Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Brazilian Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery]]> vol. 35 num. 2 lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[COVID-19: GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR CARDIOVASCULAR SURGEONS (standard guidelines - subject to change)]]> <![CDATA[50 Years of Children’s HeartLink and the Partnerships in Brazil]]> <![CDATA[Trends in Utilization and In-hospital Outcomes of Cardiac Surgery]]> <![CDATA[Hemodynamic and Imaging Assessment of Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement with the Inovare<sup>®</sup> Proseal using Multislice Computed Tomography]]> Abstract Objective: To evaluate the hemodynamic performance (i.e., gradients and paravalvular leakage [PVL]) of the new and experimental Braile Inovare® Proseal. Additionally, we aimed to assess pre and postoperatively the aortic annulus and the transcatheter prosthesis using multislice computed tomography (MSCT). Methods: Patients were selected by a multidisciplinary heart team and referred for transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). MSCT was performed before and after surgery. Measurements of the aortic valve and prosthesis were conducted and correlated with the valve gradient and residual PVL. Results: Twenty-one patients were selected for the protocol. Patients had a mean age of 79 years and 38% of them were of female sex. The mean EuroSCORE II value was 12.5%±10.8. Mean gradient was reduced from 45.8±11.04 mmHg to 5.59±2.61 mmHg and there were no instances of PVL worse than mild. There were no cases of coronary obstruction or procedural death. Circularity was present in all prostheses evaluated. Circularity indexes for the prostheses were: inflow 0.05±0.03, middle third 0.04±0.02, and outflow 0.04±0.02 (P=0.08). The mean distance between the prosthesis and the left and right coronary ostia were 14.8 mm±3.3 and 17.3 mm±3, respectively. Oversizing was appropriate with a mean of 22.14%±6%. Conclusion: Braile Inovare® Proseal transcatheter device has demonstrated low gradients with low rates of PVL. Oversizing by annular measurements was adequate. MSCT was adequate to evaluate device sizing and has demonstrated preserved expansibility and circularity in the evaluated cases. <![CDATA[Impact of Vacuum-Assisted Venous Drainage on Forward Flow in Simulated Pediatric Cardiopulmonary Bypass Circuits Utilizing a Centrifugal Arterial Pump Head]]> Abstract Objective: To analyze the impact of vacuum-assisted venous drainage (VAVD) on arterial pump flow in a simulated pediatric cardiopulmonary bypass circuit utilizing a centrifugal pump (CP) with an external arterial filter. Methods: The simulation circuit consisted of a Quadrox-I Pediatric oxygenator, a Rotaflow CP (Maquet Cardiopulmonary AG, Rastatt, Germany), and a custom pediatric tubing set primed with Lactated Ringer's solution and packed red blood cells. Venous line pressure, reservoir pressure, and arterial flow were measured with VAVD turned off to record baseline values. Four other conditions were tested with progressively higher vacuum pressures (-20, -40, -60, and -80 mmHg) applied to the baseline cardiotomy pressure. An arterial filter was placed into the circuit and arterial flow was measured with the purge line in both open and closed positions. These trials were repeated at set arterial flow rates of 1500, 2000, and 2500 mL/min. Results: The use of progressively higher vacuum caused a reduction in effective arterial flow from 1490±0.00 to 590±0.00, from 2020±0.01 to 1220±0.00, and from 2490±0.0 to 1830±0.01 mL/min. Effective forward flow decreased with increased levels of VAVD. Conclusion: The use of VAVD reduces arterial flow when a CP is used as the main arterial pump. The reduction in the forward arterial flow increases as the vacuum level increases. The loss of forward flow is further reduced when the arterial filter purge line is kept in the recommended open position. An independent flow probe is essential to monitor pump flow during cardiopulmonary bypass. <![CDATA[German Aortic Valve Score in Risk Assessment for Surgical Aortic Valve Replacement in a Brazilian Center]]> Abstract Objective: To test the German Aortic Valve (GAV) score at our university hospital in patients undergoing isolated aortic valve replacement (AVR). Methods: A total of 224 patients who underwent isolated conventional AVR between January 2015 and December 2018 were included. Patients with concomitant procedures and transcatheter aortic valve implantation were excluded. Patients’ data were collected and analyzed retrospectively. Patients’ risk scores were calculated according to criteria described by GAV score. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy (area under the ROC curve [AUC]) were also calculated. The calibration of the model was tested by the Hosmer-Lemeshow method. Results: The mortality rate was 8.04% (18 patients). The patients’ mean age was 58.2±19.3 years and 25% of them were female (56 patients). Mean GAV score was 1.73±5.86 (min: 0.0; max: 3.53). The GAV score showed excellent discriminative capacity (AUC 0.925, 95% confidence interval 0.882-0.956; P&lt;0.001). The cutoff “1.8” turned out to be the best discriminatory point with the best combination of sensitivity (88.9%) and specificity (75.7%) to predict operative death. Hosmer-Lemeshow method revealed a P-value of 0.687, confirming a good calibration of the model. Conclusion: The GAV score applies to our population with high predictive accuracy. <![CDATA[Is the Newly Defined R<sub>2</sub>CHA<sub>2</sub>DS<sub>2</sub>-Vasc Score a Predictor for Late Mortality in Patients Undergoing Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement?]]> Abstract Objective: To assess the performance of the modified R2CHA2DS2-VASc score for predicting mid-to-long-term mortality (&gt; 30 days) in patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). Methods: Data of 78 patients who underwent TAVR were retrospectively reviewed. R2CHA2DS2-VASc score was compared with the European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation II (EuroSCORE II or ES II) and the transcatheter valve therapytranscatheter aortic valve replacement (TVT-TAVR) risk score. Results: The mean follow-up period was 17.4±9.9 months (maximum 37 months). Early mortality (first 30 days) was observed in 10 (12.8%) patients, whereas mid-to-long-term mortality (&gt; 30 days) was observed in 26 (33.3%) patients. Non-survivors had higher values of R2CHA2DS2-VASc, ES II, and TAVR scores than survivors (P&lt;0.001, P&lt;0.001, and P=0.001, respectively). Analysis of Pearson’s correlation revealed that R2CHA2DS2-VASc score was moderately correlated with ES II and TAVR scores (r=0.51, P&lt;0.001; r=0.44, P=0.001, respectively). Pairwise comparisons of R2CHA2DS2-VASc (area under the curve [AUC]: 0.870, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.776-0.964; P&lt;0.001), ES II (AUC: 0.801, 95% CI: 0.703-0.899; P&lt;0.001), and TAVR scores (AUC: 0.730, 95% CI: 0.610-852; P=0.002) showed similar accuracy for predicting mortality. R2CHA2DS2-VASc score is an independent predictor of mortality in multivariable Cox regression analysis. A cutoff value of six for R2CHA2DS2-VASc score showed a sensitivity of 74% and a specificity of 89% for predicting mid-to-long-term mortality. Conclusion: R2CHA2DS2-VASc score, easily calculated from clinical parameters, is associated with prediction of mid-to-longterm mortality in patients undergoing TAVR. <![CDATA[A Simple Predictive Factor for Mortality in Fontan Surgery: Serum Hypo-Osmolality]]> Abstract Objective: Close follow-up is important after the Fontan procedure, which is a palliative surgical method for a single ventricle. In this period, serum osmolality is an important parameter with the advantages of easy to obtain and poor outcome prediction. Methods: Patients who had undergone Fontan operation between May 2011 and February 2017 were retrospectively evaluated. Patients were divided into three groups based on their serum osmolality values: hypoosmolar (Group 1), isosmolar (Group 2), and hyperosmolar (Group 3). Demographics, clinical information and postoperative data of the groups were compared. Results: Forty-three patients had undergone extracardiac Fontan operation in the study period. There were 8, 19 and 16 patients in Groups 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Among the three groups, postoperative intubation and length of hospital stay, prolonged pleural effusion, need for inotropic support and mortality were statistically significantly higher in Group 1. Conclusion: After the Fontan procedure, one of the determinants of cardiac output might be affected by serum osmolality. Decreased serum osmolality might be associated with poor prognosis after Fontan procedure. Serum osmolality monitoring may be beneficial to improve postoperative outcomes in these patients. <![CDATA[The Effect of Diclofenac on Bleeding, Platelet Function, and Consumption of Opioids Following Cardiac Surgery]]> Abstract Objective: To establish whether the use of diclofenac reduces the administration of