Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Food Science and Technology]]> http://www.scielo.br/rss.php?pid=0101-206120200005&lang=pt vol. 40 num. lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.br/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.br <![CDATA[Structural and biological properties of protein hydrolysates from seafood by-products: a review focused on fishery effluents]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612020000500001&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract Enormous amounts of by-products and waste are generated during the processing of seafood, sometimes representing about 65% of the raw material employed. Seafood by-products (SB) include solid waste such as skin, head, viscera, trimmings, and bones; however, liquid wastes (effluents) derived from operations such as washing, thawing, cooking and the production of fishmeal are also produced. SB contain considerable amounts of protein and others biomolecules, which has been regularly processed as food ingredients for animal nutrition. But also, sometimes SB are used as fertilizers or discarded to environment without a previous treatment. Nowadays, there is an increasing interest in adding value to the protein material within SB by improving their properties through hydrolysis and thus releasing of peptides with bioactive properties. Thus, this review aims to present an overview of the potential of SB, focused on effluents, as a source of protein hydrolysates, summarizing their methods of production, bioactive property evaluation and structural characteristics. <![CDATA[Influence of the salt concentration on action mechanisms of natamycin against microorganisms of importance in food manufacture]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612020000500006&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of salt concentration on action of natamycin on important microorganisms in food manufacturing as this preservative has been used in immersion baths in several dairy products in the country. Strains of Candida albicans, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were inoculated at different saline and peptone water concentrations and received natamycin treatments. These solutions were maintained at 12 °C and the behavior of the microorganisms evaluated at 0, 24 and 48 hours (T0, T1 and T2). Each microorganism was assessed in isolation as well as the association of C. albicans and E. coli. Under the conditions proposed by the research, it was possible to conclude that 0.025% natamycin has no efficacy on C. albicans inoculated at saline concentrations below 5%. The results obtained in E. coli counts suggest that natamycin may interfere with its development even at concentrations that may be considered low (0.1%) and at salinity conditions of 7.5% to 10%. The association of natamycin with sodium chloride potentiates its antimicrobial action, which can represent an economy and its use is amplified by the industries. <![CDATA[Optimization of beef patties produced with vegetable oils: a mixture design approach and sensory evaluation]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612020000500012&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract The exaggerated consumption of fast food and ready to eat products is a common practice which results in an unbalanced intake of saturated fats. In order to improve the fat composition of beef patties, mixture design was used to optimize the inclusion of pomace olive oil (POO) and canola oil (CO). Cooking yield, moisture retention, diameter reduction, color, texture and sensorial parameters were accessed. Models showed, with a 94.5% of variance explained, that the inclusion of POO and CO should be limited in order to maintain a low acidity index and texture parameters comparable to commercial burgers of similar composition. Preference test, consumer profile, acceptability, penalty analysis and Check-all-that-apply (CATA) results indicated that a parcial replacement of pork fat (PF) can be considered. In sum, formulations with improved fat composition (50 or 33% replaced animal fat by POO and CO) were obtained. <![CDATA[Characterization of volatiles in red- and white-fleshed loquat (<em>Eriobotrya japonica</em>) fruits by electronic nose and headspace solid-phase microextraction with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612020000500021&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract Aroma differences are generally sensed in white- and red-fleshed loquats. Here, volatile compounds in four white- and three red-fleshed loquat varieties were investigated by headspace solid-phase microextraction and combined analysis of electronic nose (e-nose) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In total, 83 volatile compounds were identified, and 33 were common in all of the cultivars. D-limonene, hexanal, (E)-2-hexenal, octanal and nonanal were the most abundant volatile compounds. β-cyclocitral and β-ionone were only detected in red-fleshed varieties. Furthermore, Huayu Seedless 1 (triploid white-fleshed loquats) with low levels of terpenoid compounds detected by GC-MS were clearly differentiated from the other cultivars tested by principal component analysis (PCA), which was consistent with the e-nose results. PCA analysis showed that Huabai 1(white flesh cultivar)had a prominent volatile profile characterized by higher concentrations of C6 aldehydes and alcohols, (E)-2-hexanal, (Z)-3-hexenal and hexanal, (Z)-3-hexenol, (E)-2-hexenol and hexanol. In comparison with red-fleshed loquats, white-fleshed loquats were characterized by high aldehydes content. These volatile compounds served to recognize and classify all of the analysed varieties. <![CDATA[Anti-obesity and hepatoprotective effects in obese rats fed diets supplemented with fruit purees]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612020000500033&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract In this work, the effect of the intake of a low-fat diet supplemented with a fruit puree (guava-strawberry, guava-blackberry, guava-soursop or guava-passion fruit) by obese rats on reduction of body weight, lipid profile, and liver enzyme activity was evaluated. The rats (n=6 for each treatment) were induced to obesity with a high-fat diet for 4 weeks, then they were fed with a low-fat diet plus a fruit puree for 4 weeks. Healthy rats and obese rats fed with standard diet as controls were considered. The additional consumption of fruit purees was associated with a reduction in body weight (16-24%), a control in the metabolism of plasma lipids decreasing the levels of total cholesterol (59-68%) and triacylglycerols (61-82%). We found a significant reduction in inflammation markers and liver damage; enzyme activity (alanine aminotransaminase, aspartate aminotransferase, γ-glutamyl transferase and alkaline phosphatase) decreased, and a notable improvement in liver morphology was observed. The consumption of fruit purees by obese individuals could contribute to the control of and improvement in the complications of obesity caused by alterations in lipoproteins. <![CDATA[Preparation of glycosylated hydrolysate by liquid fermentation with <em>Cordyceps militaris</em> and characterization of its functional properties]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612020000500042&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract This study aimed to investigate the potential of a novel preparation strategy for glycosylated hydrolysate by liquid fermentation in order to provide a high-quality glycosylated hydrolysate. Protein solubility, surface hydrophobicity and antioxidant activity were evaluated. The results of Fourier transform infrared spectra demonstrated the occurrence of glycosylation reaction. The results of Fluorescence emission spectroscope revealed the decrease of tertiary conformation stability. Circular dichroism spectra revealed significant decrease in α-helix and increase in β-sheet and random coil by glycosylation reaction. In comparison with zein hydrolysate, glycosylated hydrolysate had lower surface hydrophobicity but higher in solubility and in vitro digestibility due to glycosylation. Glycosylated hydrolysate presented higher ABTS (2,2'-Azinobis [3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid]-diammonium salt) and superoxide radicals scavenging activities as well as Cu2+ chelating capacity. It is concluded that the glycosylation confer an open structure and modified properties of zein, and glycosylated hydrolysate is a potential ingredient with better hydration and antioxidant activities than zein hydrolysate. <![CDATA[Physicochemical, thermal and rheological properties of commercial wheat flours and corresponding