because some patients have been positive for Plasmodium parasite 3 days after artemether-lumefantrine treatment. We reported three cases of possible parasite resistance to artemether-lumefantrine therapy. All subjects had complete parasite clearance when treated with other antimalarial drugs. This observation necessitates the urgent need to re-evaluate artemether-lumefantrine medication in Nigeria since it is one of the most commonly used ACT drug. <![CDATA[Visceral leishmaniasis with multiple splenic nodular lesions]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100813&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is recommended by the World Health Organization for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria. Currently, there appears to be a downward trend in the efficacy of ACT in some parts of sub-Saharan Africa because some patients have been positive for Plasmodium parasite 3 days after artemether-lumefantrine treatment. We reported three cases of possible parasite resistance to artemether-lumefantrine therapy. All subjects had complete parasite clearance when treated with other antimalarial drugs. This observation necessitates the urgent need to re-evaluate artemether-lumefantrine medication in Nigeria since it is one of the most commonly used ACT drug. <![CDATA[Neurosyphilis mimicking a bilateral vestibulocochlear schwannoma]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100814&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is recommended by the World Health Organization for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria. Currently, there appears to be a downward trend in the efficacy of ACT in some parts of sub-Saharan Africa because some patients have been positive for Plasmodium parasite 3 days after artemether-lumefantrine treatment. We reported three cases of possible parasite resistance to artemether-lumefantrine therapy. All subjects had complete parasite clearance when treated with other antimalarial drugs. This observation necessitates the urgent need to re-evaluate artemether-lumefantrine medication in Nigeria since it is one of the most commonly used ACT drug. <![CDATA[Thoracic Fascioliasis]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100815&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is recommended by the World Health Organization for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria. Currently, there appears to be a downward trend in the efficacy of ACT in some parts of sub-Saharan Africa because some patients have been positive for Plasmodium parasite 3 days after artemether-lumefantrine treatment. We reported three cases of possible parasite resistance to artemether-lumefantrine therapy. All subjects had complete parasite clearance when treated with other antimalarial drugs. This observation necessitates the urgent need to re-evaluate artemether-lumefantrine medication in Nigeria since it is one of the most commonly used ACT drug. <![CDATA[Mixed infection with two types of echinococcosis misdiagnosed as hepatic alveolar echinococcosis]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100816&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is recommended by the World Health Organization for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria. Currently, there appears to be a downward trend in the efficacy of ACT in some parts of sub-Saharan Africa because some patients have been positive for Plasmodium parasite 3 days after artemether-lumefantrine treatment. We reported three cases of possible parasite resistance to artemether-lumefantrine therapy. All subjects had complete parasite clearance when treated with other antimalarial drugs. This observation necessitates the urgent need to re-evaluate artemether-lumefantrine medication in Nigeria since it is one of the most commonly used ACT drug. <![CDATA[Disseminated cutaneous leishmaniasis: A case report]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100817&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is recommended by the World Health Organization for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria. Currently, there appears to be a downward trend in the efficacy of ACT in some parts of sub-Saharan Africa because some patients have been positive for Plasmodium parasite 3 days after artemether-lumefantrine treatment. We reported three cases of possible parasite resistance to artemether-lumefantrine therapy. All subjects had complete parasite clearance when treated with other antimalarial drugs. This observation necessitates the urgent need to re-evaluate artemether-lumefantrine medication in Nigeria since it is one of the most commonly used ACT drug. <![CDATA[Prevention of zoonotic diseases in immunocompromised patients: a neglected question]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100900&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is recommended by the World Health Organization for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria. Currently, there appears to be a downward trend in the efficacy of ACT in some parts of sub-Saharan Africa because some patients have been positive for Plasmodium parasite 3 days after artemether-lumefantrine treatment. We reported three cases of possible parasite resistance to artemether-lumefantrine therapy. All subjects had complete parasite clearance when treated with other antimalarial drugs. This observation necessitates the urgent need to re-evaluate artemether-lumefantrine medication in Nigeria since it is one of the most commonly used ACT drug. <![CDATA[The dentist’s role in syphilis prevention and