opioids and how it affects bleeding and platelet function after the coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery with use of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Methods: A total of 72 patients undergoing CABG surgery were included in this retrospective randomized study and divided into two groups (34 patients received diclofenac and the control group of 38 patients did not). For postoperative analgesia, both groups were prescribed opioids (piritramide). The primary endpoint was to establish the consumption of opioids. The secondary endpoint was to determine bleeding and the function of platelets 20 hours after the surgery. Results: The consumption of piritramide (diclofenac group 26±8 mg vs. control group 28±8 mg), the blood loss, and the function of platelets did not significantly differ between the groups within 20 hours after surgery. C-reactive protein (CRP) was statistically significantly lower in the diclofenac group than in the control group (33±15 mg/L vs. 46±22 mg/L, respectively, P&lt;0.05). Conclusion: The study concluded that patients administered with diclofenac after the heart surgery did not consume less opioid analgesics and did not exhibit less symptoms linked to the consumption of opioids. Diclofenac in clinically administered doses does not interfere with the function of platelets and does not cause increased bleeding. Lower CRP in the diclofenac group may indicate a reduced inflammatory response after CPB. Therefore, diclofenac could be safe for use in patients undergoing CABG surgery but its value in reducing opioid consumption should be questioned. <![CDATA[Safety and Results of Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis in Patients with Cardiac Implantable Electronic Devices]]> Abstract Objective: To analyze the dual interference between cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). Methods: Forty-three individuals admitted for CIEDs implantation were submitted to a tetrapolar BIA with an alternating current at 800 microA and 50 kHz frequency before and after the devices’ implantation. During BIA assessment, continuous telemetry was maintained between the device programmer and the CIEDs in order to look for evidence of possible electric interference in the intracavitary signal of the device. Results: BIA in patients with CIEDs was safe and not associated with any device malfunction or electrical interference in the intracardiac electrogram of any electrode. After the implantation of the devices, there were significant reductions in BIA measurements of resistance, reactance, and measurements adjusted for height resistance and reactance, reflecting an increase (+ 1 kg; P&lt;0.05) in results of total body water and extracellular water in liter and, consequently, increases in fat-free mass (FFM) and extracellular mass in kg. Because of changes in the hydration status and FFM values, without changes in weight, fat mass was significantly lower (-1.2 kg; P&lt;0.05). Conclusion: BIA assessment in patients with CIEDs was safe and not associated with any device malfunction. The differences in BIA parameters might have occurred because of modifications on the patients’ body composition, associated to their hydration status, and not to the CIEDs. <![CDATA[Mean Platelet Volume-to-Platelet Count Ratio, Mean Platelet Volume-to-Lymphocyte Ratio, and Red Blood Cell Distribution Width-Platelet Count Ratio as Markers of Inflammation in Patients with Ascending Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm]]> Abstract Objective: Ascending thoracic aortic aneurysm (ATAA), seen in adults, is an important cause of morbidity and mortality. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the levels of mean platelet volume (MPV), mean platelet volume-to-platelet count ratio (MPVPCR), mean platelet volume-to-lymphocyte ratio (MPVLR), and red cell distribution width platelet count ratio (RDWPCR) in patients with thoracic aortic aneurysm. Methods: 105 patients admitted to the emergency department were diagnosed with thoracic aortic aneurysm between January and December 2014, and 100 healthy individuals were involved in this retrospective study. MPV, MPVLR, MPVPCR and RDWPCRs were calculated at the time of admission. Results: Platelet and lymphocyte levels were found to be significantly lower in the patient group when compared to the healthy group (P&lt;0.001, P&lt;0.001, respectively), while MPV, MPVPCR, MPVLR and RDWPCR were found to be significantly higher (P&lt;0.001, P&lt;0.001, P&lt;0.001, and P=0.013, respectively). In the patient