starches]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612020000500051&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract The quality attributes, including physicochemical, thermal and rheological properties of commercial bread, pau, multipurpose and cake flours, as well as their corresponding isolated starches were analyzed. Bread flour showed the highest solvent retention capacity (SRC) and gluten performance index (GPI), suggesting better functionality than others. Starch was isolated from all types of flour and fractionated into A-type and B-type starch granules. A-type disk-like starch granule had larger diameter (&gt;10 μm) than B-type spherical starch granule (&lt;5 μm diameter). For bread, pau and multipurpose flours, A-type starch granules contained higher amylose content than B-type and unfractionated starch granules significantly. Results suggested a high degree of crystallinity and high amount of amylose-lipid complexes in A-type starch granules, thus leading to low swelling power, solubility, gelatinization onset (To) and peak (Tp) temperatures. However, cake flour showed contrary properties, where B-type starch granules consisted higher amylose content than A-type starch granules. Furthermore, A-type and unfractionated starch granules of all types of wheat flour exhibited shear thickening behavior at 25-45 oC, but shear thinning behavior at 65 oC. The outcomes would be of benefit to the quality improvement on wheat flour with particular functionalities of their starches for specific applications. <![CDATA[Zn treatment effects on biological potential of fennel bulbs as affected by <em>in vitro</em> digestion process]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612020000500060&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract Zn treatment effects on the stability of polyphenols, MDA (malondialdehyde) content, antioxidant and lipoxygenase inhibition activities of two varieties of fennel bulbs were studied by using an in vitro gastrointestinal digestion model. Likewise, the effect of Zn on viability cells of E. coli was also performed. The results revealed that high amounts of total phenolic and flavonoid compounds were released during the digestion process, especially after the intestinal phase. Additionally, the antioxidant and lipoxygenase inhibitory activity were affected by the gastrointestinal digestion process and seems to be correlated with total phenol contents. On the other hand, the viability of E. coli was not affected by the activity of our tested bulbs during passage through the artificial digestion model, but the treated bulbs activity contribute relatively to the inhibition growth of bacteria. The survival of E. coli in fennel bulbs was challenged with simulated gastrointestinal fluids and the results showed that the E. coli strains, despite having experienced a viability reduction at the intestinal phase, were able to overcome the exposure to the gastrointestinal synthetic fluids. This E. coli ability reinforces the need for good hygienic measures to assure safe fresh produce, even for those that are rich in antibacterial compounds. <![CDATA[Defatted chia flour improves gluten-free bread nutritional aspects: a model approach]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612020000500068&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract The gluten is a protein associated with a numerous food allergy cases. As the gluten-related disorders relates is increasing, the demand for gluten-free breads (GFB) has been also increasing. The aim of this study was to obtain a GFB with increased nutritional aspects and sensorially accepted. A Central Composite Rotatable Design (CCRD) 23 was employed in order to choose the ideal proportions of partially defatted chia flour (PDCF) (1.23 to 24.77%), hydroxypropylmethylcellulose gum (HPMC) (0.00 to 2.51%), and Xanthan gum (XG) (0.00 to 2.51%) in a mixed flour used in GFB. The responses evaluated in GFB were: total lipids, protein, ash, carbohydrate, and omega-3 content, specific volume, L*, a*, and b*. The sensory acceptance was also evaluated. PDCF was the variable with higher effects in nutritional aspects; in high levels PDFC increase the protein, ash, and omega-3 content and decrease carbohydrate content of GFB. Although PDCF addition in the higher proportions negatively influenced the color parameters - decrease L* and increase a* - the mixed flour with 20% of PDCF, 0.51% of HMPC and 0.51% of XG added to GFB, was the most accepted for overall acceptance. <![CDATA[Evaluation of quality parameters and chromatographic, spectroscopic, and thermogravimetric profile of Patauá oil (<em>Oenocarpus bataua</em>)]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612020000500076&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract The objective of this research was to evaluate the quality parameters and the chromatographic, thermogravimetric, and spectroscopic profile of Patauá oil (Oenocarpus bataua). All analyses were performed according to the Recommended Practices of the American Oil Chemists’ Society (AOCS). The parameters obtained indicate conservation quality standards in accordance with Brazilian legislation. The fatty acid profile shows a predominance of ω-9, ω-6, and ω-3 fatty acids. The thermogravimetric behavior and differential analysis indicated good stability upon gradual temperature increase and the presence of endothermic and exothermic peaks characteristic of thermal and oxidative decomposition at high temperatures only. The spectroscopic profile evidenced long-chain unsaturated fatty acids confirming the fatty acid profile results. It was found that, in general, the Patauá oil has good nutritional and functional quality and high thermal and oxidative stability; therefore it can be considered as a raw material with potential applications in various industries. <![CDATA[Sustainable production of furfural and 5-hidroximetilfurfural from rice husks and soybean peel by using ionic liquid]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612020000500083&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract In the current search for renewable energy sources, residual biomass has been highlighted as a potential source of chemical compounds that are currently obtained from petroleum. Among the derivatives obtained from this, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and furfural are considered key parts in this process as they are key compounds in the fine chemical industry. This work aims at the use of the rice husks and soybean peel for the synthesis of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and furfural using the ionic liquid [BMIM][Br]. The physical pre-treatment of biomasses was carried out followed by acid hydrolysis. For the synthesis of the furanic compounds, different temperatures and reaction times were used. The products obtained in each step were analyzed by infrared spectrophotometry and by high performance liquid chromatography. The best yields for rice husks was obtained with 4 hours of reaction at 120 °C (34%) and for soy peel with 3 hours of reaction at 120 °C (59%), for furfural production. For 5-hydroxymethylfurfural production the yields were 8.7% and 3.4% for rice and soy husks, respectively. It was found that glucose was the main group related to bio-products obtaining. <![CDATA[Addition of hydrocolidics in gluten-free bread and replacement of rice flour for sweet potato flour]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612020000500088&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract The objective was to elaborate gluten-free bread, using different hydrocolloids and to verify the effect of substitution of rice flour for sweet potato flour (SPF) on the technological and sensory quality of bread. Better results were observed with the use of 2% carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), without significant difference (p &gt; 0.05) in the sensory evaluation of the samples containing hydrocolloids. Lower specific volume and higher hardness was observed with the addition of CMC and higher levels of SPF. The microbiological evaluation of bread made from the substitution of 25% rice flour for SPF allowed to establish shelf life of 7 days, with an acceptability index of 80.3%, which is considered high because it is a new product. Regarding the purchase intention, only 2% of assessors would certainly not buy the product, showing that the addition of hydrocolloids and SPF to gluten-free bread formulations may be an effective alternative for the gluten-intolerant public. <![CDATA[Protein enrichment of wheat flour doughs: empirical rheology using protein hydrolysates]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612020000500097&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract Protein enrichment of bakery products not only improves protein ingestion, but also compensates for the deficiency of certain limiting amino acids in these products. However, the addition of protein sources can greatly influence the characteristics of the dough and, consequently, process and product parameters. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate the rheological behavior of wheat flour doughs enriched with whey and collagen protein hydrolysates. Both hydrolysates influenced rheological properties of wheat flour doughs. They reduced water absorption and increased arrival time and dough development time, but caused a weakening of the dough when compared to the control. However, a greater influence of collagen hydrolysate was observed when compared to whey hydrolysate. Regarding pasting properties, the hydrolysates led to a decrease in all parameters, except pasting temperature. These results allow predicting the behavior of doughs enriched with these protein sources during processing and directing their application. <![CDATA[Effect of molecular weight on hypolipidemic and hypoglycemic activities of fermented <em>Auriculaia auricula</em> supernatant]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612020000500106&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract Auriculaia auricula is considered as species of Mu Er in Chinese medicine and today are used interchangeably. A. auricula polysaccharides have been shown anti-cholesterol and anti-hyperglycemia. The aim of this research was to investigate the hypolipidemic and anti-hyperglycemic effects of extracts from different molecular weight fragments of A. auricula fermentation supernatant (AAFS). A. auricula was through mixed fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Bifidobacterium. The results shown that with the molecular weight of AAFS increases, the ability to lower blood lipids and blood glucose gradually increases. In the lowering blood lipids, the AAFS of above 300 kDa has the strongest sodium bovine cholate binding capacity and sodium taurocholate binding capacity. The AAFS of 100-300 kDa has the strongest sodium glycocholateas binding capacity. In the lowering blood glucose, the AAFS of 100-300 kDa has the strongest inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase activity. The AAFS of above 300 kDa has the highest index of the glucose dialysis retardation at 30min, and 60min. The AAFS of 100-300 kDa has the highest index of the glucose dialysis retardation at 90min. The study shows that the ability of hypolipidemic and anti-hyperglycemic of AAFS can change with molecular weight, and the contents of substance has changed. <![CDATA[Rutin in herbs and infusions: screening of new sources and consumption estimation]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612020000500113&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract Rutin has shown promising results in reducing various human diseases. However, many plants consumed in Brazil do not have their rutin content reported in the literature yet. More than eighty plants were analyzed using aqueous (popularly known as tea) and ethanolic extraction (employed in commercial rutin purification) by liquid chromatography. Rutin was found in 47 samples when ethanol extraction was used. Echinodorus grandiflorus had the highest content (14,878.7 mg 1000 g-1), followed by Sambucus nigra, Drimys winteri and Taraxacum officinale. In aqueous infusion, Echinodorus grandiflorus, Sambucus nigra, Drimys winteri and Ruta graveolens presented the highest levels of rutin, ranging from 15.5 to 29.7 mg of rutin in 300 mL of infusion from 2 g of the plant. Echinodorus grandiflorus, Sambucus nigra, Drimys winteri, Taraxacum officinale and Ruta graveolens presented a high amount of flavonoid and might be good alternatives as ingredients in food and pharmaceuticals in order to obtain health benefits. <![CDATA[Avocado oil as an inducer of the extracellular lipase activity of <em>Kluyveromyces marxianus</em> L-2029]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612020000500121&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract Avocado represents one of the most nutritious and consumed foods in Mexico, and its export generates significant profits; because of its fatty acids content, the avocado oil was used as an inducer for the synthesis of extracellular lipases from the non-conventional yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus L-2029. Lipases are able to catalyze acyl glycerides, hydrolyzing them into fatty acids and glycerol; they have several applications in various industries. In order to determine the ideal initial avocado oil concentration in the culture medium for the yeast, the induction was carried out at different concentrations in incubation for 24 h. The yeast presented the greater extracellular lipase productivity at a 3.5% v/v avocado oil concentration, with a 3.47 μmol PNF/mg prot * min (U/mL) maximum activity. The enzymatic extract obtained at this condition had an optimum lipase activity temperature of 36 °C and pH 6. The pYJR10W lipase was detected in the enzymatic extract from avocado oil induction, and is therefore responsible for the extracellular lipase activity of K. marxianus. <![CDATA[Innovation, research and development on the passion fruit peel flour: bibliometric approach]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612020000500130&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract The passion fruit peel flour, retrieved from the drying and milling of fruit-processing residues, is rich in fibers. In fact, it is an important food source, featuring many benefits for the human organism. Current study forwards a scientific and technological evaluation of the passion fruit peel flour development through bibliometric indicators. Data from scientific production were collected from Web of Science database and patent search was performed at different databases USPTO, WIPO, EPO and INPI. Bibliometric analysis addresses key sections focused on articles and patent applications, authors and inventors, relevant areas of interest, institutions and countries. The analysis of citations and analysis of social networks were also used as complementary indicators. The scientific and technological production of the passion fruit peel flour has occurred mostly in Brazil, particularly at universities. Since production is still fledging, greater investments are required to improve Science, Technology &amp; Innovation (ST&amp;I) indicators in the field. <![CDATA[Impact of whey protein isolate coatings containing different antimicrobial agents on sliced bologna-type sausage during refrigerated storage]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612020000500136&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract In this study, we aimed to determine the possibility of using the edible whey protein isolates coatings containing different antimicrobial agents on the bologna-type sausage slices and the inactivation effects of these coatings against Listeria innocua. For this purpose, edible whey protein isolates (WPI) coatings were prepared to contain essential oils (thyme, coriander, pimento, rosemary, basil), potassium sorbate (PS), sodium benzoate (SB)(4% w/v) and Nisin(10.000 IU). The antimicrobial effect against L. innocua, sensory characteristics (appearance, color, odor, texture, flavor and overall acceptability) and physical (color) and chemical (pH and water activity) properties of bologna slices coated WPI coatings were determined for during the 35-day period in refrigerated conditions (4±1°C). In conclusion, it was determined that the most effective coatings for L. innocua inactivation were PS, SB, and pimento essential oil, approximately 4.69, 4.45 and 4.16 log CFU/g, respectively. The most effective coating on the pH values (5.90-6.04) was established to be WPI coatings containing Nisin. It has been found that WPI coatings containing thyme essential oil provided the lowest water activity values with 0.945. In addition, it was possible to say that the most favored type of coating for sausage samples was Nisin-WPI coatings with 7.63- 8.33 sensory scores. <![CDATA[Snack bars enriched with <em>Spirulina</em> for schoolchildren nutrition]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612020000500146&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract The aim of this study was to develop snack bars nutritionally enriched with Spirulina and evaluate if there was acceptance of the sensorial attributes by schoolchildren. Snack bars enriched with Spirulina (2% and 6%) and a control formulation (0% Spirulina) were prepared. The samples were evaluated regarding nutritional content, microstructure, and sensorial characteristics. Furthermore, the