control]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100901&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is recommended by the World Health Organization for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria. Currently, there appears to be a downward trend in the efficacy of ACT in some parts of sub-Saharan Africa because some patients have been positive for Plasmodium parasite 3 days after artemether-lumefantrine treatment. We reported three cases of possible parasite resistance to artemether-lumefantrine therapy. All subjects had complete parasite clearance when treated with other antimalarial drugs. This observation necessitates the urgent need to re-evaluate artemether-lumefantrine medication in Nigeria since it is one of the most commonly used ACT drug. <![CDATA[Clinical Practice Guidelines for Chagas Disease: Recent Developments and Future Needs]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100902&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is recommended by the World Health Organization for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria. Currently, there appears to be a downward trend in the efficacy of ACT in some parts of sub-Saharan Africa because some patients have been positive for Plasmodium parasite 3 days after artemether-lumefantrine treatment. We reported three cases of possible parasite resistance to artemether-lumefantrine therapy. All subjects had complete parasite clearance when treated with other antimalarial drugs. This observation necessitates the urgent need to re-evaluate artemether-lumefantrine medication in Nigeria since it is one of the most commonly used ACT drug. <![CDATA[“<em>Kambô</em>” frog (<em>Phyllomedusa bicolor</em>): use in folk medicine and potential health risks]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100903&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is recommended by the World Health Organization for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria. Currently, there appears to be a downward trend in the efficacy of ACT in some parts of sub-Saharan Africa because some patients have been positive for Plasmodium parasite 3 days after artemether-lumefantrine treatment. We reported three cases of possible parasite resistance to artemether-lumefantrine therapy. All subjects had complete parasite clearance when treated with other antimalarial drugs. This observation necessitates the urgent need to re-evaluate artemether-lumefantrine medication in Nigeria since it is one of the most commonly used ACT drug. <![CDATA[Scorpionism in Brazil: exponential growth of accidents and deaths from scorpion stings]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100904&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is recommended by the World Health Organization for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria. Currently, there appears to be a downward trend in the efficacy of ACT in some parts of sub-Saharan Africa because some patients have been positive for Plasmodium parasite 3 days after artemether-lumefantrine treatment. We reported three cases of possible parasite resistance to artemether-lumefantrine therapy. All subjects had complete parasite clearance when treated with other antimalarial drugs. This observation necessitates the urgent need to re-evaluate artemether-lumefantrine medication in Nigeria since it is one of the most commonly used ACT drug. <![CDATA[Risk of adverse events related to prolonged antibiotic use in patients diagnosed with Baggio-Yoshinari syndrome, or autochthonous Lyme-like disease, in Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100905&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is recommended by the World Health Organization for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria. Currently, there appears to be a downward trend in the efficacy of ACT in some parts of sub-Saharan Africa because some patients have been positive for Plasmodium parasite 3 days after artemether-lumefantrine treatment. We reported three cases of possible parasite resistance to artemether-lumefantrine therapy. All subjects had complete parasite clearance when treated with other antimalarial drugs. This observation necessitates the urgent need to re-evaluate artemether-lumefantrine medication in Nigeria since it is one of the most commonly used ACT drug. <![CDATA[West Nile virus retinitis in a patient with neuroinvasive disease]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100906&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is recommended by the World Health Organization for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria. Currently, there appears to be a downward trend in the efficacy of ACT in some parts of sub-Saharan Africa because some patients have been positive for Plasmodium parasite 3 days after artemether-lumefantrine treatment. We reported three cases of possible parasite resistance to artemether-lumefantrine therapy. All subjects had complete parasite clearance when treated with other antimalarial drugs. This observation necessitates the urgent need to re-evaluate artemether-lumefantrine medication in Nigeria since it is one of the most commonly used ACT drug. <![CDATA[Scientific production of the Brazilian National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq) researchers in the fields of tropical medicine and infectious diseases]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100907&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is recommended by the World Health Organization for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria. Currently, there appears to be a downward trend in the efficacy of