group, the high-sensitivity C-reactive protein was significantly higher (P&lt;0.001), and the neutrophil (P=0.062) was also higher. In ROC analysis, MPVPCR had the highest sensitivity (80%) and RDWPCR had the highest specificity (72%). Conclusion: The results for MPV, MPVPCR, MPVLR and RDWPCR can be evaluated as useful parameters in the emergency clinical approach in the evaluation of inflammatory activity in ATAA patients. More extensive studies are required to address the role of these parameters in determining the severity of the disease. <![CDATA[Effect of Papaverine on Left Internal Mammary Artery Flow: Topical Spraying <em>versus</em> Perivascular Injection Method]]> Abstract Objective: To analyze two techniques of papaverine application, topical spray on the harvested left internal mammary artery (LIMA) and perivascular injection, to find out their ability to improve LIMA flow. Methods: Forty patients were randomized into two groups. In Group 1, papaverine was sprayed on the harvested pedunculated LIMA. In Group 2, papaverine was delivered into the perivascular plane. Drug dosage was the same for both groups. LIMA flow was measured 20 minutes after applying papaverine. Blood flow was recorded for 20 seconds and flow per minute was calculated. The systemic mean pressures were maintained at 70 mmHg during blood collection. The data collected was statistically evaluated and interpreted. Results: The LIMA blood flow before papaverine application in the Group 1 was 51.9±13.40 ml/min and in Group 2 it was 55.1±15.70 ml/min. Statistically, LIMA flows were identical in both groups before papaverine application. The LIMA blood flow, post papaverine application, in Group 1 was 87.20±13.46 ml/min and in Group 2 it was 104.7±20.19 ml/min. The Group 2 flows were statistically higher than Group 1 flows. Conclusion: Papaverine delivery to LIMA by the perivascular injection method provided statistically significant higher flows when compared to the topical spray method. Hence, the perivascular delivery of papaverine is more efficient than the spray method in improving LIMA blood flow. <![CDATA[Minithoracotomy <em>vs</em>. Conventional Mitral Valve Surgery for Rheumatic Mitral Valve Stenosis: a Single-Center Analysis of 128 Patients]]> Abstract Objective: To compare the in-hospital outcomes of a right-sided anterolateral minithoracotomy with those of median sternotomy in patients who received a mitral valve replacement (MVR) because of rheumatic mitral valve stenosis (RMS). Methods: This is a retrospective analysis of 128 patients (34% male) with RMS between 2011 and 2015. The median age was 53 years (45; 56). The mean ejection fraction was 58.4±6.3%. All the subjects were divided into two groups - Group 1 contained 78 patients who underwent MVR via minithoracotomy (MT-MVR), while Group 2 contained 50 patients who underwent MVR via median sternotomy (S-MVR). Results: In the MT-MVR group, a mechanical prosthesis was implanted in 72% of cases, while it was implanted in 90% of cases in the S-MVR group (P=0.01). The duration of myocardial ischemia was similar (MT-MVR, 77±24 min; S-MVR, 70±18 min) (P=0.09). However, the cardiopulmonary bypass time was lower in the S-MVR group than in the MT-MVR group (99±24 min and 119±34 min, respectively) (P≤0.001). There was no difference in the duration of mechanical ventilation, intensive care unit stay, and hospitalization period. Postoperative blood loss was lower in the MT-MVR group (P≤0.001) than in the S-MVR group. There are no statistically significant differences in postoperative complications (superficial wound infection, stroke, delirium, pericardial tamponade, pleural puncture, acute kidney insufficiency, and implantation of pacemaker). The overall in-hospital mortality was 3.9% (P=0.6) Conclusion: The minimally invasive approach for RMS is feasible and has an excellent cosmetic effect without increasing the risk of surgical complications. <![CDATA[Is there any Link Between Vitamin D and Recurrence of Atrial Fibrillation after Cardioversion?]]