study of stability during storage (30 days) was carried out. The addition of 2% and 6% of Spirulina provided a protein increase of 11.7% and 29.9%, respectively. The physicochemical and microbiological parameters remained stable during the storage of 30 days. Sensory evaluation showed that snack bars enriched with 6% Spirulina presented no significant difference (p &gt; 0.05) compared to the control samples. We concluded that Spirulina can be used as a nutritive ingredient in snack bars designed for infant feeding without sensorial characteristics change. <![CDATA[Comparative analysis of citrus fruits for nutraceutical properties]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612020000500153&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract Fruits and vegetables (F and V) are valuable for their micronutrients, but many F and V in diverse growth areas have not been scientifically validated for these components. The nutraceutical characteristics of the pulp of eight citrus fruits grown in Pakistan were, therefore, investigated. Expectedly, the fruits differed in moisture (86.9-88.9%), ash (0.37-0.53%), pH (2.9-5.8), total soluble solids (8.1-13.7 °Brix), titratable acidity (7.9-13.1%), total sugars (5.1-8.8%), reducing sugars (2.8-4.3%), and non-reducing sugars (0.3-0.5%) contents. Potassium, sodium and magnesium were the major minerals, while iron, zinc and manganese were present in minor fractions in the pulps. Phytochemical analysis (total phenolic content, 132-243 µg/g GAE; total flavonoids content, 4.2-12.1 µg/g QE; vitamin C, 36.3-62.3 mg/100 g) revealed antioxidant potential that was confirmed by a high 1, 1-diphenyl 1-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, showing a highly positive correlation (r2 &gt; 0.921, 0.917, 0.807 p &gt; 0.05) with the measured antioxidant components (Total Phenolics, Total Flavonoids and vitamin C). Principal component analysis shows a significant relationship between the citrus varieties and their quality parameters to guide their industrial potential as sources of nutraceuticals. <![CDATA[<em>Cyclocarya paliurus</em> (Batal.) Iljinskaja polysaccharides alleviate type 2 diabetes mellitus in rats by resisting inflammatory response and oxidative stress]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612020000500158&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract This study aimed to investigate the effects of Cyclocarya paliurus (Batal.) Iljinskaja polysaccharides (CPP) on the glucose-lipid metabolism in T2DM rats. T2DM model was established in 40 Wistar rats which were then randomly divided into model, CPP-1, CPP-2 and CPP-3 groups. Ten normal rats were selected as the control group. The CPP-1, CPP-2 and CPP-3 group were intragastrically administrated with 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg CPP for 4 weeks, respectively. Results showed that, during the treatment, compared with model group, in CPP treatment groups the T2DM symptoms were lightened, and the body weight was improved. After treatment, compared with model group, in CPP-3 group the blood fasting plasma glucose, fasting insulin and glycosylated hemoglobin levels were reduced (P &lt; 0.05), the blood total cholesterol, triglyceride and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were decreased (P &lt; 0.05), the serum C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin 6 levels were decreased (P &lt; 0.05), the serum malondialdehyde level was reduced (P &lt; 0.05), and the serum superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase levels were increased (P &lt; 0.05). In conclusion, CPP can alleviate the T2DM in rats, which may be related to its resisting inflammatory response and oxidative stress in body. <![CDATA[Comparative assessment of nutritional composition and physicochemical properties of fresh, freeze- dried and rehydrated rainbow trout <em>(Oncorhynchus mykiss</em> Walbaum, 1792) mince]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612020000500163&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract Freeze drying is known as the excellent drying method for heat sensitive food products. In this research was aimed to determination of nutritional composition and physicochemical properties of fresh, freeze- dried and rehydrated rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) mince. Sample groups were established as fresh trout mince, freeze-dried trout mince and rehydrated trout mince after freeze-dried. Proximate composition, pH, water activity, colour measurement, rehydration ratio, fatty acid and amino acid profiles were determined in the samples. As a result; nutritional composition, total aminoacid amounts and total MUFA amounts were different in fresh, freeze dried and rehydrated samples. However; the difference between the total amount of PUFA in fresh and rehydrated samples were found insignificant statistically. <![CDATA[Gluten-free food issues in Turkey]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612020000500170&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract Consumption of gluten-free foods (GFFs), natural GFFs (nGFFs) or manufactured GFFs (mGFFs), is reported as a burden on GFF-consumers for different countries. In Turkey, only mGFFs are recognized to be GF, and issues related to them were investigated for the first time. Accessibility of mGFFs is too restricted. Celiac, not other gluten-linked diseases, is recognized in the institutional practices. Price of mGFFs is 5.5 times on average more expensive than corresponding gluten containing foods (cGCFs). GFF-consumers in Turkey are under a heavy burden of the high price pressure, and it is more than the burden on GFF-consumers in other countries not considering the economic welfare difference. Though, exported mGFFs are more expensive than domestic mGFFs, exported ones dominate the market. Well-established arrangements are needed for easing the burden on mGFF-consumers in the country. The lowest possible expenditure for mGFFs by celiac population is almost $ 649×106 per year excluding individuals with other gluten-linked disorders. Turkey is quite untouched market and offers lucrative business opportunities for mGFFs. <![CDATA[The control of Maillard reaction in white grape molasses by the method of reducing reactant concentration]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612020000500179&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of removing sugar and/or amino groups by applying one ion exchange (Dowex 50Wx8) and two adsorbent (Activated Carbon and Amberlite XAD-16) resins to grape juice in the control of Maillard reaction. Grape juices, a control sample and separately applied with each resin, were concentrated up to 50, 60 and 70 °Bx and stored at three temperatures (50, 65 and 75 °C) for 10 days. HMF accumulation was lower in the grape juices which were treated with Amberlite or activated carbon throughout the boiling. Rate constant, activation energy and Q10 values indicated that activated carbon application has a decelerating effect on HMF formation in molasses, particularly molasses with 50 οBx. Dowex was more effective than Amberlite in controlling of brown pigment formation. Analysing the results of HMF and brown pigment, activated carbon was the best resin to control the Maillard reaction. <![CDATA[Are foods naturally rich in glutamic acid an alternative to sodium reduction?]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612020000500190&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract Chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs) prevalence has been growing, hence the importance of studying food alternatives with reduced sodium content sensory well accepted. Develop culinary preparations reduced in sodium, with addition of glutamic acid-rich ingredients, and evaluate their sensory acceptance. Research about use of glutamic acid-rich ingredients in recipes was done. Recipes were developed, aiming good sensory acceptance; their salt content was estimated by using TACO and USDA’s food composition table. They were later submitted to sensory analysis, in which was applied 9-point hedonic scale (global acceptance and flavor), and linear scale of 10 cm (salt intensity). Data was analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey Test (p &lt; 0.05) with software FIZZ Biosystemes. Herbs pie samples with parmesan cheese had better acceptance and salt intensity was perceived as moderate. Bruschetta samples, with tomatoes, were well accepted regardless the presence of refined salt or herbs; and had a harmonious salt intensity perception. Salt intensity was considered adequate on chicken stroganoff samples while champignon mushrooms provided better global acceptance. All samples had 50-60% less salt than traditional recipes. Ingredients naturally rich in glutamic acid (parmesan cheese, tomatoes and mushrooms) are good for strategies of sodium content reduction in culinary preparations, without reduce sensorial acceptance. <![CDATA[Effect of the addition of rabbit meat on the technological and sensory properties of fermented sausage]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612020000500197&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract Rabbit meat has a low-fat content when compared to other meat traditionally used as raw material in the processing of fermented sausages. In addition, it has high levels of essential amino acids in its composition. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the technological properties and sensorial acceptance of a fermented sausage produced with pork and rabbit meat. Three formulations were made: C1 (80% fresh lean pork + 20% pork back fat), T1 (40% fresh lean pork + 40% rabbit meat + 20% pork back fat) and T2 (80% rabbit meat + 20% pork back fat). Samples were evaluated for composition, texture profile, instrumental color, pH, weight loss, lipid oxidation and sensorial acceptance. The samples did not present significant differences between them for moisture, fat and protein contents. Regarding the aroma, flavor, hardness and overall acceptance, all samples presented similar mean values (P&gt;0.05). The study showed that up to 40% of rabbit meat could be substituted in a fermented pork sausage without altering any of the sensorial attributes evaluated and with minimal effect on the technological parameters. <![CDATA[Development of multiplex loop-mediated isothermal amplification for three foodborne pathogens]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612020000500205&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella, and Shigella are three major foodborne pathogenic microorganisms that cause global public health problems. We developed a multiplex loop-mediated isothermal amplification (mLAMP) assay for simultaneous detection of S. aureus nuc, Salmonella fimY, and Shigella ipaH in fresh fruit juice using three sets of primers. In addition, three different restriction enzyme cleavage sites were designed in each forward inner primer (FIP), namely, XhoI in nuc FIP, KpnI in fimY FIP, and BamHI in ipaH FIP. DNA was amplified using the LAMP assay at 64 °C for 50 min followed by endonuclease restriction digestion to separate the LAMP products of three pathogens. The minimum amount of genomic DNA of S. aureus, Salmonella, and Shigella that could be detected by mLAMP was 100 fg/25 μL, whereas for mPCR, it was 1 pg/25 μL. The artificially contaminated juice can also be detected by mLAMP after enrichment, which had the limit of detection (LOD) of 2 CFU/10 mL. In conclusion, the mLAMP developed in this study could be potentially used in the detection of S. aureus, Salmonella, and Shigella in food, particularly as a primary screening method in developing areas. <![CDATA[Influence of <em>in vitro</em> gastrointestinal digestion on phytochemicals in pomegranate juice]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612020000500211&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract Nowadays, healthy food is in vogue. The consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables has always been advised. Their health benefits are estimated based on the chemical composition without taking into account the possible transformations during digestion. Undoubtedly, those with the highest antioxidant content are highly favored. However, whether they are just as effective after passing through gastrointestinal tract is a question that science should answer experimentally. Therefore, the influence of in vitro gastrointestinal digestion on phytochemicals in pomegranate juice. The change in total phenolic content, total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity was monitored. A drastic loss of phenolic compounds was measured after the intestinal phase of the assay resulting in only 25% and 15.8% of the initial total phenolic content and total flavonoid content, respectively. The antioxidant activity was also affected. The results indicated an after digestion antioxidant activity in the range 19-29% by the measured activity of pomegranate juice. HPLC analysis of phenolic compounds confirmed the presence of gallic acid and DL-catechin at concentrations 96.3 µg/mL and 340 µg/mL, resp. After digestion a loss of 93% and 99% was calculated. <![CDATA[Analytical study of the physicochemical characteristics from <em>Melipona subnitida</em> D. honey in adequation to Brazilian law]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612020000500217&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract Honey has different physical and chemical properties because it is produced from the nectar of plants. The present work had the objective of analyzing laboratory tests on honey bee Melipona subnitida D. from Ceará, in comparing them with other honeys from the Northeast Region, making it possible to know better the standards of these honeys, in order to verify their suitability to the Brazilian legislation and contribute to a future more appropriate and specific legislation for the honey of the native bees, since the existing legislation only addresses bee products from Apis mellifera L. Studies were correlated with Fiehe/hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) in addition to pH/acidity, Lund, lugol, moisture, ash, soluble solids (°Brix) and coloring. For the moisture test there’s a 100% failure rate to the standards established by current Brazilian legislation, 38.46% in relation to the acid test and 29.03% for HMF. Inadequacies to the legislation occur due to the different floral origins and edaphoclimatic factors. However, the most relevant factor is the difference between the bees’ species Apis mellifera L. and Melipona subnitida D. that originate the honeys, each species conferring specific characteristics to its product. <![CDATA[Activity of polyphenoloxidase and peroxidase in non-dormant potato tubers treated with sprout suppressors]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612020000500222&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract One of the major problems affecting potatoes quality on stored is the susceptibility to enzymatic browning, which occurs mainly after wounds during the harvest, at postharvest handling and by aging, leading to the development of dark color compounds. Enzymatic browning is associated with the action of polyphenoloxidases (PPO) and peroxidases (POD), which use phenolic compounds and oxygen as substrates. The products of these enzymes cause undesirable changes of color and flavor of processed potato products. The present study aimed to evaluate some kinetic properties based to optimum pH and reaction temperature, and to determine changes on activity of potato tubers PPO and POD treated with sprouting suppressors compounds menthol and eugenol. For each treatment, samples were collected in six different periods, before application (day 0) and 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 days after the treatments to determine the influence of sprout inhibitors on the activity of PPO and POD. Changes in pH and temperature affected drastically the activity of both enzymes. The use of eugenol and menthol as sprouting suppressors decreased enzymatic activity on the treated tubers compared to control with an inverse relationship between enzymes activity and content of phenolic compounds. <![CDATA[Quality of pasta made of cassava, peach palm and golden linseed flours]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612020000500228&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract The possibility of industrially producing new types of pastas based on other types of flour than wheat has raised interest for enabling the use of widely available materials and providing adequate products to persons with celiac disease. A mixture design was developed with the purpose of preparing a gluten-free dry using cassava starch, peach palm meal, and golden linseed while observing the nutritional value added and its technological properties. The pasta underwent assessments of its physicochemical and rheological characteristics. The drying temperatures studied were 60, 75, and 90 °C and the influence of those temperatures on pasta quality parameters and texture properties assessed. The percentage composition of the flours met the standards mandated by the Brazilian legislation and the pasta was classified as rich in fibers. The texture parameters of the pasta were influenced by the drying process, with the best results obtained at the lowest and highest temperatures studied. <![CDATA[Structural characterization