ACT in some parts of sub-Saharan Africa because some patients have been positive for Plasmodium parasite 3 days after artemether-lumefantrine treatment. We reported three cases of possible parasite resistance to artemether-lumefantrine therapy. All subjects had complete parasite clearance when treated with other antimalarial drugs. This observation necessitates the urgent need to re-evaluate artemether-lumefantrine medication in Nigeria since it is one of the most commonly used ACT drug. <![CDATA[Old Paradigms and New Challenges motto of ChagasLeish 2017: a speech at the opening ceremony of MedTrop 2017 and ChagasLeish 2017]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100908&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is recommended by the World Health Organization for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria. Currently, there appears to be a downward trend in the efficacy of ACT in some parts of sub-Saharan Africa because some patients have been positive for Plasmodium parasite 3 days after artemether-lumefantrine treatment. We reported three cases of possible parasite resistance to artemether-lumefantrine therapy. All subjects had complete parasite clearance when treated with other antimalarial drugs. This observation necessitates the urgent need to re-evaluate artemether-lumefantrine medication in Nigeria since it is one of the most commonly used ACT drug. <![CDATA[New sequence types of <em>Acinetobacter baumannii</em> in two emergency hospitals in the Central-West region of Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100909&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is recommended by the World Health Organization for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria. Currently, there appears to be a downward trend in the efficacy of ACT in some parts of sub-Saharan Africa because some patients have been positive for Plasmodium parasite 3 days after artemether-lumefantrine treatment. We reported three cases of possible parasite resistance to artemether-lumefantrine therapy. All subjects had complete parasite clearance when treated with other antimalarial drugs. This observation necessitates the urgent need to re-evaluate artemether-lumefantrine medication in Nigeria since it is one of the most commonly used ACT drug. <![CDATA[Are waste pickers at risk for hepatitis B and C infections because of poverty or environmental exposures?]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100910&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is recommended by the World Health Organization for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria. Currently, there appears to be a downward trend in the efficacy of ACT in some parts of sub-Saharan Africa because some patients have been positive for Plasmodium parasite 3 days after artemether-lumefantrine treatment. We reported three cases of possible parasite resistance to artemether-lumefantrine therapy. All subjects had complete parasite clearance when treated with other antimalarial drugs. This observation necessitates the urgent need to re-evaluate artemether-lumefantrine medication in Nigeria since it is one of the most commonly used ACT drug. <![CDATA[<em>De novo</em> histoid leprosy - Further points of focus]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100911&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is recommended by the World Health Organization for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria. Currently, there appears to be a downward trend in the efficacy of ACT in some parts of sub-Saharan Africa because some patients have been positive for Plasmodium parasite 3 days after artemether-lumefantrine treatment. We reported three cases of possible parasite resistance to artemether-lumefantrine therapy. All subjects had complete parasite clearance when treated with other antimalarial drugs. This observation necessitates the urgent need to re-evaluate artemether-lumefantrine medication in Nigeria since it is one of the most commonly used ACT drug. <![CDATA[Outbreak of jellyfish envenomations caused by the species <em>Olindias sambaquiensis</em> (CNIDARIA: HYDROZOA) in the Rio Grande do Sul state (Brazil)]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100912&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is recommended by the World Health Organization for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria. Currently, there appears to be a downward trend in the efficacy of ACT in some parts of sub-Saharan Africa because some patients have been positive for Plasmodium parasite 3 days after artemether-lumefantrine treatment. We reported three cases of possible parasite resistance to artemether-lumefantrine therapy. All subjects had complete parasite clearance when treated with other antimalarial drugs. This observation necessitates the urgent need to re-evaluate artemether-lumefantrine medication in Nigeria since it is one of the most commonly used ACT drug. <![CDATA[Fexinidazole and Human African Trypanosomiasis: good news for this important neglected tropical disease]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100913&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is recommended by the World Health Organization for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria. Currently, there appears to be a downward trend in the efficacy of ACT in some parts of sub-Saharan Africa because some patients have been positive for Plasmodium parasite 3 days after artemether-lumefantrine treatment. We reported three cases of possible parasite resistance to artemether-lumefantrine therapy. All subjects had complete parasite clearance when treated with other antimalarial drugs. This observation necessitates the urgent need to re-evaluate artemether-lumefantrine medication in Nigeria since it is one of the most commonly used ACT drug. <![CDATA[Association between vitiligo lesions and acute chikungunya infection: is there a causal relationship?]