> Abstract Introduction: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common chronic arrhythmia in the elderly population. In symptomatic patients, restoration and maintenance of sinus rhythm improve quality of life. Unfortunately, AF recurrence still occurs in a considerable number of patients after cardioversion (CV). In this study, we aimed to evaluate the association between vitamin D (VitD) and AF recurrence after electrical or medical CV. Method: A total of 51 patients who underwent CV for symptomatic AF were included in the study. AF recurrence was defined as an AF pattern in 12-lead electrocardiography (ECG) recording after CV within 6 months or ECG Holter recording of AF lasting more than 30 seconds at 6-month follow-up. Results: Mean vitD level was 21.4 ng/ml in our study population. VitD level was lower in the AF recurrence group than in the non-recurrence group (18 ng/ml vs. 26.3 ng/ml, respectively; P=0.001). Additionally, left atrial diameter was larger in the AF recurrence group compared to the non-recurrence group (4.4 vs. 4.1, P=0.025). Patients with AF recurrence were older than patients without AF recurrence, and, although the prevalence of hypertension is higher in the AF recurrence group, there was no statistically significant difference (P=0.107, P=0.867). Conclusion: In our study, there is a strong association between vitD level and AF recurrence after CV. VitD deficiency might be a predictor of high risk of AF recurrence after CV and vitD supplementation during the follow-up might help the maintenance of sinus rhythm. <![CDATA[Predicting Outcomes of Penetrating Cardiovascular Injuries at a Rural Center by Different Scoring Systems]]> Abstract Objective: To compare the anatomical and physiological scoring systems and the outcomes of surgical management of penetrating cardiovascular trauma at a rural center. Methods: Seventy-seven patients underwent emergency surgery at our center between January/2012 and October/2018 due to penetrating cardiovascular trauma. Injury Severity Score (ISS), Revised Trauma Score (RTS), New Injury Severity Score (NISS), and Trauma and Injury Severity Score (TRISS) were calculated. The validation of these risk scores to predict mortality was assessed by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Results: All trauma scores were correlated with mortality. As ISS, NISS, and TRISS values increased and RTS values decreased, the mortality rate increased. The area under the curve (AUC) in the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was 0.943 for TRISS, 0.915 for RTS, 0.890 for ISS, and 0.896 for NISS (P&lt;0.001 for each). Logistic regression analysis revealed that scores were correlated with mortality (P&lt;0.001 for each). By investigating cardiac injuries alone, only TRISS and RTS results correlated with mortality for cardiac injuries (Mann-Whitney U test, P=0.003 and P=0.01, respectively). The AUC was only statistically significant for TRISS and RTS (AUC=0.929, P&lt;0.05 for both). For vascular injuries, all the scores were significantly correlated with in-hospital mortality (Mann-Whitney U test, P&lt;0.001 for each). TRISS had the highest AUC (AUC=0.946, P&lt;0.001). Conclusion: TRISS has the highest predictivity for in-hospital mortality in patients with penetrating cardiovascular trauma. <![CDATA[Update on Management of Postoperative Atrial Fibrillation After Cardiac Surgery]]> Abstract Postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF) after cardiac surgery remarkably remains the most prevalent event in perioperative cardiac surgery, having great clinical and economic implications. The purpose of this study is to present recommendations based on international evidence and adapted to our clinical practice for the perioperative management of POAF. This update is based on the latest current literature derived from articles and guidelines regarding atrial fibrillation. <![CDATA[Acute Kidney Injury Associated with Cardiac Surgery: a Comprehensive Literature Review]]> Abstract Objective: To comprehensively understand cardiac surgeryassociated acute kidney injury (CSA-AKI) and methods of prevention of such complication in cardiac surgery patients. Methods: A comprehensive literature search was performed using the electronic database to identify articles describing acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients that undergone cardiac surgery. There was neither time limit nor language limit on the search. The results were narratively summarized. Results: All the relevant articles have been extracted; results have been summarized in each related section. CSA-AKI is a serious postoperative complication and it can contribute to a significant increase in perioperative morbidity and mortality rates. Optimization of factors that can reduce CSA-AKI, therefore, contributes to a better postoperative outcome. Conclusion: Several factors can significantly increase the rate of AKI; identification and minimization of such factors can lead to lower rates of CSA-AKI and lower perioperative morbidity and mortality rates. <![CDATA[Batista