and bioactivities of a polysaccharide from the stalk residue of <em>Pleurotus eryngii</em>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612020000500235&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract The structural characterization and bioactivities of a polysaccharide from the stalk residue of Pleurotus eryngii were investigated. Firstly the stalk residue of P. eryngii was collected from the top portion of spent mushroom substrate and processed to yield water-soluble polysaccharide. Subsequently this crude polysaccharide was purified by DEAE Sepharose CL-6B ion exchange chromatography and Sepharose CL-6B size-exclusion chromatography. Then its structural features were investigated by gas chromatography (GC), gel permeation chromatography (GPC), methylation analysis, and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrum (FT-IR). The results showed that it was heteropolysaccharide and mainly composed of glucose (82.4%). The backbone of P-2a mainly consisted of 1, 3-linked (42.7%) and 1, 6-linked (35.5%) glucose residues. Besides, in vitro antioxidant assay showed that P-2a exerted a high scavenging effects on hydroxyl radical and in vitro antitumor assay showed it had a dose-dependent antiproliferative effect against human gastric MGC-803 cancer cells &amp; human epithelial Hela cancer cells. The findings of this study suggested that the polysaccharide extracted from the stalk residue has the similar structure and bioactivities as that from fruit-body of the mushroom. It could be potentially used as a natural source for the development of health-care food. <![CDATA[Organic acids and hydrogen peroxide can replace chlorinated compounds as sanitizers on strawberries, cucumbers and rocket leaves]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612020000500242&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract This work evaluated the effectiveness of 1 and 2% acetic and lactic acid, 3% hydrogen peroxide, 200 mg/L sodium hypochlorite and 200 mg/L sodium dichloroisocyanurate to reducing natural contaminants as well as Salmonella enterica Enteritidis inoculated on the surface of strawberries, cucumbers, and rocket leaves. The reduction of aerobic mesophilic and molds and yeasts was between 1.67 – 2.73 and 0.61 – 1.46 log CFU/g in strawberries, 1.48 – 2.19 and 1.02 – 2.01 log CFU/g on rocket leaves, and 1.10 – 2.08 and 0.88 – 1.58 log CFU/g in cucumbers, respectively. The most effective sanitizers for reducing Salmonella enterica Enteritidis in strawberries were 1% and 2% lactic acid, while in cucumbers and rocket leaves was the 2% lactic acid as well as the 3% hydrogen peroxide, for both samples. The results of this study clearly show the potential of the proposed strategies to replace chlorinated compounds in the sanitization step of fresh produce. <![CDATA[Physicochemical quality of brown soybean preserve in function of maceration time and ascorbic acid]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612020000500250&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract The aim of the present study was to evaluate the physical and chemical quality of the brown soybean preserve in function of the ascorbic acid concentration and the maceration time, and also to evaluate the chemical composition, microbiological hazard, and acceptability of the best preserve, in addition verify its technological, nutritional, functional and sensory viability. The hardness of the grain ranged between 8.6 and 23N and was significantly affected by the maceration time. The ascorbic acid concentration influenced antioxidant activity (ranged between 4.3 and 183.8 mg100g-1) and total phenolic compounds (ranged between 176.4 and 466.2 mg100g-1). The best brown soybean preserve was obtained with a maceration time of 23 min and an ascorbic acid concentration of 0.15 g100g-1 . This shows high nutritional value and essential amino acid content, absence of trypsin inhibitor and microbiological risk, and also sensory acceptance. Therefore, the brown soybean preserve is viable, and its consumption is recommended. <![CDATA[Rheological behavior of plant-based beverages]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612020000500258&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract The aim of this research was to study the rheological behavior of a plant-based beverage made of Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa) and Baru (Dipteryx alata Vogel) and a nut-based beverage made of Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa) and Macadamia (Macadamia integrifolia) at the temperatures of 25, 45 and 80 °C. Experimental data were adjusted to the models of Newton, Ostwald-de Waele, Herschel Bulkley and Bingham. The formulations of the beverages were obtained from a simplex-centroid design, based on the panelists acceptance in the sensorial evaluation. Rheological behavior showed no differences between the beverages and rheological data were best fit to Ostwald-de Waele model, at the three temperatures for both beverages, presenting a non-Newtonian behavior, with a pseudoplastic characteristic (n &lt;1). In general, the nut-based beverage made of Brazil nut and Macadamia presented lower values than a plant-based beverage made of Brazil nut and Baru for an apparent viscosity, at the three temperatures, requiring less tension to flow. <![CDATA[Antioxidant-mediated protective role of <em>Hericium erinaceus</em> (Bull.: Fr.) Pers. against oxidative damage in fibroblasts from Friedreich’s ataxia patient]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612020000500264&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract Friedreich’s ataxia (FRDA) is a progressive neuromuscular disorder caused by substantial decrease of mitochondrial protein frataxin responsible for biogenesis of iron-sulphur clusters and protection from oxidative damage. In this study, we investigated the antioxidant activities of a standardized aqueous extract from fruiting bodies of Hericium erinaceus mushroom (HESAE) and its protective effects against oxidative damage induced by L-Buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) in fibroblasts derived from FRDA patient. The lactate dehydrogenase-based viability assay showed that FRDA fibroblast was sensitive to 12.5 mM BSO with a reduction of viability to 52.51 ± 13.92% after 24 h of BSO exposure. Interestingly, co-incubation with 32 mg/mL HESAE increased the viability to 85.35 ± 3.4%. Further, 12.5 mM BSO caused a decrease in the ratio of cellular reduced glutathione (GSH) to oxidised GSH (GSSG) that leads to cell death. Nevertheless, the damage was reduced by co-incubation with 32 mg/mL HESAE. Nuclear fluorescence staining revealed that 12.5 mM BSO induced cell death and the apoptosis was decreased by co-incubation with HESAE. These findings suggest the ability of HESAE in attenuating BSO-mediated cytotoxicity through maintenance of membrane integrity and optimal GSH/GSSG ratio, that are closely linked to its antioxidant activities. Further in vivo trials are highly warranted to clarify its potential benefits in management of FRDA. <![CDATA[Kinetic characterization, thermal and pH inactivation study of peroxidase and pectin methylesterase from tomato (<em>Solanum betaceum</em>)]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612020000500273&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract Peroxidase (POD) and pectin methylesterase (PME) from tomato were characterized, studied thermal stability, and analyzed the synergistic effect of temperature and pH. For POD, the optimal activity, using H2O2 as substrate and ABTS+• as the donor H+, was obtained at pH 3.5, and for PME, the optimal activity using pectin as substrate was obtained at pH 7.5. In POD, it was found that the values of KM, Vm and Ksi for H2O2 were 477.26 mM, 721.53 µM/min and 0.37 mM, respectively. In PME, the values of KM and Vm obtained for pectin were 0.54 mM and 436.12 µM/min, respectively. On the other hand, it was found that POD was inactivated with 90 °C, at pH from 2.5 to 3.5 with temperatures of 55 to 90 °C, and at pH of 2.5 to 3 with temperatures of 40 to 90 °C. Likewise, PME was inactivated at 90 °C, and at pH of 3.5 with 70 °C. <![CDATA[Agar and pomegranate seed oil used in a biodegradable coating composition for Formosa papaya]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612020000500280&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract The use of biodegradable coatings to conserve fruits and vegetables stands out in the food industry. This study aims to evaluate the postharvest quality of papaya Formosa 'Tainung 01' submitted to different coating formulations, to establish the one that best maintains the postharvest quality. The fruits, distributed in a completely randomized