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100914&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is recommended by the World Health Organization for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria. Currently, there appears to be a downward trend in the efficacy of ACT in some parts of sub-Saharan Africa because some patients have been positive for Plasmodium parasite 3 days after artemether-lumefantrine treatment. We reported three cases of possible parasite resistance to artemether-lumefantrine therapy. All subjects had complete parasite clearance when treated with other antimalarial drugs. This observation necessitates the urgent need to re-evaluate artemether-lumefantrine medication in Nigeria since it is one of the most commonly used ACT drug. <![CDATA[Increasing awareness of human T-lymphotropic virus type-1 infection: a serious, invisible, and neglected health problem in Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100915&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is recommended by the World Health Organization for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria. Currently, there appears to be a downward trend in the efficacy of ACT in some parts of sub-Saharan Africa because some patients have been positive for Plasmodium parasite 3 days after artemether-lumefantrine treatment. We reported three cases of possible parasite resistance to artemether-lumefantrine therapy. All subjects had complete parasite clearance when treated with other antimalarial drugs. This observation necessitates the urgent need to re-evaluate artemether-lumefantrine medication in Nigeria since it is one of the most commonly used ACT drug. <![CDATA[Authors’ response to “De novo histoid leprosy-further points to be discussed”]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000100950&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is recommended by the World Health Organization for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria. Currently, there appears to be a downward trend in the efficacy of ACT in some parts of sub-Saharan Africa because some patients have been positive for Plasmodium parasite 3 days after artemether-lumefantrine treatment. We reported three cases of possible parasite resistance to artemether-lumefantrine therapy. All subjects had complete parasite clearance when treated with other antimalarial drugs. This observation necessitates the urgent need to re-evaluate artemether-lumefantrine medication in Nigeria since it is one of the most commonly used ACT drug. <![CDATA[Luiz Fernando Ferreira (★1936 †2018)]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000101100&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is recommended by the World Health Organization for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria. Currently, there appears to be a downward trend in the efficacy of ACT in some parts of sub-Saharan Africa because some patients have been positive for Plasmodium parasite 3 days after artemether-lumefantrine treatment. We reported three cases of possible parasite resistance to artemether-lumefantrine therapy. All subjects had complete parasite clearance when treated with other antimalarial drugs. This observation necessitates the urgent need to re-evaluate artemether-lumefantrine medication in Nigeria since it is one of the most commonly used ACT drug. <![CDATA[Francisco das Chagas Oliveira Luz (★1933 †2017)]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000101101&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is recommended by the World Health Organization for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria. Currently, there appears to be a downward trend in the efficacy of ACT in some parts of sub-Saharan Africa because some patients have been positive for Plasmodium parasite 3 days after artemether-lumefantrine treatment. We reported three cases of possible parasite resistance to artemether-lumefantrine therapy. All subjects had complete parasite clearance when treated with other antimalarial drugs. This observation necessitates the urgent need to re-evaluate artemether-lumefantrine medication in Nigeria since it is one of the most commonly used ACT drug. <![CDATA[Dr. Vicente Amato (★1927 †2018)]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000101102&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is recommended by the World Health Organization for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria. Currently, there appears to be a downward trend in the efficacy of ACT in some parts of sub-Saharan Africa because some patients have been positive for Plasmodium parasite 3 days after artemether-lumefantrine treatment. We reported three cases of possible parasite resistance to artemether-lumefantrine therapy. All subjects had complete parasite clearance when treated with other antimalarial drugs. This observation necessitates the urgent need to re-evaluate artemether-lumefantrine medication in Nigeria since it is one of the most commonly used ACT drug. <![CDATA[Alda Lima Falcão (★1925 †2019)]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000101103&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is recommended by the World Health Organization for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria. Currently, there