Procedure with the Aid of Intraoperative Epicardial Echocardiography]]> Abstract Introduction: The number of cases for which the Batista procedure is indicated is small, but some patients with appropriate indication can achieve good therapeutic results. Objective: To avoid incorrect left ventricular incision and obtain good surgical results in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy suitable for partial left ventriculectomy, we employed intraoperative direct echocardiography to determine the exact extent and position of the myocardial incision, even for surgeons who are not very experienced with the Batista procedure. Methods: A 72-year-old man with dilated cardiomyopathy underwent the Batista procedure with the aid of epicardial echocardiography to confirm the location of both the papillary muscles and the diseased myocardium. Results: We were able to accurately perform left ventricular incision and remove the diseased lateral ventricular wall. Two years later, the patient had no symptoms of heart failure, and his brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) level decreased from 1155 to 49.3 pg/mL. Conclusions: We believe that the use of intraoperative echocardiography may have the potential to make the Batista procedure less technically demanding and more reproducible for surgeons with little experience in the procedure. <![CDATA[A Very Rare Combination: two Scimitar Veins and a Myocardial Bridge]]> Abstract Scimitar syndrome is a rare congenital anomaly characterized by partial or complete anomalous pulmonary venous drainage of the right (rarely left) lung into the inferior vena cava. This anomalous vein resembles the curved Turkish sword “scimitar”[1]. Only few cases were reported with two scimitar veins[2]. “Myocardial bridge” constitutes a portion of the myocardial tissue that bridges a segment of the coronary artery, mostly the left anterior descending coronary artery . For the first time, a combination of double scimitar vein and a myocardial bridge was described in this study. <![CDATA[Compression of the Left Atrium and Pulmonary Veins Due to Ascending and Descending Aortic Aneurysms]]> Abstract An 89-year-old female patient presented to our cardiology outpatient clinic complaining of shortness of breath and back pain. Chest X-ray demonstrated a widened mediastinum. Transthoracic echocardiography showed an ascending aortic aneurysm and the modified apical 5-chamber view showed that left atrium was compressed between the ascending and descending aortas. Color Doppler turbulence was also seen in the compressed area. A contrast-enhanced chest computed tomography scan in axial and coronal planes showed that left atrium and pulmonary veins were compressed by ascending and descending aortic aneurysms. Herein, we illustrated this rare condition diagnosed by transthoracic echocardiography in combination with computed tomography. <![CDATA[Asymptomatic Huge Cardiac Hydatid Cyst Located in the Interventricular Septum]]> Abstract The cardiac involvement of hydatid cyst, which is rarely seen, with the location of asymptomatic huge cyst in the interventricular septum (IVS) is an extraordinary condition. We report an isolated cardiac hydatid cyst located in the IVS in an 18-year-old man diagnosed incidentally by transthoracic echocardiography. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging confirmed a mass lesion of 47×74 mm in diameter located at the base of IVS. The cystic content and its germinative membrane were resected and the cavity was applicated under cardiopulmonary bypass. Postoperative course was uneventful and the patient was discharged on the 6th postoperative day, with oral albendazole therapy. <![CDATA[Are Pre and Postoperative Platelet to Lymphocyte Ratio and Neutrophil to Lymphocyte Ratio Associated with Early Postoperative AKI Following CABG?]]> Abstract The cardiac involvement of hydatid cyst, which is rarely seen, with the location of asymptomatic huge cyst in the interventricular septum (IVS) is an extraordinary condition. We report an isolated cardiac hydatid cyst located in the IVS in an 18-year-old man diagnosed incidentally by transthoracic echocardiography. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging confirmed a mass lesion of 47×74 mm in diameter located at the base of IVS. The cystic content and its germinative membrane were resected and the cavity was applicated under cardiopulmonary bypass. Postoperative course was uneventful and the patient was discharged on the 6th postoperative day, with oral albendazole therapy.