design, received the coatings composed of aqueous solution of agar and pomegranate seed oil in the following compositions (with 6 treatments and 5 replicates): T1: 0.5% agar and 0.1 mL/L oil; T2: 1.0% agar and 0.2 mL/L oil; T3: 1.5% agar and 0.3 mL/L oil; T4: 2.0% agar and 0.4 mL/L of oil; T5: 2.5% of agar and 0.5 mL/L of oil; and T6: Control, uncoated. The experiment lasted ten days packing at 17.5 ± 0.6 °C and 55 ± 3, 2% RH. T4 provided better conservation of the quality attributes in papaya. Fruits in this treatment showed higher vitamin C content, higher soluble solids and total sugars, and lower titratable acidity, important characteristics for product acceptance. Besides, T4 better conserved the green (external) color of the fruits, while fruits submitted to the other treatments acquired a yellowish coloration. <![CDATA[Application and comparison of proteolytic enzyme preparations in technology of protein hydrolyzates]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612020000500287&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract Protepsin belongs to the class of acid proteinases, containing carboxyl groups in the active center. The preparation cleaves peptide bonds formed by aromatic amino acids (tyrosine, phenylalanine), and does not hydrolize esters and amides. Along with the proteolytic complex, Protepsin contains collagenase, lipase, and other digestive enzymes. The preparation is obtained according to the original technology through maceration of animal endocrine raw materials, followed by purification, concentration, isolation and freeze dehydration of the enzyme complex. The results of the laboratory studies of the proteolytic activity of enzyme preparations show that Protepsin, the preparation of animal origin with a proteolytic activity of 100 units/g, has the greatest collagenase activity in the biomodification of native collagen-containing raw materials. <![CDATA[Lactic acid bacteria with antimicrobial, proteolytic and lipolytic activities isolated from ovine dairy products]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612020000500293&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract This study aimed to isolate lactic acid bacteria from sheep milk products and to characterize these microorganisms with a focus on their antimicrobial, proteolytic and lipolytic activities. Raw milk, pasteurized milk, pasteurized cream, and butter samples were collected, lactic acid bacteria were isolated and their proteolytic, lipolytic and antimicrobial activities were evaluated. Lactic acid bacteria counts were higher in raw milk collected at the farm number 4 (8.91 ± 0.05 log CFU/mL), in which adequate hygienic practices were observed for pre- and post-milking. A total of 253 isolates were obtained, and among them 37 were lactic acid bacteria, where 19 showed some type of activity, most of which from raw milk. Among the isolates of lactic acid bacteria, 48.65% (n=18) showed proteolytic activity, 13.51% (n=5) lipolytic activity, 10.81% (n=4) showed both proteolytic and lipolytic activities, and only 2.70% (n=1) showed antimicrobial activity. Isolation of lactic acid bacteria with technological properties demonstrated their potential use as starter cultures in processing of fermented dairy products. <![CDATA[Effects of freezing and thawing cycles on the quality of Nile tilapia fillets]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612020000500300&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the impact of multiple freezing and thawing cycles on the physicochemical properties of Nile tilapia fillets. For this purpose, 72 fresh Nile tilapia fillets were packed and stored in a freezer at -18 °C. The frozen samples were submitted to five freeze-thaw cycles; in each cycle, the freezer was switched off during 14 hours. The consecutive freeze-thaw cycles resulted in a fillet’s total weight loss of 9.48%, with a quadratic regression (P &lt; 0.0001) for thaw loss, with a greater loss percentage in cycle 3 (2.68%). pH values differed between the cycles (P &lt; 0.0001), being observed an increment in this parameter only from cycle 4. The lipid oxidation remained constant in cycles 1, 2, 4 and 5, however in cycle 3 the lowest value (P &lt; 0.0002) was observed. The luminosity, and intensity of the red and yellow colours increased linearly (P &lt; 0.0001) as the cycles increased. Thereby, the tilapia fillets’ quality were adversely affected by the freezing cycles. The unfavourable alterations included weight loss, lipid oxidation and elevated pH, as well as the increasingly augmentation of brightness and red and yellow colorations of fillets as the progressive cycles occurred. <![CDATA[Health benefits of chocolate consumption with high concentration of cocoa incorporated from triterpenic acids, isolated from <em>Mansoa Hirsuta</em> DC.]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612020000500305&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract The objective of the work was to develop a 70% cocoa chocolate containing ursolic and oleanolic acids isolated from Mansoa hirsuta DC and to evaluate the effects of its consumption on the health of individuals. Physical-chemical, microbiological and sensorial analyzes were made in the chocolates. In order to evaluate the health of individuals, a clinical trial was conducted with the developed chocolate, in which 45 volunteers, during 04 weeks, were divided into three groups: a test group, a placebo group and a control group. The individuals were submitted to laboratory and anthropometric tests on two occasions, before and after the clinical trial weeks. The analyzes revealed that the developed chocolate presented physical-chemical and microbiological characteristics within the standards accepted for bitter chocolate and presented good sensorial acceptance. The results of the clinical trial showed that the volunteers presented reduction in the anthropometric measurements and changes in the laboratory tests. <![CDATA[Reporting the utilization and perspectives of different surface active agents for bread making]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612020000500312&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract The present study was planned to use surfactants in different concentrations along with varying amounts of shortening in the form of gels to prepare breads. For that purpose, SSL, CSL, PS-60 and GMS were used at level of 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1.00 parts in combination with shortening @ 4.00, 3.75, 3.50 and 3.25 parts. The dough having surfactants gels resulted in longer resistance time and overall dough stability. The moisture and protein content of breads increased which is due to interactions of surfactant gels with starch and gluten fractions that result in increasing dough strength and baking quality. Significant increase in specific volume is observed in breads of GMS and PS-60 gels. The sensory evaluation was carried out by a panel of trained judges and the breads having GMS gels ranked highest for quality attributes. The average quality scores were higher for the SSL, CSL and PS-60 as compared to the control bread. On the whole, breads having surfactants gels were acceptable for all sensory characteristics. <![CDATA[Optimization of sunflower oil bleaching parameters: using Response Surface Methodology (RSM)]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612020000500322&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract Bleaching is an important part of the oil refining process, in which pigments, impurities, traces of metals, and oxidative-molecular components of oils are removed. In this regard, the optimization of bleaching conditions can be effective to increase oil quality. In this study, de-gummed and neutralized sunflower oil was bleached at 80, 90, 100, 110, and 120 °C for 15, 25, 35, 45, and 55 min by acid-activated bleaching clay with the concentrations of 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1, and 1.2% under laboratory conditions. At that point, peroxide, anisidine, plus Totox values, free fatty acid content, Rancimat, and specific UV absorption at 232 and 270 nm were analyzed via the RSM method. The model optimization using the RSM method revealed that the optimal conditions were 37.31 min, temperature 92.7 °C, and clay concentration 1.18%; this circumstance can meet 86.7% of the expectations as could be met for reducing the factors effective for oxidization during bleaching. <![CDATA[Monitoring and risk assessment due to presence of metals and pesticides residues in honey samples from the major honey producing forest belts and different brands]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612020000500331&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract Honey is consumed worldwide because of its nutritional, therapeutic and medicinal purposes. Generally it is perceived that honey reaches its consumer in pure form however this is not always true as contaminants can end up in honey. Thus this study was designed to check the presence of contaminants in honey samples. For this purpose 52 samples were collected from forest belts while 25 samples of national and international brands were purchased. Heavy metals zinc, iron, cobalt and copper were detected in all 52 samples collected from forest belts. In honey brand samples coper (25 samples), cobalt (detected in 12 samples) and chromium (2 samples) were detected above their permissible limits and THQ (Target Hazard Quotient) was also found exceeding 1 for two samples in which cobalt was detected. Lambda Cyhalothrin and bifenthrin were the only pesticides detected in few samples collected from forest belts while Imidacloropid, Difenaconazole, Glyphosate and bifenthrin were detected above their permissible limit in few national and international brands. Health risk index calculations showed that in 4 samples collected from forest belts and one sample of honey brand in which bifenthrin was detected, HRI exceeded its threshold value of 1 showing its potential to pose significant health risk. <![CDATA[Effects of nitrogen supplementation on <em>Saccharomyces cerevisiae</em> JP14 fermentation for mead production]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612020000500336&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract Honey must supplementation is necessary for mead production due to the deficiency in nitrogen materials in this feedstock, despite its high fermentative sugar content. The nitrogen limitation can halt or slow fermentation and lead to the production of unpleasant sensorial compounds, such as sulfur derivatives. The yeast JP14, a Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolated from Jataí bee’s pollen, was inoculated in 25 °Brix honey must with – 0 (control); 0,3; 0,7 and 1,0 g∙L-1 – of di-ammonium phosphate (DAP) and ammonium sulfate (AS). The addition of both supplements resulted in increased cell viability in the first 5 days of fermentation at 20 °C, but did not affect the final acidity of the produced meads. Supplementation also leads to increased sugar consumption, and sugar conversion into ethanol increased as nitrogen supplementation increased, especially with DAP. This indicates that these compounds also regulate yeast metabolic pathways. Supplementary nitrogen acts both in protein anabolism and the gene expression of glycolytic and fermentative pathway components, favoring, in this case, sugar conversion into ethanol. This is the first work describing how different DAP and AS concentrations influences mead production and showing the comparison between these two supplements. <![CDATA[Effects of heat treatments and edible shell coatings on egg quality after storage at room temperature]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612020000500344&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of thermal treatments using different water temperatures and immersion times, as well as the application of eggshell coatings using edible materials on eggshell quality after storage for 4 weeks at room temperature (22.8 ± 4.4 °C). A total of 180 brown fresh eggs were distributed in a completely randomized design with six treatments and five replicates of six eggs each. The treatments consisted of a control group without any treatment (T1), three groups treated thermally: 56 °C/32 minutes (T2); 56 °C/20 minutes (T3); 56 °C/10 minutes (T4); and two groups with gelatin 2% (T5) and 5% NaCl solution (T6). After storage, it was found that the heat treatments at 56 °C for 10, 20 and 32 minutes provided maintenance of the albumen height, which reflected the values ​​of the Haugh units but negatively influenced the albumen foam stability. The treatment with 5% NaCl solution showed the lowest lipid oxidation rate and the best albumen foam stability. The proposed treatments (thermal or coatings), individually, caused significant improvements on some eggs quality markers evaluated after 30 days of storage. <![CDATA[Unsatisfactory microbiological aspects of UHT goat milk, soymilk and dairy beverage of goat milk and soy protein: A public health issue]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612020000500349&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract Spore forming bacteria can play an important role in food quality and safety as spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms due to resistance to heat-treatment. However, there are limited number of studies focused on evaluate the microbiological quality and the occurrence of these bacteria in UHT goat milk, soymilk and dairy beverage of goat milk and soy protein. In this context, 75 samples of these beverages were evaluated regarding heterotrophic mesophilic microorganisms by conventional plate count and selective methods to detect microorganisms from Bacillus cereus group and Clostridium perfringens. Population counts greater than 104 CFU.ml-1 of heterotrophic mesophilic microorganisms were observed in 80% of the lots of goat milk and 100% of the lots of soymilk and dairy beverage of goat milk and soy protein. The presence of bacteria belonging to B. cereus group was observed in 16%, 52% and 44% of goat milk, soymilk and dairy beverage of goat milk and soy protein, respectively. C. perfringens was isolated from 8% samples of UHT soymilk. The frequency of genes hblA, hblB, hblC, nheA, nheB, nheC in 29 isolates obtained from these products was 62%, 48.2%, 96.5%, 79.3%, 68.9% and 79.3%, respectively. The microbiological quality of the evaluated products was unsatisfactory. <![CDATA[Characterization of hydrolysates of collagen from mechanically separated chicken meat residue]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612020000500355&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract Obtaining collagen and hydrolysates from mechanically separated chicken meat residue is an excellent way to add value to this waste. The aims of this study were to obtain collagen hydrolysates from chicken MSM residue using Alcalase® and Flavourzyme® enzymes, as well characterizing the functional, structural and thermal stability properties. The highest degree of hydrolysis was obtained using Alcalase®, 36.11%, while using Flavourzyme® resulted in 12.02%. The DSC analysis of the collagen indicated a denaturation temperature of 46.47 °C. The FTIR spectra of the crude collagen showed absorption peaks that were characteristic of amide bands A, B, I, II and III. In the spectra of the hydrolysed the area of ​​the amide bands was reduced, and some peaks appeared between 800 and 1,200 cm-1. The disappearance of high molecular weight bands in the SDS-PAGE analysis also confirmed the hydrolysis of collagen. After the hydrolysis, the collagen presented reduced viscosity, the capacity to form foam, and foam stability. The emulsifying activity index was high in the hydrolysates in relation to the crude collagen. Thus, the use of Alcalase® and Flavourzyme® to obtain hydrolysates from collagen derived from chicken MSM residue was shown to be viable, and potentially useful for industrial applications. <![CDATA[Promoters effectiveness in the improvement in iron and zinc absorption from the rice and bean]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612020000500363&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract Iron and zinc are essential micronutrients for the organism functioning and their lack can result in prejudices to human health. The information about the presence of minerals in the diet are normally referred to its total concentrations, however these values do not reproduce the fraction that might be bioaccessible for the human body. The objective of this study was to evaluate if the promoters increase the iron and zinc bioaccessibility in a rice-and-bean mix. For this, four treatments were elaborated, all containing rice and bean and varied between each other regarding the promoters added to this mix. Ascorbic acid and cysteine were the promoters chosen to evaluate the influence in the iron and zinc absorption. For this purpose, the tomato was chosen to act as ascorbic acid source and garlic and onion were chosen to act as cysteine source. The treatments with tomato presented a higher rate of iron, significantly differing from those without tomato in their composition. Treatment 4 was the one which provided the highest bioaccessibility for iron and was the only one that differed from the others. About zinc, there was no significant difference between the treatments regarding the total rate as well as the bioaccessibility.