appears to be a downward trend in the efficacy of ACT in some parts of sub-Saharan Africa because some patients have been positive for Plasmodium parasite 3 days after artemether-lumefantrine treatment. We reported three cases of possible parasite resistance to artemether-lumefantrine therapy. All subjects had complete parasite clearance when treated with other antimalarial drugs. This observation necessitates the urgent need to re-evaluate artemether-lumefantrine medication in Nigeria since it is one of the most commonly used ACT drug. <![CDATA[Erratum: Prevalence and risk factors of toxoplasmosis among adults in a small Brazilian city]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000101500&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is recommended by the World Health Organization for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria. Currently, there appears to be a downward trend in the efficacy of ACT in some parts of sub-Saharan Africa because some patients have been positive for Plasmodium parasite 3 days after artemether-lumefantrine treatment. We reported three cases of possible parasite resistance to artemether-lumefantrine therapy. All subjects had complete parasite clearance when treated with other antimalarial drugs. This observation necessitates the urgent need to re-evaluate artemether-lumefantrine medication in Nigeria since it is one of the most commonly used ACT drug. <![CDATA[Erratum: Hepatitis Delta Prevalence in South America: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000101501&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is recommended by the World Health Organization for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria. Currently, there appears to be a downward trend in the efficacy of ACT in some parts of sub-Saharan Africa because some patients have been positive for Plasmodium parasite 3 days after artemether-lumefantrine treatment. We reported three cases of possible parasite resistance to artemether-lumefantrine therapy. All subjects had complete parasite clearance when treated with other antimalarial drugs. This observation necessitates the urgent need to re-evaluate artemether-lumefantrine medication in Nigeria since it is one of the most commonly used ACT drug. <![CDATA[Erratum]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000101502&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is recommended by the World Health Organization for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria. Currently, there appears to be a downward trend in the efficacy of ACT in some parts of sub-Saharan Africa because some patients have been positive for Plasmodium parasite 3 days after artemether-lumefantrine treatment. We reported three cases of possible parasite resistance to artemether-lumefantrine therapy. All subjects had complete parasite clearance when treated with other antimalarial drugs. This observation necessitates the urgent need to re-evaluate artemether-lumefantrine medication in Nigeria since it is one of the most commonly used ACT drug. <![CDATA[Erratum]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000101503&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is recommended by the World Health Organization for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria. Currently, there appears to be a downward trend in the efficacy of ACT in some parts of sub-Saharan Africa because some patients have been positive for Plasmodium parasite 3 days after artemether-lumefantrine treatment. We reported three cases of possible parasite resistance to artemether-lumefantrine therapy. All subjects had complete parasite clearance when treated with other antimalarial drugs. This observation necessitates the urgent need to re-evaluate artemether-lumefantrine medication in Nigeria since it is one of the most commonly used ACT drug. <![CDATA[Erratum: Envenomation by an opisthoglyphous snake, Erythrolamprus aesculapii (Dipsadidae), in southeastern Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000101504&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is recommended by the World Health Organization for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria. Currently, there appears to be a downward trend in the efficacy of ACT in some parts of sub-Saharan Africa because some patients have been positive for Plasmodium parasite 3 days after artemether-lumefantrine treatment. We reported three cases of possible parasite resistance to artemether-lumefantrine therapy. All subjects had complete parasite clearance when treated with other antimalarial drugs. This observation necessitates the urgent need to re-evaluate artemether-lumefantrine medication in Nigeria since it is one of the most commonly used ACT drug. <![CDATA[Erratum: The burden of hepatitis C infection in a Southern Brazilian State]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822019000101505&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is recommended by the World Health Organization for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria. Currently, there appears to be a downward trend in the efficacy of ACT in some parts of sub-Saharan Africa because some patients have been positive for Plasmodium parasite 3 days after artemether-lumefantrine treatment. We reported three cases of possible parasite resistance to artemether-lumefantrine therapy. All subjects had complete parasite clearance when treated with other antimalarial drugs. This observation necessitates the urgent need to re-evaluate artemether-lumefantrine medication in Nigeria since it is one of the most commonly used ACT drug.